INTRODUCTION TO TOPIC
One of the forms in which business can be carried on is
‘partnership’, where two or more persons join together to
form the partnership and run the business. In order to
govern and guide partnership, the Indian Partnership Act,
1932 was enacted.
FEATURES OF PARTNERSHIP
Indian Partnership Act, 1932 is a Central Act. (made
This Act deals with special type of contract.( contract
Provisions regarding contract of partnership were
earlier contained in the Indian Contract Act, 1872.
This Act extends to the whole of India except the state
of Jammu and Kashmir.
This Act came in to force on 1.10.1932, except section
69 which came into force on the 1st
Day of October,
MEANING &DEFINITION OF
Section 4 of the Partnership Act, 1932 defines the term
‘Partnership’ as under:
‘’PARTNERSHIP IS THE RELATION BETWEEN
TWO OR MORE PERSONS WHO HAVE AGREED
TO SHARE THE PROFITS OF A BUSINESS
CARRIED ON BY ALL OR ANY OF THEM
ACTING FOR ALL’’.
Thus, Partnership is the name of legal relationship
between/among persons who have entered in to the
MEANING OF ‘PARTNER’ ‘FIRM’ AND
Section 4 of Indian Partnership Act, 1932
Persons who have agreed into partnership
with one another are called individually
‘PARTNERS’ and collectively ‘FIRM’ and the
name under which their business is carried on
is called the ‘FIRM NAME’
“Partnership is thus Invisibility which binds the
partners together and firm is the visible form of
those partners who are thus bound together”.
MAXIMUM LIMIT ON NUMBER OF
Section 11 Companies Act provides that the
maximum no. of persons, a firm can have:
In case of partnership firm carrying on a banking businessIn case of partnership firm carrying on a banking business
In case of partnership firm carrying on any other businessIn case of partnership firm carrying on any other business
If the number of partners exceeds the aforesaid limit,
the partnership firm becomes an illegal association.
If an association of persons or firm having members or partners
exceeding the Above limit will not be an illegal association if that firm’s
objective is not to earn profit.
Two or more
Sharing of profit
Essential elements of Partnership
For forming a partnership the above elements should be present. Though
each element is important, ‘Mutual Agency is the conclusive proof
NATURE OF PARTNERSHIP
A partnership firm is not a person in the eyes of
Law (except for the purpose of taxation [sec.2
(31)] ). It has no separate legal entity (like
company) apart from the partners constituting it.
[Malabar Fisheries Co. v CIT]
Further Section 5 of the Act provides that
partnership arises from contract
SOLVE THE CASE
There are two firms namely M/s PQR and M/s
ABC. These two firms are contemplating to form
a new firm. Can they do so?
REAL TEST OF PARTNERSHIP [SEC. 6]
The true test of partnership is the existence of ‘Mutual
Agency’ relationship, i.e. the capacity of a partner to bind other
partners by his acts done in firm’s name and be bound by the acts
of other partners.
Sharing of profit is an essential element of partnership but it is
not a conclusive proof of partnership.
Sharing of profit is Prima facie evidence.
Thus partnership can be presumed when
a.There is an agreement to share the profits of business and
b.The business is carried on by all or by any of them acting for all.
The relation among partners can be ascertained as under:
a.If there is an expressa.If there is an express
The real relation is ascertainedThe real relation is ascertained
from the partnership contract.from the partnership contract.
b.If there is no expressb.If there is no express
The real relation is ascertainedThe real relation is ascertained
from all the relevant factors suchfrom all the relevant factors such
as contract of parties, books ofas contract of parties, books of
account, statement of employeesaccount, statement of employees
MEANING OF MUTUAL AGENCY
Mutual agency refers to the relationship of
principal and agent Among partners
Example in case of
firm of A,B and C
When A acts
B and C- Principal
When B acts
A and C- Principal
When C acts
A and B- Principal
PARTNERSHIP DOES NOT
EXIST THOUGH THERE IS
In the following cases there is profit sharing but
partnership does not exist just because of lack of Mutual
1. Joint owners of some property sharing profits or gross
returns arising from the property. [explanation I to Sec. 6]
Example: X and Y jointly purchased a building and contributed capital
Equally to convert the building into a hotel. They let it out on a rent Of
Rs. 1,00,000 per annum and share the rental income equally.
Leading case: Govind V. Maga
A lender of a firm (who has lent money) who receives a share of
profit. (Mollow March V. The court of Wards)
A widow or child of a deceased partner who receives a share of
profits. (I. T. Commissioner V. Keshamal Keshardeo)
A servant (a manager) or an agent who receives a share of profit as
part of his remuneration. (Munshi Abdul Latif V. Gopeshwar
A person who receives a share of profit in consideration of sale of
business or goodwill of the business.
A member of a Hindu Undivided Family carrying on family
business. [Sec. 5]
A partnership firm has the following
1. Two or more members
2. Unlimited liability
3. Voluntary registration
4. No separate legal existence
5. Restriction on transfer of interest:
6. Based on agreement
7. Partners are competent to contract
8. Partnership may be only for lawful business.
TYPES OF PARTNERSHIP
Partnership at Will
On the Basis of Duration
PARTNERSHIP AT WILL [SEC.7 READ
When there is no provision in partnership agreement
(known as partnership Deed, if in writing) for:
The duration of their partnership, or
The determination of their partnership,
then the partnership is called ‘Partnership at Will’.
Special feature of ‘Partnership at will’ is that such firm
may be dissolved by any partner by giving a notice in
writing to all other partners of his intention to dissolve the
The firm will be dissolved from that date which is
mentioned in the notice as the date of dissolution and if no
date is mentioned then from the date of communication of
PARTICULAR PARTNERSHIP [SEC. 8]
When a partnership is formed for a
Specific venture or undertaking, or
Particular period (fixed term)
then such partnership is called a ‘particular partnership’.
Such partnership comes to an end on the completion of
the venture or the expiry of time period.
If such partnership is continued after the expiry of term
or completion of venture, it is deemed to be a
partnership at will.
A particular partnership may be dissolved before the
expiry of the term or completion of the venture only by
the mutual consent of all the partners.
Sec. 17 (b) of the Act provides that if a firm
,constituted for a fixed term, continues to carry
on business after the expiry of that term, then the
partnership will become partnership at will AND
mutual rights and duties of partners will remain
same as they were before the expiry.
ADVANTAGES OF PARTNERSHIP
Easy to form: Like sole proprietorships, partnership businesses
can be formed easily without any compulsory legal formalities. It is
not necessary to get the firm registered. A simple agreement or
partnership deed, either oral or in writing, is sufficient to create a
Availability of large resources: Since two or more partners
join hands to start a partnership business, it may be possible to pool
together more resources as compared to a sole proprietorship. The
partners can contribute more capital, more effort and more time for
Better decisions: The partners are the owners of the business. Each of
them has equal right to participate in the management of the business. In
case of any conflict, they can sit together to solve the problem. Since all
partners participate in the decision-making process, there is less scope for
reckless and hasty decisions.
Flexibility in operations: A partnership firm is a flexible
organization. At any time, the partners can decide to change the size or
nature of the business or area of it’s operation. There is no need to follow
any legal procedure. Only the consent of all the partners is required.
Sharing risks: In a partnership firm all the partners
“share” the business risks. For example, if there are three
partners and the firm makes a loss of Rs.12,000 in a
particular period, then all partners may share it and the
individual burden will be Rs.4000 only. Because of this, the
partners may be encouraged to take up more risk and
hence expand their business more.
Benefits of specialization:Since all the partners are owners of
the business, they can actively participate in every aspect of
business as per their specialization, knowledge and experience. If
you want to start a firm to provide legal consultancy to people, then
one partner may deal with civil cases, one in criminal cases, and
another in labor cases and so on as per the individual specialization.
Similarly, two or more doctors of different specialization may start a
clinic in partnership.
Protection of interest of each partner: In a
partnership firm, every partner has an equal say in
decision making and the management of the business. If
any decision goes against the interest of any partner, he
can prevent the decision from being taken. In extreme
cases an unsatisfied partner may withdraw from the
business and can dissolve it. In such extreme cases the
“partnership deed” is required. In absence of the
partnership deed, no legal protection is given to the
Unlimited liability:All the partners are jointly liable for the debt of the
firm. They can share the liability among themselves or any one can be
asked to pay all the debts even from his personal properties depending on
the arrangement made between the partners.
Uncertain life:The partnership firm has no legal existence separate from
it’s partners. It comes to an end with death, insolvency, incapacity or the
retirement of a partner. Further, any unsatisfied or discontent partner can
also give notice at any time for the dissolution of the partnership.
No transferability of share:If you are a partner in any firm, you
cannot transfer your share or part of the company to outsiders, without the
consent of other partners. This creates inconvenience for the partner who
wants to leave the firm or sell part of his share to others.
Lack of harmony: In a partnership firm every partner has an
equal right to participate in the management. Also, every
partner can place his or her opinion or viewpoint before the
management regarding any matter at any time. Because of this,
sometimes there is a possibility of friction and discontent
among the partners. Difference of opinion may lead to the end
of the partnership and the business.
Limited capital: Since the total number of partners cannot
exceed 20, the capital to be raised is always limited. It may not
be possible to start a very large business in partnership form.
A partnership is formed by an agreement. This agreement may
be in writing or oral.though the law does not expressly require
that the partnership agreement should be in writing, it is
desirable t o have it in writing in order to avo8id any dispute
with regard to the terms of the partnership. The document
which contains the term of a partnership as agreed among the
partners is called “partnership deed”.
The partnership Deed is to be duly stamped as per the Indian
Stamp Act, and duly signed by all the partners.
CONTENTS OF PARTNERSHIP DEED
A partnership deed may contain any matter relating to the
regulation of partnership but all provisions in the deed should be
within the limits of Indian Partnership Act, 1932. However, A
Partnership Deed should contain the following clause:
Nature of business
Duration of partnership
Name of the firm
Share of partners in profits and losses
Bank Account firm
Books of account
Powers of partners
Retirement and expulsion of partners
Death of partner
Dissolution of firm
Settlement of disputes
RIGHTS OF PARTNERS
Right to take part in business
Right to be consulted
Right to access accounts
Right to have share in profits
Right to interest on capital
Right to interest on advances
Right to be ndemenified
Right to the use of partnership property
Right as an agent
No new partner to be introduced
No liability before joining
Right not to be expelled
DUTIES OF PARTNER
To carry out business to the greatest common
To observe faith.
To indemnify fraud
To attend diligently
Not to claim remuneration
To share losses
To indemnify for willful neglect
To account for personal profits
To act within the authority
To liable jointly and severally
Not to assign his right
TYPES OF PARTNERS
Sleeping or dormant
Partner in profits only
Partner by estoppel or holding out
RECONSTITUTION OF FIRM
Introduction of a partner
Retirement of a partner
Expulsion of partner
Insolvency of partner
Death of partner
Transfer of a partners interest
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