O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Transactions - Transactional Analysis

Development
Psychology
Human Resource
Management
Development
Growth
Change management
Interpersonal Skills
Success
Motivation

  • Entre para ver os comentários

Transactions - Transactional Analysis

  1. 1. Transactions
  2. 2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kerala, India. Phone – 9744551114 Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations.
  3. 3. Content – Part 1 • Definition. • Transactional Analysis Proper. • Adult-Adult transactions. • Parent-Child transactions. • Structural diagram. • Complementary transactions. • Crossed transactions. • Ulterior transactions. – Duplex transactions. – Angular transactions.
  4. 4. Content – Part 1 • 4 rules of communication. • Mehrabian’s theory of communication. • Internal transactions. • Bulls – Eye transactions. • Caroms transactions. • Diluted transactions. • Weak transactions. • Gallows transactions. • Healthy transactions. • Options.
  5. 5. Definition Berne referred to transaction as the basic unit of social discourse. • The opening communication is called stimulus. • The reply is called response. • Transaction is a transactional stimulus plus a transactional response. • In the analysis of transactions, we use ego state models to help explain what goes on during this process of communication.
  6. 6. Transactional Analysis Proper • Transactional Analysis Proper is the analysis of ego states or self sorters in communication between people. • It includes both verbal and non verbal, physical and symbolical, genuine and counterfeit interactions.
  7. 7. Adult-Adult transactions • According to Dr. Berne, the simplest transactions are between Adults ego states. • For example, a surgeon will survey the patient, and based upon the data before him/her, his/her Adult decides that the scalpel is the next instrument required. • The surgeon’s Adult holds out his/her hand, providing the transactional stimulus to the nurse. • The nurse’s Adult looks at the hand, and based upon previous experiences, concludes that the scalpel is needed. The nurse then places the scalpel in the surgeon’s hand.
  8. 8. Parent – Child transactions • Quoting Dr. Berne in Games People Play: • ”The fevered child asks for a glass of water, and the nurturing mother brings it.” • In this, the Child of a small child directs an inquiry to the Parent of his/her mother. The Parent of the mother acknowledges this stimuli, and then gives the water to the child. • In this example, the small child’s request is the stimuli, and the parent providing the water is the response. This is nearly as simple as an Adult-Adult transaction.
  9. 9. Structural diagram • One of the tools used by a Transactional Analysis practitioner is a structural diagram. A structural diagram represents the complete personality of any individual. • Transactional Analysts will then construct a diagram showing the ego states involved in a particular transaction. • The transaction to the right shows a Parent – Child transaction, with the Child ego state providing the transactional stimulus, and the Adult responding with the transactional response.
  10. 10. Complementary transactions Complementary transaction is the one in which the transactional vectors are parallel and the ego state addressed is the one which responds
  11. 11. Complementary transactions • According to Dr. Berne, these transactions are healthy and represent normal human interactions. • As Berne says in Games People Play “communication will proceed as long as transactions are complementary.”
  12. 12. Two other possibilities for complementary transactions are • Parent to parent. • Child to child. Recollect a complementary transaction in your life with P to P and C to C transaction. Go ahead and draw a transactional diagram for each. Think of words to fit the stimulus and the response in each case. Activity
  13. 13. 0 0 C P A A S R FC to NP, NP to FC complementary Transaction NP AC FC AC FC C P NP Detailed analysis of transaction by using the functional model
  14. 14. First rule of communication As long as transactions remain complementary, communication can continue indefinitely.
  15. 15. • Get into pairs and role play each kind of exchange (A to A, P to C, C to P, FC to NP, NP to FC). • See how long you can keep going in a chain of parallel transactions. Activity
  16. 16. Crossed transaction A crossed transaction is one in which the transactional vectors are not parallel, or in which the ego state addressed is not the one which responds.
  17. 17. 0 0 C P A A S R FC to NP, CP to AC crossed Transaction NP AC FC AC FC C P NP Detailed analysis of transaction by using the functional model
  18. 18. Second rule of communication When a transaction is crossed, a break in communication results and one or both individuals will need to shift ego states in order for communication to be re-established.
  19. 19. • Make up your own example of an A-A stimulus crossed by a C- P response. • Make up your own example of an A-A stimulus crossed by a P- C response. • Make up your own example of an A-A stimulus crossed by a C- C response. Activity
  20. 20. • Get into pairs and role play a conversation in which every transaction is crossed. • Each time the other person speaks, decide which ego state she was inviting you. Get into a different ego state and respond. • See how long you can keep up the sequence without slipping into parallel transactions. • When you finish, discuss your experience during this exercise. Activity
  21. 21. • In an ulterior transaction, two messages are conveyed at the same time. One of these is an overt or social level message. The other is a covert or psychological level message. • Most often, the social level content is Adult-Adult. The psychological level messages are usually either Parent –Child or Child –Parent. Ulterior transaction
  22. 22. Duplex Transactions • Duplex Complementary ulterior transactions are those in which there is more than one level of communication. • There will be hidden messages as well as open messages. • Normally speaking, complex transactions which takes place at two levels will be complementary because if there is a crossed transaction, the communication will stop in one way or another.
  23. 23. Angular Transaction • An angular transaction is described as one in which one person gives an open message accompanied by a hidden message, and the second person gives an open message which is a response to the hidden message.
  24. 24. • When I offer you a transactional stimulus, I can never MAKE you go into a particular ego state. • The most I can do is INVITE you to respond from that ego state. • To analyze any transaction accurately, you need to consider non-verbal clues as well as words. General point about transaction
  25. 25. Body Language • According to Dr. Berne, one must look at how the words are being delivered (accents on particular words, changes in tone, volume, etc.) as the non-verbal signs accompanying those words (body language, facial expressions, etc.). • Transactional Analysts will pay attention to all of these cues when analyzing a transaction and identifying which ego states are involved.
  26. 26. Types of communication • The importance of these non-verbal cues can be understood by considering the work of Dr. Albert Mehrabian. • Berne passed away in 1970, before Mehrabian’s seminal work was published. But Mehrabian’s work quantitatively proved the importance of non- verbal cues in communication.
  27. 27. Third rule of communication The behavioural outcome of an ulterior transaction is determined at the psychological and not at the social level.
  28. 28. • Make up your own example of a duplex ulterior transaction. • Make up your own example of an angular ulterior transaction. • Get into pairs and role play a conversation in which transaction is duplex. • Role play a conversation in which transaction is angular. Activity
  29. 29. • Get into pairs and role play a conversation • Keep the words same. • Find out how many different kinds of transactions you can generate by putting in different non verbal. Activity
  30. 30. Fourth rule of communication In any communication, the value of the communication ultimately depends on the receiver and not on the sender.
  31. 31. Internal Transaction • Internal transaction is a way of describing what a person may do inside his or her head. • Each person can shift ego states and hold a conversation between parent, adult and child inside the self.
  32. 32. Bulls Eye Transaction • Bulls eye transaction occurs when a stimulus from one person appeals to all the ego states (Parent, Adult and child) of the other person simultaneously.
  33. 33. Carom Transaction • Carom Transaction is three handed. • One person speaks to another while hoping to influence the third one who can overhear it. • For example, a man may be too fearful to speak directly to is boss, so says something to a co – worker, hoping the boss will get the message.
  34. 34. Diluted Transactions • These are often half hostile, half affectionate. • The message is buried in some form of kidding. • For example, one student may say to another, “Hey genius, when you are going to finish that book? I want to read it.”. The other may toss the book, saying “ Here you are, butterfingers. Catch it if you can.”
  35. 35. Weak Transactions • Weak transactions are those that are superficial, perfunctory and lack feeling of intensity. • Such is the case if a wife says to husband, “I wonder if we should go out for dinner tonight”, and he responds “ I don’t care dear. Whatever you say, dear.”
  36. 36. Gallows Transaction • Any smiling response to a person’s misfortune may serve as a gallows transaction. • This inappropriate smile or laugh is described by Claude Steiner as the gallows transaction. • The smile serves to tighten the noose and destructive behavior is reinforced.
  37. 37. Healthy Transactions • In healthy relationships, people transact directly, straightforwardly and on occasion, intensely. • These transactions are complementary and free from ulterior motives.
  38. 38. • No one kind of transaction is good or bad in itself. • Stephen Karpman in his article Options developed the idea that we can choose to transact in whatever way we like. • The object is to change what is going on and get free in whatever way you can. Options
  39. 39. • Stephen Karpman sets four conditions that need to be met to choose to transact. 1. One or both ego states must actually change. 2. The transaction must be crossed. 3. The subject must be changed. 4. The previous topic will be forgotten. Options
  40. 40. How to change one’s ego state? There are three ways of changing ego states. 1. Behavioral way – imitate behaviors which have been identified as parental, adult and childlike. 2. Phenomenological way – Separate your real self from operating in the same ego states as your executive self and to keep it in Adult as monitor for what you are doing and then shift ego states in your executive self, first to parent, then to child and finally to adult. 3. Historical way – Use memories of childhood and make comparisons with concrete situations you had then which now seem to have some connection and then imitate a parental figure or yourself as a child, to be in the here and now.
  41. 41. • Think about a situation where you have felt locked into a familiar uncomfortable groove of parallel transaction with someone. Using the functional model, locate the ego states you and the other person have been coming from. • Now work out at least four ways you could use you ego state options to cross this flow of transaction. • From this list. Select on which is safe. Activity
  42. 42. Thank You
  43. 43. Other TA topics available on slideshare 1. Strokes - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/strokes-24081607. 2. Games People Play - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/psychological- games-people-play. 3. Structural Analysis - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/the-ego-state-model. 4. What is TA? - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/what-ta-is 5. Cycles of Development - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/cycles-of- developement-pamela-levin-transactional-analysis. 6. Stages of Cure - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/stages-of-cure. 7. Transactions - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/transactions-33677298. 8. Time Structuring - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/time-structuring. 9. Life Position - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/life-position. 10. Autonomy - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/autonomy-33690557. 11. Structural Pathology - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/structural-pathology. 12. Game Analysis - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/game-analysis-33725636. 13. Integrated Adult - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/integrated-adult. 14. Stroke Economy - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/stroke-economy- 33826702.

×