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The passive Voice

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The passive Voice

  1. 1. The Passive Presentation
  2. 2. USES
  3. 3. 2. Passive – Form to be + past participle How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given: ● object of the active sentence becomes subject in the passive sentence ● subject of the active sentence becomes object in the passive sentence" (or is left out) We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence. Look at these examples:
  4. 4. Present Simple Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter builds a house. Passive sentence: A house is built by Peter
  5. 5. Present continuous Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter is building a house. Passive sentence: A house Is being built by Peter
  6. 6. Present Perfect Simple Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter has built a house. Passive sentence: A house has been built by Peter
  7. 7. Past Simple Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter built a house. Passive sentence: A house was built by Peter
  8. 8. Past Continuous Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter was building a house. Passive sentence: A house was being built by Peter
  9. 9. Past Perfect Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter had built a house. Passive sentence: A house had been built by Peter
  10. 10. Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter will build a house. Passive sentence: A house will be built by Peter Future Simple
  11. 11. Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter will be building a house. Passive sentence: A house will be being built by Peter Future Continuous
  12. 12. Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter can build a house. Passive sentence: A house can be built by Peter Modals
  13. 13. Type of sentence Subject Verb Object Active sentence: Peter should have built a house. Passive sentence: A house should have been built by Peter Modal Perfect
  14. 14. Two objects in an active sentence When there are two objects in an active sentence, there are two possible active sentences and two possible passive sentences. ● Sentence 1: The professor gave the students the books. ● Sentence 2: The professor gave the books to the students. There are two objects in each of the following sentences: ● Object 1 = indirect object → the students ● Object 2 = direct object → the books An indirect object is very often a person, a direct object a thing. When a direct object is followed by an indirect one, we put to in front of the indirect object.
  15. 15. Two possible passive sentences Active Sentence 1 The professor gave the students the books. Subject Verb Indirect Object Direct Object Passive Sentence 1 The students were given the books (by the professor). Subject V- pass. D,O ( by- agent) Passive Sentence 2 The books were given to the students (by the professor) Subject V- pass. I.O ( by- agent)
  16. 16. When to use the ‘by-agent’ We are normally not interested in the ›doer‹ of an action in a passive sentence. When we want to mention the ‘doer’, we use the preposition by. The whole phrase is called by-agent in English. When we don’t know who is the ‘doer’ of the action (words like someone), or when the subject is obvious, we leave out these words in the passive sentence. A thieft stole my wallet …… My wallet was stolen. Someone has prepared lunch….. Lunch has been prepared. Active Sentence Passive Sentence Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  17. 17. Personal and Impersonal passive (It is said…) 1. Personal Passive When we put an object of an active sentence into passive, it becomes subject of the passive sentence. ● Active sentence → The professor gave the students the books. ● Passive sentence → The students were given the books. We sometimes use a pronoun for the students or the books in its subject form (here: they). ● Active sentence → The professor gave them the books. ● Passive sentence → They were given the books. We very often leave out the by-agent in the passive sentence (here: by the professor). 2. Impersonal Passive – It is said ... The phrase It is said ... is an impersonal passive construction. We often use it in news. ● Passive sentence 1 → It is said that children are afraid of ghosts. ● Passive sentence 2 → Children are said to be afraid of ghosts. The correct active sentence would be: ● Active sentence → People say that children are afraid of ghosts.
  18. 18. Verbs with preposition in the passive Where do prepositions in Passive sentences go? When we put an active sentence, where a preposition follows after the verb (e.g. break into, look after, listen to), into passive – the preposition remains immediately after the verb. Active Sentence Pasive Sentence Someone broke into the pet shop. The pet shop was broken into. They looked for the baby. The baby was looked for. Someone shouts at the man. The man is shouted at. They listen to music. Music is listened to.
  19. 19. Have / get something done USE: to express that somebody does a job for you. FORM subject + have / get + object + past participle ● She gets her hair cut in the same saloon every month. ● I am having my eyes tested this afternoon. ● Did she get her ears pierced when she was on holiday? ● They have just had their house redecorated. ● We won’t get the swimming pool built next year.
  20. 20. Passive Voice: English Grammar Exercises Finally, like practice makes perfect, you should go to this website and practice some or all of the exercises on this page: http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm

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