Institutional theory

Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering em SITCOE, Yadrav, Ichalkaranji
10 de Aug de 2020

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Institutional theory

  1. Mr. M. H. Mota Assistant professor SITCOE
  2.  Institutions are the rules of the game in a society.  Institutions operate at different levels of jurisdiction, from the world system to localized interpersonal relationships.  More formally they are the limitations to free behaviors imposed on the individuals by the society, shaping the relationships among individuals (North 1990, 1991)
  3. Institutions are social structures that have attained a high degree of resilience. They are composed of cultural-cognitive, normative, and regulative elements that, together with associated activities and resources, provide stability and meaning to social life. Institutions are transmitted by various types of carriers, including symbolic systems, relational systems, routines, and artifacts.
  4.  It is a theory on the deeper and more resilient aspects of social structure. It considers the processes by which structures, including schemes, rules, norms, and routines, become established as authoritative guidelines for social behavior.  Different components of institutional theory explain how these elements are created, diffused, adopted, and adapted over space and time; and how they fall into decline and disuse.
  5.  Institutional theory is "a widely accepted theoretical posture that emphasizes rational myths, isomorphism, and legitimacy. (Scott 2008)
  6. Structure ….  The most significant element of an institution.  Structure may be either formal (legislature, bureaucracy, political parties, mass-media) or informal (a network of interacting organizations or a set of shared norms).  Institutionalism provides no place for individuals and their interests.  Rather it involves groups of individuals in some sort of patterned interactions that is predictable based upon specified relationships among the actors. Stability
  7. Structure ….  The existence of some sort of stability over time.  Regulator of individual behavior  Shared Values  Legitimacy Institutional approach means a particular approach typically used /applied by an organization
  8. Old Institutionalism… an approach to the study of politics that focuses on formal institutions of government. New institutionalism… a social theory that focuses on developing a sociological view of institutions, the way they interact and the effects of institutions on society.
  9.  Historical institutionalism,  Rational choice institutionalism  Normative institutionalism  Actor-centered institutionalism  Sociological institutionalism and  Feminist institutionalism.
  10.  For HI, what is mainly of importance is the construction, maintenance and adaptation of institutions.  The emphasis of historical Institutionalism is much more on the persistence of organizations after they are formed than it is on the facts of their initial creation.  To some extent the emphasis on embodying ideas in the structures that support institutions may be taken as a definition of the formation of institution.  It can be argued that when an idea becomes accepted and it is embodied into the structural forms, then the institution has been created.
  11.  Rational choice institutionalism assume that individuals are instrumentally convinced to maximize their utility.  Rational-choice institutionalists think of institutions as a system of rules and incentives.  This theory permit, stipulate and exclude rules that is designed to constrain behaviour.  For rational choice theorists, institutions are easily changeable: if correct set or rules or the correct payoff matrix is selected then the desired outcome can be engineered.
  12.  Normative institutionalism underlines the role of values and logic of appropriateness in defining institution meaning that institutions can be considered as embedding rules and routines that define what constitutes appropriate action. (Peters 1999)  The norms and formal rules of institutions will shape the actions of those acting within them.  Institutions are viewed as independent entities that over time shape a policy by influencing actors, preferences, perceptions and identities.  In this sense, institutions are endogenous.
  13.  This theory concerns the problem of whether institutions in fact matter.  This type of institutionalism believes in experimental behavior and its outcome.  For example, one of the questions empirical institutionalism deals with is ‘presidential or parliamentary system and whether is a better system or not?’
  14.  Actor-centered institutionalism, also called neo- institutionalism, emphasizes the autonomy of political institutions from society in which they exist. It assumes a greater influence on human behavior coming from the socio-political environment surrounding people and organizations than from within individual or group-based interactions.
  15.  Sociological institutionalism is a form of new institutionalism that concerns the way in which institutions create meaning for individuals, providing important theoretical building blocks for normative institutionalism within political science
  16.  Feminist institutionalism is a new institutionalist approach which looks at "how gender norms operate within institutions and how institutional processes construct and maintain gender power dynamics”.
  17.  Institutional isomorphism describes the process in which organizations gain increasing similarity in structure. This process is assumed to be driven primarily by a desire of decision makers to create organizations that conform and/or excel in their practice of social rules, ideals, and practices.
  18. The study field of institutions and institutionalism is quite complex, encompassing theories, concepts, and tools that can be applied in various ways related to sustainable development. At the same time, sustainable development can imply a range of policy, normative, or resource use issues at various scales. Therefore, institutions and their change over time can be analyzed with regard to specific topics on sustainable development such as institutional reforms, learning, institutional interplay, and appropriate designs.
  19. Often, institutional designs and institutional change are useful approaches for investigating unsustainability in economic development. This happens when institutions are understood as a structuring element of human–nature relationships, and institutional change is used to redirect institutional failures during the development process. (Opschoor 1996).