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Design with Intent

Design with Intent: 101 patterns for influencing behaviour through design

by Dan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. Stanton

Any trademarks and design rights to products shown in images are the property of their respective owners and are used here for representative illustration only.

This work is being published on a non-commercial basis.

Design with Intent

  1. Design with Intent 101 patterns for influencing behaviour through design1.0 Dan Lockton with & David Harrison Neville A. Stanton
  2. Design with Intent:101 patterns for influencing behaviour through designDan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. Stanton Cleaner Electronics Research Group Transportation Research Grp Brunel Design, Brunel University University of SouthamptonISBN 978-0-9565421-0-6 (printed cards)ISBN 978-0-9565421-1-3 (ebook)April 2010Published by Windsor, Berkshire, UK With the exception of certain images, the proprietors and nature of which are identified on the introduction card for each lens, this work is licensed by Dan Lockton under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non- commercial- Share Alike 3.0 licence, available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0 or by writing to: Creative Commons, 171 2nd Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USAThis is Tiresias Infofont, made available under the GNU General Public Licenceby the RNIB, and available from http://www.tiresias.orgProduced on Ubuntu (and Windows XP via Sun VirtualBox)Your feedback is very welcome: dan@danlockton.co.ukdesignwithintent.co.uk
  3. Ar AArchitectural Lens 3.ly/ArchThe Architectural Lens draws on techniques used to Image for Pave the Cowpaths is a screenshot of an annotated Google Mapinfluence user behaviour in architecture, urban on Kittelson & Associates websiteplanning and related disciplines such as traffic (http://prj.kittelson.com/tigardtrails)management and crime prevention through All other photos by Dan Locktonenvironmental design (see also the Security Lens).While most of the techniques have been developedin the built environment, many of the ideas can alsobe applied in interaction and product design, even insoftware or services; they are effectively about usingthe structure of systems to influence behaviour.Some of the patterns, such as Simplicity, Featuredeletion and Hiding things are really fundamental toall kinds of design. Design with Intent
  4. Angles A 3.ly/ArchCan you slant orangle things sosome actionsare easier thanothers?Some cigarette bins are sold toauthorities using the sloping top asa feature, discouraging people Design withleaving litter on top Intent
  5. Converging & diverging Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you channelpeople so theycome together(or split up)?Gates (and gatehouses) channelvisitors through a narrow opening,allowing a toll to be levied, or to Design withhelp control potential threats Intent
  6. Conveyor belts Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you bring afeature to theusers, or movethe users towhere you wantthem to be?Moving walkways in airports helptravellers move more quickly, butalso prevent people blocking Design withcorridors, especially in groups Intent
  7. Feature deletion Ar A 3.ly/ArchWhat wouldhappen if yousimply took awayfeatures you don’twant people to use?Various politicians have proposedsimply removing standby buttonsfrom consumer electronic Design withproducts, to reduce energy use Intent
  8. Hiding things Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you hidefunctions orelements you’dprefer peopledidn’t use?These church hall heating controlshave been hidden (leaving only thetimer accessible) to reduce errors Design withby users unfamiliar with them Intent
  9. Material properties Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you use theproperties ofdifferent materialsto make someactions morecomfortable thanothers?Rough-textured paving can act asa subtle barrier between cycle andpedestrian tracks: stray over the Design withline on a bike and you’ll feel it Intent
  10. Mazes Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan get people tofollow the path youwant them to, onthe way to reachingsomething theywant?Some store layouts route orchannel shoppers past ‘impulsepurchase’ items—often snacks—on Design withtheir way to the checkouts Intent
  11. Pave the cowpaths Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you recognisethe desire pathsof some of yourusers, and thencodify them intoyour system, soothers follow too?In Tigard, OR, residents markedinformal ‘neighbourhood trails’ theyused on a map, so the city could Design withprioritise ones to ‘formalise’ Intent
  12. Positioning Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you rearrangethings so peopleinteract withthem in thelocations youwant them to?Positioning pedestrian crossingpush-button units on the right-handside (UK) makes it more likely that Design withusers turn to notice oncoming traffic Intent
  13. Roadblock Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you putthings in users’way, so they takean alternativeroute, or adjusttheir speed?‘Chicanes’ can slow down drivers,pedestrians and cyclists; thecrossing chicane prevents running or Design withcycling straight across the road Intent
  14. Segmentation & spacing Ar A 3.ly/ArchCan you divideyour system upinto parts, sopeople only useone bit at a time?These individual seats replace abench on the Paris Métro – spacedso that someone cannot lie down Design withor occupy more than one Intent
  15. Simplicity Ar A 3.ly/ArchHow simply canyou structurethings, to makeit easier for usersto do what you’dlike them to do?EcoButton allows a user to put acomputer into a low-power statewith just one press, making it much Design witheasier for users to save energy. Intent
  16. EErrorproofing Lens 3.ly/ErroThe Errorproofing Lens represents a worldview Images for Defaults, Did you mean? and Opt-outs are screenshots of CIB PDFtreating deviations from the target behaviour as Brewer software, a Google search for‘errors’ which design can help avoid, either by making ‘recursion’ and Yorkshire Buildingit easier for users to work without making errors, or Society website respectively.by making errors impossible in the first place. It’s All other photos by Dan Locktonoften found in ergonomics, health & safety-relateddesign, medical device design and manufacturingengineering (as poka-yoke): where, as far as possible,one really doesn’t want errors to occur at all.A key difference between errorproofing and someother views of influencing user behaviour which implyattitude change leading to the target behaviour, isthat errorproofing doesn’t care whether or not theuser’s attitude changes, as long as the targetbehaviour is met. Attitude change might be an effectof the errorproofing, but it doesn’t have to be. Design with Intent
  17. Are you sure? E 3.ly/ErroCan you designan extra‘confirmation’step before anaction can beperformed?Some British Rail train doorsrequire passengers to lower thewindow to get access to the Design withhandle, mounted on the outside Intent
  18. Choice editing Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you edit thechoices presentedto users so onlythe ones you wantthem to have areavailable?Choice editing can be driven bylegislation, e.g. leaded 4-star petrolbeing phased out in the EU by 2000 Design with(when this photo was taken) Intent
  19. Conditional warnings Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you giveusers warningsbased ondetecting theerror they’vemade, or might beabout to make?The parking brake warning lighton a car’s dashboard is a warningto the driver: don’t drive off Design withwithout releasing the brake! Intent
  20. Defaults Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you makethe defaultsetting thebehaviour you’dprefer users toperform?In this software ‘nag’ screen, thedefault button (pressed if the userjust hits ‘enter’) is information on Design withlicensing rather than ‘I agree’ Intent
  21. Did you mean? Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you detectand suggest abetter option tousers when itlooks like they’remaking an error?Google’s suggestion algorithm iscontinually evolving to takeaccount of search trends; it also Design withincludes this nice ‘easter egg’! Intent
  22. Interlock Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you setthings up so oneaction can’t beperformed untilanother iscompleted?Most modern cash machinesdon’t dispense cash until youremove your card, making it less Design withlikely you’ll leave it behind Intent
  23. Matched affordances Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you makeparts fit onlywhen the rightway round, oronly with theproducts theyshould do?The bevelled corner on SIM cards,memory cards and floppy disksensures that they can’t be inserted Designthe wrong way round with Intent
  24. Opt-outs Ep E 3.ly/ErroWhat happens ifyou make anoption somethingpeople opt outof, rather thanopt in to?This building society asks newsavers if they want to opt out ofdonating part of their interest to Design withcharity – by default it is donated Intent
  25. Portions Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you changethe size of theportions or theunits of ‘stuff’you give users?‘Portion packs’ for snacks givecustomers the ‘right’ amount offood to eat in one go (sometimes a Design withparticular amount of calories) Intent
  26. Task lock-in/out Ep E 3.ly/ErroCan you keep atask going thatneeds to be, orprevent onebeing startedinadvertently?To prevent accidentally engagingreverse gear, most gearboxesinclude a ‘gate’ over/under which Design withthe stick must be lifted or pressed Intent
  27. I InInteraction Lens 3.ly/InteAll the patterns are really about interaction design in Images for Feedback through form, Summary feedback and Tailoring areone form or another, but the Interaction Lens brings taken from promotional videos/demostogether some of the most common design elements by Royal VKB, GreenPrint and Pam,of interfaces where users interactions with the available atsystem affect how their behaviour is influenced. So http://shop.royalvkb.com/shopexd.asp? id=423&menu=2,there are some core Human-Computer Interaction http://www.printgreener.com andpatterns here, such as kinds of feedback, progress http://www.pam.com/indexc.php?demo=1bars, and previews, and some currently less-used &f=1&ClientTZ=-60 respectively.such as feedforward. Images for Partial completion, Peer feedback, Progress bar, Simulation &This lens also includes some patterns from the feedforward and Tunnelling & wizardsgrowing field of Persuasive Technology, where are screenshots of Amazon, Slashdot, Digg, LinkedIn, Wikipedia, Yahoo!computers, mobile phones and other systems with savings calculator and Foxit PDF reader.interfaces are used to persuade users: changingattitudes and so changing behaviour through Other photos by Dan Locktoncontextual information, advice and guidance. Amongthese are kairos, tailoring and tunnelling, identified inBJ Foggs seminal book Persuasive Technology: Using DesignComputers to Change What We Think and Do. with Intent
  28. Feedback through form In I 3.ly/InteCan you use theform of yourobject itself as akind of interface,giving feedbackor suggestivecues?Royal VKB’s 100g/250g BalancingBowls are weighted so they tiltnoticeably and audibly when the Design with‘portion size’ is reached when filling Intent
  29. Kairos In I 3.ly/InteCan you giveusers asuggestion atexactly the rightmoment forthem to changetheir behaviour?Automatic warning signs can alertdrivers to upcoming dangers at theright point for them to respond and Design withslow down accordingly Intent
  30. Partial completion In I 3.ly/InteCan you show thatthe first stage ofa process hasbeen completedalready, to giveusers confidenceto do the next?Pre-filled details such as deliveryaddresses can be an effective way ofspeeding up an order process and red- Design withucing ‘shopping cart abandonment’ Intent
  31. Peer feedback In I 3.ly/InteCan you giveusers feedback ontheir behaviourfrom other usersof the system,equal in status tothemselves? DesignPeer feedback on comments and withstories is central to sites such as IntentSlashdot (‘karma’ scores) and Digg(’digging’ and ‘burying’)
  32. Progress bar In I 3.ly/InteCan you let usersknow theirprogress towardsachieving a goal?As demonstrated by examples fromLinkedIn and Wikipedia, progressbars showing ‘nearly complete’ can Design withmake a goal seem more achievable Intent
  33. Real-time feedback I 3.ly/InteCan you let usersknow how whatthey’re doing isaffecting thesystem?Energy meters can allow house-holders to see which appliances usethe most electricity, and how much Design withthis is costing Intent
  34. Simulation & feedforward In I 3.ly/InteCan you giveusers a previewor simulation ofthe results ofdifferent actionsor choices?Interactive savings / loan simulat-ors such as this from Yahoo! areincreasingly common, and can Design withinfluence customer decisions Intent
  35. Summary feedback I In 3.ly/InteCan you giveusers a report onwhat they’vebeen doing, orits effects?GreenPrint, software that reduceswasted prints through better usability,provides users (and their bosses!) Design withwith a summary of resources saved Intent
  36. Tailoring I In 3.ly/InteCould yoursystem adaptwhat it offers tomatch individualusers’ needs andabilities?The Pam personal activity monitorsuggests exercise regimes tailoredto the user—something approaching Design withthe role of a ‘personal trainer’ Intent
  37. Tunnelling & wizards I In 3.ly/InteCan you offerusers a wizard to‘tunnel’ themthrough a decisionprocess in the wayyou’d like?This installation wizard tries to getusers to ‘choose’ to install additional(and irrelevant) software by presenting Design withthem as default parts of the process Intent
  38. Lu LLudic Lens 3.ly/LudiGames are great at engaging people for long Images for Collections are screenshots of the University of Washingtons UbiFitperiods of time, getting them involved, and, if software, developed in collaboration withwe put it bluntly, influencing people’s behaviour Intel Labs Seattle, available at http://dub.washington.edu/projects/ubifitthrough their very design. Yet this potential has Images for Levels and Rewards are(so far) been underexplored in application to screenshots of Facebook/FarmVille andother kinds of situations outside ‘recreation’. KPT5 software. Images for Playfulness and Role-playingThe Ludic Lens includes a number of techniques are promotional photos kindly supplied by Steve Divnickfor influencing user behaviour that can be (http://www.spiralwishingwells.com) andderived from games and other ‘playful’ Tim Holley (http://timholley.de)interactions, ranging from basic social Image for Make it a meme is apsychology mechanisms such as goal-setting via screenshot of Regretsy’s story on Gooseonthelooses chicken ponchoschallenges & targets, to operant conditioning via (http://www.regretsy.com/2009/10/20/keunpredictable reinforcement and rewards, to ntucky-frilled-chicken)common game elements such as scores, levels Other photos/images by Dan Locktonand collections. Design with Intent
  39. Challenges & targets L 3.ly/LudiWhat happens ifyou set people achallenge, orgive them atarget to reachthrough whatthey’re doing? Design with IntentWhoever laid out this coffee tub asa target for throwing coins knew alot about influencing people todonate generously and enjoy it
  40. Collections Lu L 3.ly/LudiWhat happens ifyou encourageusers to collect aset of things(friends, activities,places, objects,etc) through usingyour system?UbiFit Garden encourages users tomaintain a regular variety ofexercise activities, in order to Design‘collect’ different types of flower with Intent
  41. Leave gaps to fill Lu L 3.ly/LudiCan you leavedeliberate gaps (ina design, message,etc) which userswill want to fill,becoming engagedin the process?Deliberate use of red links onWikipedia, signifying articles whichshould be written, “encourage[s] new Designcontributors in useful directions” with Intent
  42. Levels Lu L 3.ly/LudiCan you splityour system upinto achievablelevels which helpusers feel likethey’re makingprogress?Easy-to-reach levels lower thebarriers to participation andencourage continued engagement Designfor games such as FarmVille with Intent
  43. Make it a meme Lu L 3.ly/LudiWhat happens ifyou plan yourdesign to besomething peoplewant to spread,and make it easyfor them to do so?ShareThis and similar quick-access social sharing services canmean rapid ‘viral’ or ‘meme’ status Designfor interesting or amusing stories with Intent
  44. Playfulness Lu L 3.ly/LudiCan you designsomething which‘plays’ with itsusers, provokingcuriosity or makinginteractions intoa game?Spiral wishing wells turn givingmoney to charity into somethingactively fun for donors, and Designprovoke curiosity of passers-by with Intent
  45. Rewards Lu L 3.ly/LudiCan you encourageusers to take up orcontinue abehaviour byrewarding it,through the designof the system?Kai’s Power Tools (pioneeringvisual effects software) revealed‘bonus functions’ to reward users Designwho developed their skill level with Intent
  46. Role-playing Lu L 3.ly/LudiWhat happens ifyour system givesusers particularroles to play, ormakes them feellike they’re playinga role?Tim Holley’s Tio encourageschildren to become ‘energychampions’ for their household, Designinfluencing parental behaviour with Intent
  47. Scores Lu L 3.ly/LudiCan you giveusers feedbackon their actionsas a score orrating allowingcomparison to areference point ?The ‘Brain Age’ score given by DrKawashima’s games for Nintendogives users a clear incentive to Designkeep using the software with Intent
  48. Storytelling Lu L 3.ly/LudiCan you tell astory via yourdesign, whichinterests usersand keeps themengaged?Dyson uses narrative bookletsdrawing customers (and potentialcustomers) into the story behind Designthe company and its technology with Intent
  49. Unpredictable reinforcement Lu L 3.ly/LudiWhat happens ifyou give rewardsor feedback on anunpredictableschedule, so userskeep playing orinteracting?Arcade games such as this coinpusher usually employ a strongelement of unpredictable reinforce- Designment, to keep users playing/paying with Intent
  50. Pe PPerceptual Lens 3.ly/PercThe Perceptual Lens combines ideas from Images for Implied sequences and Nakedness are from Sludgegulpers andproduct semantics, semiotics, ecological ITDP-Europes Flickr streams, CC-BY-SApsychology and Gestalt psychology about how and CC-BY licensed respectively (http://www.flickr.com/photos/sludgeulpusers perceive patterns and meanings as they er/4188746062 and http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288interact with the systems around them, and puts @N03/3836906872)them into forms which invite the designer to Images for Metaphors, Mimicry &think about how they might influence peoples mirroring and Similarity are screenshotsbehaviour. Most are predominantly visual, but of Tipjar.com from the Wayback Machine, Eliza chatbot from http://nlp-addiction.comthey need not be: sounds, smells, textures and and a Microsoft Bing searchso on can all be used, individually or in Other photos by Dan Locktoncombination.These techniques are often applied byinteraction designers in the course of doing a jobwithout necessarily considering how they caninfluence user behaviour. Design with Intent
  51. (A)symmetry Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you usesymmetry to makeelements lookrelated, orasymmetry to showdifference andfocus attention?The symmetrical holes on thislifebuoy, even without the text,suggest that it should be gripped Designwith both hands simultaneously with Intent
  52. Colour associations Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you usecolour to suggestassociationsbetween particularbehaviours andoutcomes?This racecourse bookmaker’s key-board has a detailed language ofcolour-coded groups of functions, Designto aid rapid action-taking with Intent
  53. Contrast P 3.ly/PercCan you create anobvious contrastbetween parts ofyour design or thecontext in whichits used?In 2004, Britain’s Royal Mailswitched to using red rubber bandsfor bundling post, to make them easier Designto spot if dropped accidentally with Intent
  54. Fake affordances Pe P 3.ly/PercIs there anythingto be gained frommaking somethinglook like it worksone way, whileactually doingsomething else(or nothing at all)?Many elevator/lift ‘door close’buttons are reputedly ‘placebobuttons’, giving an illusion of control Designbut not speeding up the process with Intent
  55. Implied sequences Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you make itlook like there’sa sequence forusers to follow,through thelayout ofelements?This East German rail ticketmachine makes very clear theorder in which the interface should Designbe used, with a sequential layout with Intent
  56. Metaphors P Pe 3.ly/PercCan you employ ametaphor / analogyof somethingfamiliar, so peopleunderstand or useyour system thesame way?Tipjar.com, launched in the late1990s, was one of the first simplemicropayment systems, using the Designfamiliar metaphor of a tip jar with Intent
  57. Mimicry & mirroring Pe P 3.ly/PercCan your systemmirror or mimic auser’s behaviouror mood in someway, to increasethe engagement auser feels?Chatbots have evolved beyond theclassic ELIZA, and are being used insocial engineering attacks to extract Designinformation and deliver malware with Intent
  58. Mood Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you use colour,images or othersensory stimuli toset a particularmood for a user’sinteraction withyour system?Changes in hue, saturation andbrightness can set moods: whichroom would you choose to stay in? Design(assuming the bed was made!) with Intent
  59. Nakedness Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you removecues that peopletake for granted, toget them to thinkmore about whatthey’re doing?‘Naked roads’ with signage andmarkings removed can encouragepedestrians, cyclists and drivers to be Designmore aware of each other’s presence with Intent
  60. Perceived affordances Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you designthe form of yoursystem to suggestparticular actions(or constraints onaction) to users?Reshaping the holes on bins tomatch the ‘form’ of different typesof waste has been shown to increase Designrecycling levels significantly with Intent
  61. Possibility trees Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you givepeople a ‘map’ ofthe routes orchoices they canuse to achievedifferent goals?Presenting a simplified set of poss-ibilities, transport maps can influence Design withusers’ perceptions of geography, and Intentpromote certain routes over others
  62. Prominence Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you direct yourusers’ attention towhat you want, bymaking it moreprominent, obviousor exaggerated?The ‘big red button’ is a commonway of making a control prominent.Here on London’s DLR, it is recessed Designto help avoid accidental presses with Intent
  63. Proximity & grouping Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you groupelements so thatusers perceivethey have similarfunctions or shouldbe used together?This power supply has controlsoften used in pairs (coarse & finevoltage adjustment, and output Designterminals) explicitly grouped with Intent
  64. Seductive atmospherics Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you useambient sensoryeffects (sound,light, smell, etc) toencourage users tointeract or behavein the way you’d like?The distinctive ‘Subway smell’ mayonly be a by-product of baking, butintentional ‘scent branding’ is incr- Designeasingly common in retail design with Intent
  65. Similarity Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you makeelements looksimilar so usersperceive them toshare characteristics,or that they shouldbe used together?Paid-for links on Microsoft’sBing look very similar to the realsearch results, to increase the Designchance of users clicking them with Intent
  66. Transparency Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you (perhapsselectively) revealwhat’s going onunder the surface,to influence users’perceptions andbehaviour?Dyson’s transparent dust containerboth demonstrates the vacuumcleaner’s effectiveness, and makes Designit likely to be emptied more often with Intent
  67. Watermarking Pe P 3.ly/PercCan you make auser feel like heor she (orsomeone else)‘owns’ or hasresponsibility forsomething?One UK shopkeeper writes custom-ers’ names on the packaging ofsnacks they buy, discouraging litter- Designing through ‘taking ownership’ with Intent
  68. Cg CCognitive Lens 3.ly/CognThe Cognitive Lens draws on research in Images for Desire for Order and Personality are promotional photos frombehavioural economics and cognitive psychology the Interactive Institute’s AWARE projectlooking at how people make decisions, and how (http://www.tii.se/aware/designConcept.h tml) and Philips roboticsthis is affected by ‘heuristics’ and ‘biases’. If (http://www.research.philips.com/technol ogies/projects/robotics.html)designers understand how users makeinteraction decisions, that knowledge can be Images for Decoys, Do as you’re told, Provoke empathy, Rephrasing &used to influence interaction behaviour. Equally, renaming and Social proof arewhere users often make poor decisions, design screenshots of Magazines.com, the US DHS ESTA website, Twitterfall.com,can help counter this, although this may lead to Twitter.com and Amazon.co.uka ‘we know what’s best for you’ attitude. respectively. Other photos by Dan LocktonDozens of cognitive biases and heuristics havebeen identified which could potentially beapplied to design. The patterns detailed beloware some of the most commonly used; thisselection draws heavily on the work of Robert DesignCialdini, Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein. with Intent
  69. Assuaging guilt C 3.ly/CognCan you influenceusers by helpingthem reducefeelings of guiltabout theirbehaviour?This message both implies that oneshould feel bad about the ethics ofcoffee production, and offers an Designeasy way to take away the guilt with Intent
  70. Commitment & consistency Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you get usersto commit to anidea or goal, sothey feel theyshould behaveconsistently withthis commitment?In a 1976 study, householderssent a ‘We are saving oil’ stickersubsequently used 10% less heating Designoil than groups not sent the sticker with Intent
  71. Decoys Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you add‘decoy’ choices,making theothers (which youwant people topick) look better incomparison?Would you choose the $79.88option here, when the other twooffer you a free gift AND save you Designslightly more money? with Intent
  72. Desire for order Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you usepeople’s desirefor tidiness toinfluence them torearrange elementsor take actionsyou want them to?The AWARE Puzzle Switch, a lightswitch design by Loove Broms andKarin Ehrnberger, is visibly ‘disordered’ Designwhen in the ‘on’ position with Intent
  73. Do as you’re told Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you use anauthority figureor authoritativeinstruction totell users whatthey should (orshould not) do?Impenetrable ‘agreements’ suchas this often make heavy use ofauthority (and threats) to reinforce Designtheir message: do as you’re told with Intent
  74. Emotional engagement Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you designyour system toengage people’semotions, or makethem emotionallyconnected to theirbehaviour?The open beak of these ‘baby bird’litter bins at a city farm (visited bylots of children) suggests that they Designare hungry and would like to be fed with Intent
  75. Expert choice Cg C 3.ly/CognIs it possible toshow users thechoices that anexpert or authorityfigure would makewhen in the samesituation they’re in?Endorsements where the celebrityis an ‘expert’ (such as chef HestonBlumenthal in this Waitrose Designcampaign) can lend credibility with Intent
  76. Framing Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you selectivelypresent choicesin a way whichframes the rangeavailable in a morepositive light?Starbucks’ drink sizes start with‘tall’, framing the range further upthe scale and avoiding any mediocre Designimplications of ‘small’ or ‘medium’ with Intent
  77. Habits Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you make iteasy for a newbehaviour tobecome habitual,by building it intoan existing routine?Simply choosing to take the stairsrather than the lift / elevator canquickly become part of a daily Designroutine at home or work with Intent
  78. Personality Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you give yoursystem apersonality orcharacter thatengages users,becoming a‘social actor’?Dutch researchers have used Philips’iCat robot to influence users’ decision-making with washing machines, Designadvising and expressing opinions with Intent
  79. Provoke empathy Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you help userssee other people’sperspectives andthought processes,by revealing themthrough the designof your system?Twitter, Facebook et al allow us to Designsee at any moment the problems with Intentand concerns of millions of others justlike us (or not) all over the world
  80. Reciprocation Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you make usersfeel they’ve beendone a favour (bythe system, or byother users) andwant to return it?This busker’s postcards may be‘free’, but the social norms ofreciprocation mean most people Designwill give him some tip in return with Intent
  81. Rephrasing & renaming Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you rephraseor rename whatyou’d like users todo, so it alignsbetter with whatthey already wantto do?Twitter changed the name of the‘Devices’ tab to the more easilyunderstandable ‘Mobile’ to encourage Designmore users to set up their phones with Intent
  82. Scarcity Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you emphasisethat a resource isvaluable, limited inquantity, orrunning out (oractually limit itartificially)?We’re used to retailers emphasisingthat ‘everything must go’ and thennot actually closing; in this case, Designhowever, the shop did close down with Intent
  83. Social proof Cg C 3.ly/CognCan you showpeople what otherusers like them aredoing in thissituation, andwhich choices aremost popular?Amazon’s recommendations canbe helpful to buyers by expandingthe scope of their knowledge, while Designincreasing sales for Amazon with Intent
  84. Mv MMachiavellian Lens 3.ly/MachThe Machiavellian Lens comprises design Image for Antifeatures & crippleware is from Orin Zebests Flickr stream,patterns which, while diverse, all embody an ‘end CC-BY-SA licensedjustifies the means’ approach of the kind (http://www.flickr.com/photos/orinrobertj ohn/68106611)associated with Niccolò Machiavelli. These willoften be considered unethical, but nevertheless Images for First one free, Forced dichotomy and Slow/no response areare commonly used to control and influence screenshots of Bill Moggridge’sconsumers through pricing structures, planned ‘Designing Interactions’ website (http://www.designinginteractions.com/bobsolescence, lock-ins and so on, and are central ook), an example survey built usingto work by authors such as Vance Packard and surveymonkey.com, and a registration form on the Univadis websiteDouglas Rushkoff, revealing the ‘hidden’ (http://www.univadis.co.uk/medical_and_structures which shape our everyday behaviour. more/Registration?locale=en_GB) respectively.In technology contexts, Benjamin Mako Hill andChris Nodder have both done great work Other photos by Dan Locktonexploring this area.Elements of game theory are present in some ofthe patterns, and this is worth further investigation. Design with Intent
  85. Anchoring Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you affectusers’ expectationsor assumptionsby controlling thereference pointsthey have?Restaurant menus may use‘anchor’ items: prominently placed,higher-priced dishes, raising what Designcustomers expect to be paying with Intent
  86. Antifeatures & crippleware Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you deliberatelydisable somefunctions eventhough they’re stillpresent, to driveusers to upgrade,or to allow pricediscrimination?Sony’s cheaper 60-minute MiniDiscswere identical to the 74-minute onesexcept for a pre-written portion of Designcode preventing full use of the space with Intent
  87. Bundling Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you includesomething youwant users to do,along withsomething theywant to do, so bothget done?Crushing up pills or tablets in aspoonful of peanut butter can be agood way to get dogs to take medi- Designcines they would otherwise refuse with Intent
  88. Degrading performance Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you degradethe performanceof a product orsystem until userscomply with somebehaviour changeyou want?Some Nokia phones allegedlysense when a 3rd-party battery isused and switch into a high-power Designmode so it runs out more quickly with Intent
  89. First one free Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you givesomething awaywhich gets peopleinterested oraddicted, so theycome back andpay for more?Offering one chapter (often theintroduction) free has becomeincreasingly common as a way of Designpromoting new books more widely with Intent
  90. Forced dichotomy Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you configurea system so thereis no ‘middleground’ possible,and users mustmake a choice oneway or the other?An even-numbered (e.g. four-point) rating scale does not allow a‘middle’ value: it forces respondents Designinto making a ‘good or bad?’ choice with Intent
  91. Format lock-in/out M 3.ly/MachCan you designyour system sousers becomecommitted to aparticular formator way of doingthings?Panasonic cameras include a‘battery authentication’ system,which prevents using cheaper Designnon-Panasonic replacements with Intent
  92. Functional obsolescence Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you designthings to becometechnologicallysuperseded (oreven wear out)quickly, so peoplereplace them?While new models do bring realtechnological advances, Apple hasmanaged to create an ‘upgrade Designtreadmill’ for iPhone buyers with Intent
  93. I cut, you choose Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you structurea system so thatno one user canget an advantageover otherssimply by beingfirst to act?If person 1 cuts a cake into halves,and person 2 chooses the half he orshe wants, there is no advantage in Designperson 1 cutting the cake unfairly with Intent
  94. Poison pill Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you arrangethings so that anotherwise attractiveoption has anunpleasant, self-defeating deterrentside-effect?Security ink tags release indelibleink if removed incorrectly, in anattempt to make it simply not Designworth stealing the clothes with Intent
  95. Serving suggestion Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you directusers to use aproduct or systemin a particular waythrough examplesor demonstrations?Alka-Seltzer reputedly introducedthe ‘two tablets per dose’ directionto users as part of a 1960s TV ad; Designbefore that, only one was taken with Intent
  96. Slow / no response Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you get usersto try differentactions or repeat abehaviour bymaking the systemrespond or givefeedback slowly?Duplicate orders can be a problemwhere web forms are slow to submitand users click multiple times: this Designkind of instruction is common with Intent
  97. Style obsolescence Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you designthings to becomeunfashionable orundesirable quickly,to spur the desirefor replacement orupgrades?Fashions and trends are obvious inhigh-street retailing, but are alsoprevalent (and can be deliberately Designcreated) in other fields with Intent
  98. Worry resolution Mv M 3.ly/MachCan you helpusers overcomeworry about theirbehaviour (perhapsafter havingsuggested it inthe first place)?The term ‘halitosis’ was allegedlyintroduced in a 1921 Listerine ad, part ofa series making people worried about Designbad breath, then offering a solution with Intent
  99. S SeSecurity Lens 3.ly/SecuThe Security Lens represents a ‘security’ Image for Sousveillance is a screenshot of TheyWorkForYouworldview, i.e. that undesired user behaviour is (http://www.theyworkforyou.com)something to deter and/or prevent though Other photos/images by Dan Lockton,‘countermeasures’ designed into products, including photo of Mentor Teaching Machines textbooksystems and environments, both physically andonline, with examples such as digital rightsmanagement.From a designer’s point of view, this can oftenbe an ‘unfriendly’ – and in some circumstancesunethical – view to take, effectively treatingusers as ‘guilty until proven innocent’. However,thinking further about the patterns, it’s possibleto think of ways that they could be applied tohelp users control their own habits or behaviourfor their own benefit – encouraging exercise, Designreducing energy use, and so on. with Intent
  100. Coercive atmospherics Se S 3.ly/SecuCan you useambient sensoryeffects (sound,light, smell, etc) tomake it harder forusers to behave incertain ways?Blue lighting is used in some pub-lic toilets (e.g. here, in Edinburgh)to discourage drug injection by Designmaking veins difficult to see with Intent
  101. Peerveillance S Se 3.ly/SecuWhat happens ifusers know (orbelieve) that whatthey’re doing isvisible to theirpeers also usingthe system?Neighbourhood Watch schemesare signed so that they provide adeterrent effect—”people here are Designvigilant about what’s going on” with Intent
  102. Sousveillance Se S 3.ly/SecuCan you give people‘lower down’ ahierarchy theability to observeand monitor thebehaviour ofpeople above them?TheyWorkForYou allows the publicto monitor politicians’ activitieseasily: transparency leading to Designbetter accountability with Intent
  103. Surveillance Se S 3.ly/SecuWhat happens ifusers know (orbelieve) theirbehaviour is visibleto or monitored bypeople in positionsof power / authority?CCTV is often presented as acrime deterrent, influencing publicbehaviour, whether or not it is Designswitched on or actually monitored with Intent
  104. Threat of injury Se S 3.ly/SecuWhat happens ifyour designthreatens to (oractually does)harm users whobehave in the‘wrong’ way?Spikes on walls—such as thesestick-on plastic ones—can act as adeterrent to climbing or sitting, Designwith varying effectiveness with Intent
  105. Threat to property Se S 3.ly/SecuWhat happens ifyour designthreatens todamage users’property if theyuse it the‘wrong’ way?‘Traffic control spikes’ are anattempt to enforce one-way trafficat entrances to car parks (etc): the Designthreat is made very clear with Intent
  106. What you can do Se S 3.ly/SecuCan you giveusers differentchoices or accessto functionsdepending on thecapabilities theycan demonstrate?Child-proof lids are often used oncontainers for dangeroussubstances, such as medicines and Designgarden and cleaning products with Intent
  107. What you have S Se 3.ly/SecuCan you give usersoptions or accessto different functionsdepending on theirpossession of aspecial tool, key,device or token?Access cards allow the issuer torestrict entrance to certainbuildings or areas to whoever has a Designcard with the right permissions with Intent
  108. What you know S Se 3.ly/SecuCan you test whatusers know(information,passwords, etc) togive them accessto differentfunctions?Remembering usernames, pass-words and answers to security ques-tions is increasingly part of our Designeveryday lives, on- and offline with Intent
  109. What you’ve done S Se 3.ly/SecuCan you changethe optionsavailable tousers based ontheir current orpreviousbehaviour?‘Teaching machine’ textbooksallow students to progress indifferent orders depending on which Designconcepts need more explanation with Intent
  110. Where you are S Se 3.ly/SecuCan you makedifferent choicesavailable tousers dependingon their location?Some supermarket trolleys havedevices fitted to lock the wheelswhen taken outside a defined area, Designusually an adjacent car park with Intent
  111. Who or what you are Se S 3.ly/SecuCan you use criteriainnate to particularindividuals, groupsor objects to blockor make differentoptions available?Artificial height restrictorsattempt to allow only certain typesof vehicles into a car park, by Designdiscriminating on vehicle height with Intent