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Introduction Lis 26

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Introduction Lis 26

  1. 1. Introduction <br />LORD ALLEN M. HERNANDEZ<br />LIS 26: Information Technology I<br />Silliman University, Dumaguete City<br />
  2. 2. Data and Information<br />
  3. 3. Data vs. Information<br />What is Data?<br /> Data are raw facts (unprocessed). It refers to a collection of organized information, usually the result of experience, observation or experiment, other information within a computer system, or a set of premises. This may consist of numbers, words, or images, particularly as measurements or observations of a set of variables. <br /> Examples:<br />Invoice Date: 17-June-2009<br /> Time: 5:15 PM<br />
  4. 4. Data vs. Information<br />What is Information?<br /> Information are processed facts.<br />Example:<br /> Total Sales for November: PHP 9,312.00<br /> “As knowledge”<br /> “As thing” (data, documents, etc.)<br /> “As process” (becoming informed)<br />
  5. 5. Data vs. Information Definition (ISO)<br />Data: (ISO) A representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or by automatic, numbers, colors, symbols, shapes, temperatures, sound or other facts and figures are data suitable for processing.<br />
  6. 6. Data vs. Information Definition (ISO)<br />Information: (ISO) The meaning that is applied to data by means of the conversions applied to that data. <br />
  7. 7. Data vs. Information <br />Information<br />Data<br /><ul><li>6.34
  8. 8. 6.45
  9. 9. 6.39
  10. 10. 6.62
  11. 11. 6.57
  12. 12. 6.64
  13. 13. 6.71
  14. 14. 6.82
  15. 15. 7.12
  16. 16. 7.06</li></li></ul><li>Data vs. Information<br />Data + conversion + process = INFORMATION<br />
  17. 17. Information Processing<br />The acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information is called the Information Processing. <br />
  18. 18. Information Processing<br />Data Processing<br /> Is defined as the operations performed on data or raw facts in order to derive information<br />Electronic Data Processing (EDP)<br /> Is defined as the operations performed on data or raw facts by the use of an automatic equipment in order to derive information.<br />What is a Computer?<br /> Is an electronic device capable of solving problems by accepting data, performing prescribed operations on the data, and supplying the results of these operations <br />
  19. 19. Information Processing<br />Input – involves collecting, verifying and encoding data into a machine-readable form of the computer. <br />Processing - means the computer creates useful information from the data by classifying, sorting, calculation, summarizing, and storing the results. <br />Output – includes retrieving the data, converting them into a human-readable form, and displaying the information to the user. <br />
  20. 20. Library Functions<br />
  21. 21. Library Functions<br />AIM OF THE LIBRARY<br />Obtain, preserve, and make available print and non—print materials required for use by its patrons and in so doing to store recorded knowledge for future generations.<br />Libraries are generally divided into several key functions, which although performed separately, are interrelated.<br /> - Selection<br /> - Cataloging<br /> - Reference<br /> - Circulation<br />
  22. 22. Selection<br />AIM:<br />Develop a usable collection of material, on a continuing basis, that will satisfy the information needs of the library users.<br />
  23. 23. Selection<br />TWO MAIN METHODS OF PROCUREMENT<br />Purchase<br /><ul><li>Done from book dealers and involves the routine operations of order preparation, fund allotment, payment, accounting, etc.</li></ul>Gift and exchange – obtained as gifts from benefactors or in an exchange with other libraries<br />
  24. 24. Selection<br />In addition to its ordering function, acquisition also includes responsibility for the receipt of the printed material, assignment of an “accession,” or sequence, number to each piece, and routing it on to the next processing stage.<br />
  25. 25. Cataloging<br />TWO KINDS OF CATALOGING<br />Descriptive Cataloging<br /><ul><li>The process of identifying the book and selecting the appropriate bibliographic elements for recording.</li></ul>Subject Cataloging<br /><ul><li>includes processes of classification and the assignment of subject headings.</li></li></ul><li>Cataloging<br />Recording of bibliographic information is made on cards after the selection of pertinent elements from the title page of the book.<br />Author’s name, title of the book, date, publisher and place of publication, number of pages, etc.<br />Follow prescribe rules w/c will fix the format of the recorded information (e.g. American Library Association Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress’ Rules for Descriptive Cataloging, etc.)<br />
  26. 26. Cataloging<br />Prepare for filing by author and title into an alphabetical file known as a “dictionary” catalog.<br />Classify the book. The process of classification is defined as the systematic placement of the books of a library into related subject groupings based on a pre-arranged subject plan or scheme.<br />Refer to the subject classification scheme, select and assign a symbol known as a “class number”. This number is amplified by symbols, usually for author, to form the “call number” which is recorded on all catalog cards an serves a permanent address.<br />
  27. 27. Cataloging<br />Call number is recorded on its spine.<br />Select appropriate subject headings from a prescribed list in order to reflect in the catalog the main subjects treated by the book.<br />Duplicate catalog cards are used, the subjects noted as words along the top of each card, and the cards filed in the dictionary catalog along with the title and author cards.<br />
  28. 28. Reference<br />“Reference work” is defined as the service rendered by a librarian in aid of some sort of study, the reference librarian as an interpreter of library resources, and reference literature as “dictionaries, almanacs, catalogs, encyclopedias” and other books held in the library for consultation.<br />
  29. 29. Reference<br />Constantly communicate with library users and provide to the information needs of the users.<br />Give assistance in selecting obtaining source materials which are needed for research and other purposes.<br />Perform extensive searches for groups of facts.<br />Compile lists of references to literature in various subject fields, called “bibliographies”<br />Sometimes, the librarian may even be asked to prepare articles for a requester which synthesize information on a given subject from many sources.<br />
  30. 30. Circulation<br />It consists in getting the book from the shelf, charging it out to the reader, receiving it on return, and finally, reshelving it.<br />Important function: Record Keeping – Statistical records are maintained on borrowers, overdue books, and the rate at w/c books are issued, returned, and shelved. <br /> &gt; Useful to management in planning, personnel administration, and in analyzing the nature and amount of usage made of the collection.<br />
  31. 31. Group Work/Reporting<br />Divide the class to four groups.<br />For each function of the library (selection, cataloging, circulation and reference), identify the data, how these data are processed and the outputs (information) it produce.<br />Interview or ask librarians.<br />Report on what you discussed next meeting. You may bring samples of data. Be resourceful.<br />