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Power influence slideshare

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Power and Influence Topic for UG

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Power influence slideshare

  1. 1. Link: http://www.traveller.com.au/how-the-qantas-crisis-unfolded-1mpv6
  2. 2. THE MEANING OF POWER Power is the capacity of a person, team or organisation to influence others • Potential, not actual use • People have power they don’t use and they may not know they possess it • A perception
  3. 3. POWER AND DEPENDENCE Resource desired by Person B Person B’s countervailing power over Person A Person A Person A’s control of resource valued by Person B Person B Person A’s power over Person B
  5. 5. SOURCES OF POWER • Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviours of others • Based on job descriptions and mutual agreement • Legitimate power range (zone of indifference) varies across national and organisational cultures Legitimate
  6. 6. SOURCES OF POWER CONTINUED • Ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove negative sanctions • Operates upward as well as downward Legitimate Reward
  7. 7. SOURCES OF POWER CONTINUED • Ability to apply punishment • Exists upward as well as downward • Peer pressure is a form of coercive power Legitimate Reward Coercive
  8. 8. SOURCES OF POWER CONTINUED • The capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value • More employee expert power over companies in knowledge economy Legitimate Reward Coercive Expert
  9. 9. SOURCES OF POWER CONTINUED • Occurs when others identify with, like or otherwise respect the person • Associated with charismatic leadership Legitimate Referent Reward Coercive Expert
  11. 11. INCREASING NON- SUBSTITUTABILITY • Few or no alternatives to the resource • Increase non-substitutability by controlling the resource • Exclusive right to perform medical procedures • Control over skilled labour • Exclusive knowledge to repair equipment • Differentiate resource from others
  12. 12. CENTRALITY • Degree and nature of interdependence between powerholder and others • Centrality is a function of: • How many others are affected by you • How quickly others are affected by you
  13. 13. DISCRETION ANDVISIBILITY • Discretion • The freedom to exercise judgment • Rules limit discretion, limit power • Also a perception—acting as if you have discretion • Visibility • Symbols communicate your power source(s) • Educational diplomas • Clothing, etc. (stethoscope around neck) • Salience • Location—others are more aware of your presence
  14. 14. INFLUENCING OTHERS • Influence—any behaviour that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behaviour • Applies one or more power bases • Process through which people achieve organisational objectives • Operates up, down and across the organisational hierarchy
  15. 15. Assertiveness • Actively applying legitimate and coercive power (‘vocal authority’) • Reminding, confronting, checking, threatening Silent authority • Following requests without overt influence • Based on legitimate power, role modelling • Common in high power distance cultures TYPES OF INFLUENCE
  16. 16. TYPES OF INFLUENCE CONTINUED Coalition formation • Group forms to gain more power than individuals alone 1. Pools resources/power 2. Legitimises the issue 3. Power through social identity Information • Manipulating others’ access to information • Withholding, filtering, re-arranging information • Reduces uncertainty
  17. 17. TYPES OF INFLUENCE CONTINUED Upward appeal • Appealing to higher authority • Includes appealing to firm’s goals • Alliance or perceived alliance with higher status person Persuasion • Logic, facts, emotional appeals • Depends on persuader, message content, message medium, audience
  18. 18. TYPES OF INFLUENCE CONTINUED Exchange • Promising or reminding of past benefits in exchange for compliance • Includes negotiation and networking Ingratiation/ impression management • Increase liking by, or perceived similarity to, the target person
  19. 19. CONSEQUENCES OF INFLUENCE TACTICS people oppose the behaviour desired by the influencer motivated by external sources (rewards) to implement request identify with and highly motivated to implement request Resistance Compliance Commitment
  20. 20. MINIMISING POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR • Introduce clear rules for scarce resources • Effective organisational change practices • Suppress norms that support or tolerate self-serving behaviour • Leaders role model organisational citizenship • Give employees more control over their work • Keep employees informed