2. Yeast Bread Basics
All yeast breads must
contain flour, liquid,
salt, and yeast.
Many recipes also
include sugar, fat and
3. You can use all-purpose flour for making yeast
breads. However, many yeast bread recipes
call for bread flour.
Bread flour contains more gluten than all-
When mixed with liquid and kneaded, the flour
develops gluten which supports the carbon
dioxide produced by the yeast.
4. Liquids in Yeast Breads
You can use plain water, or milk as the liquid in yeast
breads. You must warm all liquids to activate the yeast.
Milk adds nutrients to bread and helps bread stay fresher
longer. It also gives bread a softer crust.
Some yeast bread recipes state that you should scald
the milk. This step is unnecessary if you are using
pasteurized milk.(Unpasteurized milk contains enzymes
that can cause doughs to soften during fermentation).
If you will be dissolving the yeast in water, heat the
liquids to 105°-115°F.
If you are combining yeast with other dry ingredients,
heat the liquids to 120°-130°F.
Temperatures that are too high will kill the yeast cells.
Temperatures that are too low can slow or stop yeast
When preparing bread in a bread machine, liquids should
be at room temperature (75°-85°F)
6. Salt in Yeast Breads
Salt regulates the action of
the yeast and inhibits the
action of certain enzymes in
Without salt, a yeast dough
is sticky and hard to handle.
Yeast leavens bread. Use the amount of yeast
specified in the recipe. Using too much yeast
will cause the dough to rise too quickly.
Temperatures affect yeast cells. Temperatures
that are too high will kill the yeast,
temperatures that are too low will slow down or
stop yeast activity.
8. Types of Yeast
Fresh Yeast-also called
Usually purchased in 1 lb.
Active Dry Yeast-dry,
granular form of yeast.
Must be rehydrated in
warm water before use.
Instant Yeast-also a dry
granular form of yeast,
does not have to be
dissolved in water before
use. Also called rapid rise
or quick rise yeast.
9. Other Ingredients
Sugar-provides extra food for
the yeast so the dough will rise
faster. If too much sugar is
used, the dough will actually rise
Sugar also influences browning,
flavor and texture.
Eggs-add flavor and richness to
They also add color and
improve the structure.
Other ingredients can be
added such as raisins, nuts,
cheese, herbs, and spices.
These ingredients add flavor
and variety, but they may also
increase the rising time.
• Fat-increases tenderness.
• Most recipes call for solid fat,
such as shortening, butter or
margarine. Some recipes call
for oil.Use the type specified
in the recipe.
10. In general, the bread making methods are classified
into two broad categories:
1.Straight dough method
2.Sponge dough method
12. Machineries and equipments required for bread
1. Flour sifter and pneumatic conveyor
2. Dough mixer
3. Tempering Tank
4. Dough Divider
5. Moulding Machine
6. Final Moulder/Rounder
8. Baking oven
9. Bread cooler
13. Straight Dough Method
In its simplest form, the straight dough method consists of only
one step: Combine all ingredients in the mixing bowl and mix.
Many bakers make good quality products by using this
However, there is the possibility that the yeast may not be evenly
distributed in the dough. It is therefore safer to mix the yeast
separately with a little of the water.
1.Soften the yeast in a little of the water, Fresh yeast, mix about
twice its weight in water, or more. Ideal water temperature is 100
F. Active dry yeast: mix with about four times its weight in water.
Ideal water temperature is 110 F.
2.Combine the remaining ingredients, including the rest of the
water, in the mixing bowl. Add the dissolved yeast, taking care
not to let it come in contact with the salt.
15. The sponge and dough method is a two-step bread making process:
in the first step a sponge is made and allowed to ferment for a period
of time, and in the second step the sponge is added to the final
dough's ingredients, creating the total formula.
1.Combine the liquid, the yeast, and part of the flour ( and sometimes
part of the sugar). Mix into a thick batter or soft dough. Let ferment
until double in bulk.
2.Punch down and add the rest of the flour and the remaining
ingredients. Mix to a uniform, smooth dough.
Sponge and dough method
17. Steps in Yeast Bread Production
1. scale and prepare
2. 1st Mixing
4. Punching/ final mixing
5. Scaling/ dough divider
18. Steps in Yeast Bread Production
7. Benching-allow the dough to rest before
8. Makeup and panning
12. Storing/ slicing and wraping
Although some of the gluten develops during
mixing, kneading develops most of the gluten.
To knead means to press the dough with the
heel of the hands, fold it, and turn it.
20. Kneading the Dough
The dough has been
kneaded enough when it
passes the windowpane test.
To perform the windowpane
test, cut off a small piece of
dough from the batch and
gently stretch, pull and turn it
to see if it will hold a paper-
thin translucent membrane.
If the dough falls apart before
it makes the windowpane,
continue mixing or kneading
for another minute or two and
21. Proofing (also called proving), as the term is used by
professional bakers, is the final dough-rise step
before baking, and refers to a specific rest period within the
more generalized process known as fermentation.
Fermentation is a step in creating yeast breads and baked
goods where the yeast is allowed to leaven the dough.
After kneading a yeast dough, you must allow it to rest
in a warm place. During the rest time, the yeast acts
upon the sugars in the bread dough to form alcohol
and carbon dioxide. This is called fermentation.
The alcohol evaporates during baking, the carbon
dioxide causes the bread to rise.
23. The dough should double in volume.
To test to see if the dough has doubled, press
two fingers into the dough, if an indentation
remains, the dough has risen enough.
24. Fermentation time varies depending on the kind
and amount of yeast, the temperature of the
room, and the kind of flour.
The room temperature for fermentation should
be 80°-85° F.
If the kitchen is not warm enough, place the
dough on a wire rack over another bowl filled
with warm water.
25. Punching the Dough
When the dough has completed
rising, you must punch it down
to release some of the carbon
Punch dough down by firmly
pushing a fist into the dough.
Fold the edges of the dough
toward the center, and turn the
dough over so that the smooth
side is on top.
At this point, some doughs
require a second rising time.
After punching the dough down, use a sharp
knife to divide it into portions as the recipe
directs. Allow the divided dough to rest 10
minutes. After resting, the dough is easier to
Allow the dough to rise again after shaping.
27. To shape dough, first flatten dough into a
The width of the dough should be about the
length of the bread pan.
Use a rolling pin to help you work out any large
Cover the shaped dough and allow to rise in a
warm, draft free place until they have doubled
Baking times and temperatures vary depending upon
the kind of dough and size of the loaf.
Place most yeast breads in a hot oven to begin baking.
During baking, the gas cells expand. The walls of
dough around these cells set and become rigid.
During the first few minutes of baking, the dough will
rise dramatically-this is called oven spring.
29. Shortly after oven spring occurs, you may
reduce the oven temperature so the bread
finishes baking in a moderately hot oven. This
After baking, immediately remove the bread
from the pans and place it on cooling racks.
Cool thoroughly before slicing and storing.
30. Principles of Preparing Yeast Breads
Preparing yeast breads requires the development of
gluten and the formation of carbon dioxide.
The gluten develops during mixing and kneading.
The gluten will form the framework of the bread and hold
the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast during
The yeast will produce carbon dioxide which will give
volume to the bread.