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Origin of Neoclassical architecture and the architects involved in it.

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origin of neoclassical architecture and the architects involved in it.

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Origin of Neoclassical architecture and the architects involved in it.

  1. 1. Neoclassical Architecture
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
  3. 3. In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts. Neoclassical ideas in architecture spread quickly throughout Europe. Neoclassical buildings are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. A Neoclassical building is likely to have some (but not necessarily all) of these features
  4. 4. Baroque Rococo
  5. 5. ORIGIN In the sense that neoclassicism in architecture is evocative and picturesque, a recreation of a distant, lost world, it is, as Giedion suggests, framed within the Romantic sensibility. Intellectually Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th- century Renaissance Classicism, which was also a source for academic Late Baroque architecture. There is an anti-Rococo strain that can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland, but also recognizable in a classicizing vein of Late Baroque architecture in Paris (Perrault's east range of the Louvre), in Berlin, and even in Rome, in Alessandro Galilei's facade for S. Giovanni in Laterano.
  6. 6. It is a robust architecture of self-restraint, academically selective now of "the best" Roman models, which were increasingly available for close study through the medium of architectural engravings of measured drawings of surviving Roman architecture.
  8. 8. 1. Excavations of the Ruins1. Excavations of the Ruins of Italian Citiesof Italian Cities Herculaneum in 1738 Pompeii in 1748.
  9. 9. 2. Publication of2. Publication of Books on AntiquityBooks on Antiquity James Stuart & Nicholas Revert Antiquities in Athens: 1762-1816.
  10. 10. 3. Arrival of the Elgin Marbles3. Arrival of the Elgin Marbles Thomas Bruce, 7th Lord of Elgin British Museum, 1806 From the top façade of the Parthenon in Athens.
  11. 11. 4. Johann Winckelmann’s Artists Circle4. Johann Winckelmann’s Artists Circle German art historian. $ Artists should “imitate” the timeless, ideal forms of the classical world. $ A circle of international artists gathered about him in the 1760s in Rome
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS • High neoclassicism was an international movement. Though neoclassical architecture employs the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture, it tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes. Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are more flat; sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. • Its clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves.
  13. 13. Return to the perceived “purity” of the arts of Rome. Model the “ideal” of the ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser, extent, 16c Renaissance classicism. Sometimes considered anti-modern or even reactionary. •Symmetrical shape •Tall columns that rise the full height of the building •Triangular pediment • Domed roof
  15. 15. Robert Adam (1728 –1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect and interior designer. He was the leader of the first phase of the classical revival in England and Scotland from around 1760 until his death. He influenced the development of Western architecture, both in Europe and in North America, although he worked only in Britain. He specialized in the design of English country houses, large homes for the wealthy based on ancient architectural and decorative themes, but also on the ideas of a renaissance architect, Andrea Palladio.
  16. 16. Interiors by Robert Adam
  17. 17. John Nash (1752 – 1835) was an Anglo-Welsh architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London. Nash's work came to the attention of the Prince Regent (later King George IV) who, in 1811 commissioned him to develop an area then known as Marylebone Park. With the Regent's backing, Nash created a master plan for the area, put into action from 1818 onwards, which stretched from St James’s northwards and included Regent Street, Regent's Park and its neighbouring streets, terraces and crescents of elegant town houses and villas. This vast project, covering several square miles, made Nash responsible for creating a new vision of central London, and fundamentally altered a large area of the city. This was one of the earliest examples of city planning in Europe.
  18. 18. Andrea Palladio (Italian, 1508-1580) is often described as the most influential and most copied architect in the Western world. Drawing inspiration from classical architecture, Palladio created carefully proportioned, pedimented buildings that became models for stately homes and government buildings in Europe and America. Palladio's Four Books of Architecture was widely translated, and Palladio's ideas spread across Europe and into the New World. American statesman Thomas Jefferson borrowed Palladian ideas when he designed Monticello, his home in Virginia, in the Greek Revival style. Palladio, La Rotonda Jefferson, Monticello
  19. 19. Jefferson was also responsible for the State Capital building at Richmond, Virginia. He had traveled extensively in Europe and was deeply inspired by ancient Roman buildings, especially the Maison Carree in Nimes, France, a well-preserved Roman temple from 16 BCE.
  20. 20. The Greek Revival movement in America was a late version of Neoclassicism. In the mid-19th century, many prosperous Americans believed that ancient Greece represented the spirit of democracy. Interest in British styles had waned during the bitter War of 1812. Also, many Americans sympathized with Greece's own struggles for independence in the 1820s. Greek Revival houses usually have these features: * Pedimented gable * Symmetrical shape * Heavy cornice * Wide, plain frieze * Bold, simple moldings Many Greek Revival houses also have these features: * Entry porch with columns * Decorative pilasters * Narrow windows around front door
  21. 21. Greek Revival architecture
  22. 22. SUNSET OF NEOCLASSISM • From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism that is called the Greek Revival. • Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond— a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals— although from the late 19th century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles.
  23. 23. The last major phase of neoclassicism in architecture is commonly known as Beaux-Arts (1880-1920). By this point it had become a highly academic style, taking its name from the ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Beaux-Arts was very prominent in public buildings in Canada in the early 20th Century, especially in banks and government buildings. Notably all three prairie provinces' legislative buildings are in this style. CIBC Bank (Hockey Hall of Fame) Union Station
  24. 24. Brandenburg Gate, Berlin Buckingham Palace, London The Gate of Alcala, Madrid By the mid-19th century, several European cities – notably St Petersburg, Athens, Berlin and Munich – were transformed into veritable museums of Neoclassical architecture.