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Parenthetical Citations in disgustingly gross detail.
Reminder: <ul><li>We use parenthetical citations to give credit to the people’s thoughts we use. </li></ul><ul><li>We give...
The general, garden variety citation: <ul><li>We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I coul...
Two things to note: <ul><li>We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very muc...
“Certain circumstances:” <ul><li>When the quotation has pertinent punctuation in it that change the meaning if omitted </l...
Speaking of Hemingway… <ul><li>You might have noticed that the citation didn’t have an author in it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Trickery: <ul><li>Citing the author this way (in the sentence itself) accomplishes two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it ci...
What about those pesky internet sources? <ul><li>Cite the author, forget the page number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no pages in...
Internet Example  (Preferable) <ul><li>If you  MUST  use one without an author, use the article title: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Internet example (no title?): <ul><li>There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in ou...
But again, <ul><li>Try to use as few unaccredited web pages as humanly possible </li></ul><ul><li>Source validity is a hug...
Side note: <ul><li>When we do literary analyses, like the poem one we’ve already done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do remember t...
Multiple authors: <ul><li>If more than one author wrote your article, they need to be cited. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This ap...
Multiple authors example: <ul><li>There has been a drastic increase in frivolous lawsuits in the United States in the last...
More than three authors? <ul><li>Bust out the Latin stick! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ et al” is your pal! </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Finally, the interview sources: <ul><li>Cite the last name of the interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>Then that it was an interv...
Interview example: <ul><li>As junior students, we were told that this paper is “dummy proof and it’s impossible to do wron...
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Parenthetical Citations

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  • Thank you!!!
    This was very helpful!!
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  • The information is very good.
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  • Excellent but seems to omit how to cite lecture speakers (ie a Prof) who quote others (ie. a famous person or historical figure).... ??? That is, if I get my source from my Prof~I mean, I'd never have heard of some of these folks if it wasn't for my professors enlightening me with their knowledge so it's not likely that I would quote them unless quoting my prof quoting them.... yikes!
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  • good question.

    If it's a book, there should be an overseeing editor. If it's a website, you'd probably use the acronym for the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

    If you have more than one article for the website, then you'd use a truncated version of the article in quotes, followed by the acronym--I think ('Obesity' NCHS).

    When in doubt, go to the OWL at Purdue (it's sort of THE online guide to all things cited).

    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/

    Thanks for popping by!
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Parenthetical Citations

  1. 1. Parenthetical Citations in disgustingly gross detail.
  2. 2. Reminder: <ul><li>We use parenthetical citations to give credit to the people’s thoughts we use. </li></ul><ul><li>We give credit for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paraphrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>summarizing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The general, garden variety citation: <ul><li>We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two things to note: <ul><li>We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128) . </li></ul><ul><li>The author’s name and page number appear without a “p” or comma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we know the number is a page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we don’t need a comma, either </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punctuation appears outside the quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there are certain circumstances that require punctuation inside the quotation… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “Certain circumstances:” <ul><li>When the quotation has pertinent punctuation in it that change the meaning if omitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The older waiter in Hemingway's &quot;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place&quot; asks himself, &quot;What did he fear?&quot; (79). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But notice, there is still a closing punctuation mark after the citation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Speaking of Hemingway… <ul><li>You might have noticed that the citation didn’t have an author in it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The older waiter in Hemingway's &quot;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place&quot; asks himself, &quot;What did he fear?&quot; (79). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That’s because I already gave the author credit! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you see it? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Trickery: <ul><li>Citing the author this way (in the sentence itself) accomplishes two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it cites the author (duh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it varies your sentence structure automatically for you! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this = good writing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What about those pesky internet sources? <ul><li>Cite the author, forget the page number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no pages in cyberspace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No author? Should you really use the site? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if no one takes credit for it, is it a credible site? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you must, cite the website </li></ul>
  9. 9. Internet Example (Preferable) <ul><li>If you MUST use one without an author, use the article title: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (“Coca-Cola No Al Queda”). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Internet example (no title?): <ul><li>There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (snopes.com). </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>I did not give the complete URL, only a snippet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the complete URL goes in your reference page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also note that the good folks at “snopes.com” DO take credit for their work </li></ul><ul><li>Their names are Barbara and David Mickelson and they do a nice job fact-checking… </li></ul>
  11. 11. But again, <ul><li>Try to use as few unaccredited web pages as humanly possible </li></ul><ul><li>Source validity is a huge concern when the source takes no credit for their work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Side note: <ul><li>When we do literary analyses, like the poem one we’ve already done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do remember that characters don’t talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authors do! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Multiple authors: <ul><li>If more than one author wrote your article, they need to be cited. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This applies to less than three authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less than / including three, cite them all! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Multiple authors example: <ul><li>There has been a drastic increase in frivolous lawsuits in the United States in the last ten years (Dewey, Cheatum and Howe 45). </li></ul>Note all authors credited with last name only.
  15. 15. More than three authors? <ul><li>Bust out the Latin stick! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ et al” is your pal! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ et al” literally translates to “and others” </li></ul><ul><li>Cite the first author, then slap an “et al” after it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only applies to references with more than three authors! </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Finally, the interview sources: <ul><li>Cite the last name of the interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>Then that it was an interview </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interview example: <ul><li>As junior students, we were told that this paper is “dummy proof and it’s impossible to do wrong if you try” (Lesh interview). </li></ul><ul><li>Note the same rules apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no comma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punctuation outside of the parentheses </li></ul></ul>

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