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3 Justifications of criminalSanctions• Deterrence• Incapacitation• Rehabilitation
Deterrence• Deterrence targets the individual.• It is a form of a punishment to deter peoplefrom committing a future crime or offenses.• The concept is to install fear in people to makesure they do not commit crimes.
Incapacitation• It is based on utilitarianism-like deterrence.• Does not require any root causes of criminalbehavior.• The factor in this model is to reduce crime byputting the criminal in jail so he/she does nothave a chance to commit more crimes.
Rehabilitation• Rehabilitation model assumes that criminalbehavior is caused by some factor.• Some factors could be:– a persons social surroundings– psychological development– biological makeup
Classical Theory on Punishment• One of the earliest approaches to explainingthe causes of crime was classical theory.• Classical theory is explained as: Peopleexercise free will and are responsible fortheir actions (Lily, p. 20).• The punishment should fit the crime, notthe physical characteristics of the criminal.
(Con’t) Classical Theory onPunishment• Crime is attractive when it promises greatbenefits with little effort.• Crime may be controlled by the fear ofpunishment.• Punishment will deter criminal behavior.
Positivist Theory on Punishment• Lombroso, “the father of modern criminology”explains that criminals have certain physicalcharacteristics.– Large jaws– Low sloping forehead– High cheekbones– Flattened nose– Handle shaped ears
In conclusionPunishment is determined differently all around.Deterrence tries to put fear in people.Incapacitation puts people in prison so they donot have a chance to commit more crimes.Rehabilitation states that factors of biological,surroundings, and psychological plays a role inthe criminal behavior. The classical theoryexplains that people are free to do what theywant and know the consequences or rewards fortheir actions. The positivist theory is explained asyou can distinguish a criminal by their physicalcharacterisitics.
References• Cullen, Francis T., and Richard A. Ball. "Chapter2." Criminological Theory: Context andConsequences. By J. Robert Lilly. London:SAGE, 2011. 20-24. Print.• The Positive School: Biological andPsychological Factors." N.p., 22 Nov. 2005.Web. 29 Apr. 2013.