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5 Structural Holes

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5 Structural Holes

  1. 1. Brokerage & Structural Holes
  2. 2. Structural Holes <ul><li>Basic idea: Lack of ties among alters may benefit ego </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information nexus </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Structural holes vs. Closure
  4. 4. Control Benefits of Structural Holes
  5. 5. Access to Information & Success
  6. 6. Changes Made <ul><li>Cross-staffed new internal projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>white papers, knowledge base development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established cross-selling sales goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers accountable for selling projects with both kinds of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New communication vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project tracking db; weekly email update </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personnel changes </li></ul>
  7. 7. 9 months later
  8. 8. Entrepreneurial Network <ul><li>sparse, flat structure </li></ul><ul><li>independent relations, sustained by manager </li></ul><ul><li>structural holes, low redundancy provides info & control benefits </li></ul>
  9. 9. Entrepreneurial Network <ul><li>Associated with successful managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and Machiavellian politicians :-) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places heavy cognitive load on the manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enemy of a friend needs to be your friend… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress relief either through institutionalization and rules or through embracing an egalitarian network </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Fragility of Structural Holes <ul><li>Side nodes are marginalized </li></ul><ul><li>Marginalization breeds discontent </li></ul><ul><li>Requires aggressive maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to use of force </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Support Network <ul><li>dense, flat structure </li></ul><ul><li>self-sustaining interdependent relations </li></ul><ul><li>few holes, high redundancy creates social support </li></ul><ul><li>self-sustaining ties, development of an internal culture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Support Network <ul><li>“ Organic structure” spreads the load over larger number of people </li></ul><ul><li>Increased coordination costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced managerial ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(but reduced need for management) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ingroup/Outgroup
  14. 14. Political Ties in the Caucasus
  15. 16. Burt’s Measures of Structural Holes <ul><li>Effective Size </li></ul><ul><li>Constraint </li></ul>
  16. 17. Effective Size <ul><li>Number of non-redundant ties in an ego network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many actors is ego connected with that are not connected to each other? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Political Ties in the Caucasus
  18. 19. Political Ties in the Caucasus
  19. 20. Political Ties in the Caucasus
  20. 21. Effective Size
  21. 22. Effective Size in Binary Data
  22. 23. Embassy Network
  23. 24. Constraint
  24. 26. Embassy Network
  25. 27. Brokerage Roles <ul><li>Broker is the middle node of a directed triad </li></ul><ul><li>What if nodes belong to different organizations? </li></ul>
  26. 28. Brokerage Roles
  27. 29. Brokerage within organization <ul><li>Organizations can be divided into clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Any way of partitioning that produces interpretable results for a given network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>n-cliques, n-clans, k-plex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find nodes that bridge gaps between partitions </li></ul>
  28. 30. Real data…
  29. 31. Counting Role Structures
  30. 32. Role Profiles
  31. 33. In embassy network <ul><li>Partitioned using 2-clans </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 Coord Gate Rep Cons Liais Total ------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Khalfan_Khamis_Mohamed | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 4 Ahmed_the_German | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 6 Wadih_al_Hage | 6 7 7 4 0 24 | 8 Ali_Mohammed | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 10 Mohammed_Salim | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 12 al-Fawwaz | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 14 abouhalima | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 1 Mohammed_Rashed_Daoud_al-O | 0 0 0 7 0 7 | 3 Mohammed_Sadiq_Odeh | 0 0 1 0 0 1 | 5 Fazul_Abdullah_Mohammed | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 7 Usama_Bin_Ladin | 0 3 3 2 6 14 | 9 Ahmed_Khalfan_Ghailani | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 11 al-Fadl | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 13 Jihad_Mohammed_Ali_(Azzam) | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | 15 Abdullah_Ahmed_Abdullah_(Saleh) | 1 3 0 0 1 5 | 16 Abdal_Rahman | 0 0 0 0 0 0 | --------------------------------------------------------------
  32. 34. E-I Index
  33. 35. E-I Index

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