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Analyzing Text Structures

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Analyzing Text Structures

  1. 1. Text Structure Analyze organizational methods used in informational texts
  2. 2. Making Information Clear  Authors choose structure to organize information and make their meaning clear.  Readers use strategies to support interpretation of text.
  3. 3. Writing Clarity  Authors use organization to develop their point of view  They use different approaches to support their purposes  They pick an organization format that will help make their ideas clear to the reader
  4. 4. Readers ask…  Can I see a pattern to the writing?  How are the ideas divided and presented?  Why has the author chosen this particular organization pattern?
  5. 5. Organizational Patterns  Description  Chronological (or Sequence)  Cause and Effect  Compare/Contrast  Problem/Solution
  6. 6. Description • Author provides descriptive details or characteristics of a topic. topic detail detaildetail detail
  7. 7. Description Key Words snow sparkle white frozenflakes crystal • For example • Specifically • Characteristics include • Next • Another kind • In addition • Spatial words like near, beyond, over, etc.
  8. 8. Description Example 1 Coral snakes are distinguished by their red, yellow/white, and black colored banding. Most species of are small in size. North American species average around 3 feet in length, but specimens of up to 5 feet or slightly larger have been reported.
  9. 9. Description Example 2 Geologists classify types of rocks by closely examining certain characteristics. They often begin by looking at the rock through a magnifying lens to check for crystal structures, luster, and color. Breaking the rock shows specimen’s fracture or cleavage.
  10. 10. Chronological  Story or information is told in the order that the events occurred Elementary School Middle School High School Sari’s Education
  11. 11. Chronology Key Words  First  Next  Then  After  Before  Sequential dates  Events  Order First she sat in the hard chair Next she sat in the soft chair Finally, she sat in the baby’s chair
  12. 12. Chronological Example (1)  First, Goldilocks sat in the great big, Papa Bear chair, but it was too hard.  Then, she sat in the medium sized, Mama Bear chair, but it was too soft.  Finally, she sat in the little, bitty, Baby Chair, and it was just right.
  13. 13. Chronological Example (2)  When the Anglo-Saxons conquered the British Isles they introduced their language which was composed of common everyday words like boat and tree.  Later, the Normans added French words like café.
  14. 14. Cause and Effect  The author establishes a link between the way things are now and how they got that way. Cause Effect
  15. 15. Cause and Effect Key Words  If/then  Reasons  Why  Because  As a result  This led to  Consequently  Due to Cause Effect
  16. 16. Order doesn’t matter  Sometimes the cause will be presented first…  …then the effect will follow Cause Effect
  17. 17. Cause/Effect Example (1)  Cause: During the experiment, Henry poured the liquid bromine into the saline solution.  Effect: His hypothesis was proved correct when the solution changed colors.
  18. 18. Order still doesn’t matter  Sometimes the issues are presented with the effects sited first…  …then the causes are offered as explanation Cause Effect
  19. 19. Cause/Effect Example (2)  Effect: The future of gorillas in the wild is at risk. Scientists predict that at the present rate of decline, in 30 years all the world’s wild gorillas will be gone.  Cause: Gorilla meat is a dietary staple for nearly 12 million people in Africa.
  20. 20. Comparison and Contrast  One idea is presented first, followed by a similar or different way of seeing things. Apples Oranges
  21. 21. Compare/Contrast Key Words  Differ  Same  Alike  Compare  But  Both  Similar  On the other hand 1920’s 1950’s
  22. 22. Compare/Contrast Example (1)  Seurat painted scenes of everyday life full of realistic people and objects with soft edges and lines. He wanted his art to capture “feelings” of the moment.  Picasso, on the other hand, used distorted images and strange colors to create mood.
  23. 23. Compare/Contrast Example (2)  Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system, much larger than Earth. It is mostly made of hydrogen. It rotates more quickly too. A day on Saturn is only about 10 Earth hours long. But it takes about 30 of our years to make one full trip around the sun.
  24. 24. Problem/Solution  A problem is presented and followed by the steps to bring about a solution. Problem • The beach was littered with trash. Steps • Jeff organized a beach clean-up party. Solution • 30 people came to pick up trash and soon the beach was clean.
  25. 25. Problem/Solution Key Words  problem is  dilemma is  if-then  because Problem Steps Solution  so that  question-answer  problem is solved  reason why
  26. 26. Problem/Solution (1)  Native American tribes who lived on the central plains had to move from place to place to follow the migrating herds. Since they could not build permanent homes, they invented the teepee which allowed them to move their homes from place to place.
  27. 27. Problem/Solution (2)  Ted and Sam both wanted to drive the car. They started yelling at each other. Their mom came and told them to stop fighting. She told Ted he could drive the car today, and Sam would have a turn tomorrow.
  28. 28. Question Examples This story is organized by—  comparing Alfred’s life to those of German families  describing a series of events in Nobel’s life  discussing what the scientist’s role was in organizing the prize  providing examples of how people lived in 1925 Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?  Presenting in order the steps of cave and sinkhole formation  Comparing the formation of a cave to the formation of a sinkhole  Describing features of caves and sinkholes  Presenting basic information first about caves and then about sinkholes
  29. 29. REVIEW  What are the 5 organizational patterns?  Why do author’s use different types of organization?  What clues will help you determine the pattern?
  30. 30. Remember… Description Chronological Cause/Effect Comparison/Contrast Problem/Solution
  31. 31. Resources Comprehension Strategies by Keene, Ellin Oliver, 2002. When Kids Can’t Read by Kylene Beers, 1998 Graphics Phillip Martin Clip Art http://www.phillipmartin.info/clipart/homepage.htm A Reading and Writing Out Loud Presentation Barbara Yardley, M.Ed. For additional activities, worksheets and a complete Common Core teaching unit on Text Structure visit http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Barbara-Yardley/