Depending on what the lifestyle we have that will affect our sports life/performance. There
are many factors that can affect it like Drugs, Alcohol, Diet, Stress, Sleep, Finances, Social
On this essay I will describe and explain the results of some of the factors can that affect
our sports life/performance.
Smoking is the first lifestyle factor that will be explained. People smoke because of various
different reasons like: stress, taste, trying to fit in on their social group or culture
influences. There are many types like cigars, e-cigarettes and many tastes but none of them
is safe to be consumed, do to the way that will affect your body at the long period.
The latest statistics show that:
1. 19% of adults in Great Britain smoke
2. An average smoker smokes 11.4 cigarettes a day
3. 20% of men currently smoke against 17% of women
4. Adults age 50 to 59 smoke more than the one 25 to 30 years old
5. There are 2.2 million e-cigarettes in the country
Smoking is a legal drug that is addictive, and if you smoke it changes your body and will
give you diseases, smoking makes your breath smell as well as you clothes and hair, turns
your teeth and fingers yellow and if you are black your fingers become darker, increases
the risk of heart attack or stroke and developing diabetes, and the greatest disease of all
smokes is the principal cause of Cancer on the lungs, throat and mouth, waste of money.
1. Cancer- because one only cigarette has more than 60 chemical compounds that can
modify your blood cells it can give you cancer, because your body your blood cells
have something called Cilia ( organelle found in a eukaryotic cell) once that Cilia is
dead due to smoking he (chemical compounds) finds the path to the vulnerable
parts of your Lungs, which can lead to inflammation of the Lungs and increases the
risk of getting Cancer. This chemicals also lead to mutations when they encounter
DNA and get stuck to the DNA forming something called Adduct which makes DNA
harder to multiply and will lead to mutations in the DNA. The most important
mutation will occur in a protein called p53 ( protein responsible for cell regulation
and tumor suppression) and when that happens the function that suppress tumors
is switched off and will allow tumors in the lungs to grow.
2. Heart Disease- Smoking increases the risk of getting heart diseases because it
narrows your blood vessels, because smoke increases the clotting plaque in the
blood vessels which will block the free movement of blood components and leads to
deadly heart attacks.
There are over 3500 chemicals in a cigarette and 60 of them are carcinogenic, just to name
a few: Butane, Nicotine, Methane, Carbon Monoxide, Methanol, Ammonia etc.
Smoking will affect your overall sports performance by:
1. Lose energy- Smokers generally don’t have as much energy and become more
fatigued quicker than a non-smoker due to all the chemicals that they have stored
on the blood, lungs and heart that were ingested by the smoke. Smokers can’t run
as faster or run longer (time) than a non smoker.
2. Save money- if you don’t smoke you normally have more money to spend on other
healthier habits because a pack of cigarettes will cost you normally £10. That money
could be save to spend on a gym membership.
3. Beauty/Diet- Because smoking ages you, you look older and uglier than your actual
age if you don’t smoke. If you are not a smoker your skin looks younger and
healthier. Also because smoke makes you lose your sense of taste when you stop
smoking and eat your food will taste better making it easier to eat.
Stress plays a major part of our life and will affect our physical and psychological health
and eventually affect our sports life/performance: by reducing the desire to be healthy, by
reducing the days we go gym and it can be dangerous because people sometimes take
wrong decisions because of stress. Also we have greater chances of getting diseases when
we are stressed.
Stress can come from various places like: work, college, traffic, home etc. And the way we
deal we stress also varis.
There are 3 types of stress:
1. Acute Stress- Is the most common type of stress and is our body direct reaction to a
new event, challenge.
2. Episodic Stress- happens when we have too many Acute Stress, people with that
kind of stress are people that seem like they having a crisis, people that always and
only see the negative side of something they are always worried and anxious.
3. Chronic Stress- when the stress is already born with you is passed on to your genes
by your father or mother, this kind of stress doesn't go away is constant and if not
treated can trigger disease like cancer, lung disease or heart disease.
Stress can also lead to diseases like:
1. Hypertension- Is high blood pressure. There are 2 types of blood pressure, Systolic
(110 mmhg) blood pressure during heart contraction and Diastolic (70 mmhg)
blood pressure when the heart is relaxing. The normal Systolic blood pressure is
between 90 to 119 mmhg and the normal diastolic blood pressure is 60 to 79
mmhg, then we have Prehypertension and the blood pressure on that stage is 120
to 130 mmhg on the systolic side and 80 to 89 mmhg on the diastolic side, stage 1
hypertension is 140 to 159 mmhg on the systolic side and 90 and 99 on the diastolic
side, stage 2 hypertension is between 160 to 179 mmhg on the systolic side and
between 100 and 109 mmhg on the diastolic side and anything over 180 mmhg on
the systolic side is stage 3 hypertension and 110 mmhg on the diastolic side.
Blood pressure is not good for the blood vessels because it causes wear and tear on the
endothelial cell (type of epithelium that lines the interior blood vessels) and causes tiny
crack on them. In the long term high blood pressure can lead to myocardial infarctions,
strokes and aneurysms. What causes hypertension could be slat heavy diets, obesity or
sedentary lifestyles if this if the cause for hypertension that means that can be reduced by
improving diet, practice more physical activity and lose weight. But there are other reasons
for the hypertension like low blood flow on the kidneys ( which can be caused by
atherosclerosis, vasculitis and aortic dissection) which are really important to the blood
flow and if they are not working properly they will produce a hormone called Renin which
helps the kidneys retain more water, water contributes to more useless fluid in the arteries
which will be more full and will lead to hypertension.
Angina- is a chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. The symptoms of angina
are severe chest pain, this pain can also spread to the arms, neck back and jaw, you can
also feel nausea and indigestion. Angina is normally happens when a person does a lot of
physical activity. Angina is a sign of coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease
develops if the blood vessels that carry oxygen to the heart are clogged also fatty materials
like plaque can narrow the blood vessels of the heart (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis can
cause decreased blood flow and oxygen to the heart. Angina also can occur due to the way
that the blood flows to the heart so any anomaly in the heart valves or heart rhythms can
lead to angina.
Stroke- Stroke is a disease that affect persons over 65 years old but can affect people a lot
younger, because the brain need oxygen in order to function a stroke happens when the
blood flow to the brain is cut off and because brain cells need oxygen in order to function
they become damaged if they don't have that supply. The symptoms of a stroke can be
very wide ranging and depends on what part of the brain was affected, the symptoms
could be difficult speaking, drooping face, paralyzed arms or legs, confusion, loss of
balance and memory loss, the effects of a stroke can be reversed if spotted quickly and if
treated early. There are 2 types of strokes ischaemic stroke ( when there is a blockage) and
haemorrhagic stroke (when there is a bleed) both strokes have very different treatments
Ischaemic Stroke- are normally caused by fatty compounds stuck in the blood vessels and
if we have that type of stroke medication will be given to us in order to dissolve the
blockage and is called thrombolysis, also aspirin is good to dissolve blockage in the blood
Haemorrhagic Stroke- This happens when a blood vessel suddenly burst, causing blood to
leak all around the brain which can lead to swelling and will be treated with surgery.
Sometimes the symptoms of stroke can disappear in 24 hours and this is called a mini
stroke, and symptoms only last a few minutes. Mini strokes can lead to major strokes so
you must go to the hospital to be treated and take daily medications.
There are many ways to manage our stress from stress balls to joining social groups etc,
but the best way is sport and here are some of the ways sport can help us reducing stress
in our daily lives and the benefits:
1. Stress relief- after a long day of working at a job that you don’t like with a boss that
you don’t like, with bad pay, and the shop or office is always busy, there is 1000
things to be done and the boss is screaming at you complaining about you
performance and after that you just want to go home and kill yourself but no, sport
will help you to canalize all that bad energy that you have into physical energy and
you will be fine for tomorrow.
2. Improves Sleep- when you exercise you get tired by getting tired you are more likely
to get home and sleep straight instead of staying up late night watching TV, and
when you wake up in the morning you feel a lot better and with more energy.
3. Meeting new people- new people will be able to tell you about their own
experiences and through sport you we able to exchange ideas and later apply on
your daily life.
Alcohol although is one legal drug that change our behavior, reaction and enables the
ability to make wise decisions. Alcohol is a substance that is absorbed by the blood very
quick and has effect every body organ. The short term effects of alcohol can go from:
impaired vision, nausea vomiting, slower reflexes and reactions to lower coordination and
slower heart rate. At the long time rate alcohol will cause brain damage, stroke, addiction,
heart disease, stomach ulcers, liver damage/failure, impotence etc.
Those are some of the diseases that we can have if we consume too much alcohol:
Liver disease- The liver can process very small amounts of alcohol but if alcohol is taken in
large quantities the liver cannot process all the amounts and that will lead to self damage.
When we drink alcohol most of it is sent to the liver to be processed.
When alcohol gets in the liver cells can go 3 ways:
1. Alcohol dehydrogenase- Enzymes that ease the interconnection between alcohols
2. Catalase- Enzyme established in all living beings it catalyzes the decomposition of
hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, very decisive enzyme because conserves
the cell from oxidative damage by reaction to oxygen.
3. Cytochrome- Number of compounds consisting of a haem bonded to a protein.
And no matter which way alcohol goes will later be converted to Acetaldehyde, and later
because ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) needs other enzymes like NAD+ to be converted
and later NAD+ will be converted to NADH this will lead to more fatty acids being produced
because that is the function of NADH. The disease Fatty Liver makes the lives look fat,
yellow, grease and tender due to all fat deposits. The treatment for Fatty Liver disease is
just the cut of consumption of alcohol.
Other disease it's called Alcohol Hepatitis and is formed when reactive oxygen species
react with protein and DNA which is very dangerous to liver cells, and Acetaldehyde which
can bind with all sorts of enzymes and molecules in the body, and it's particularly harmful
when binded with macromolecule, because it will create another molecules called
Acetaldehyde adduct, our immune system will identify this compound as invaders and will
send Neutrophils to aid in the destruction of the invaders all this chemical reactions are
too much for the liver to handle and that's how the disease is formed. This particular
disease will create pain and scars in the liver. The treatment again for this disease it's the
complete cut of consumption of alcohol.
Cirrhosis- This is one Liver disease that is formed when there is a frequent damage of cells.
When cells are injured or die the place where they die becomes fibrotic, the place where
they died becomes thick of protein and scar tissue and if liver is forced to frequently
process alcohol, attack by virus or other causes that can cause prolonged cell destruction
and inflammation, your liver becomes serious scared and damage to a point that is not
reversible and that is called cirrhosis.
The current guidelines on alcohol intake are: both men and women should not exceed 14
unit weekly of alcohol that is equivalent to 1 bootle and half of wine and they should be
spread on a period of 3 days to give your body time to recover and release the alcohol
toxins from the body.
But alcohol can be beneficial to our health if taken in moderate amounts because it will not
damage our body so much because we are not consuming in large amounts giving the
body enough time waste it out of our system:
1. Alcohol has phenols compounds that are used to protect the heart from heart
disease and lower the risk of hypertension.
2. Alcohol can kill mouth bad odors. (vodka)
3. Alcohol help our brain staying sharp because ethanol helps neurons resist to wear
4. Alcohol has antioxidants that can fight aging and increase energy levels.
Physical is the most important thing that we have to do to keep our body in shape and
ready for the daily challenges whether if your job doesn't require or requires a lot of body
movement. Physical activity can be described as any body movement that requires energy,
so movements like running for the bus because we are late (resistance, sprint), quickly
dodge a bug flying (agility), gardening (because you will be crouching, pulling, lifting)
(power, strength), going to the gym they are all physical activity because they all require
energy to be produced. The normal guidelines of physical activity for adults 19 to 64 years
old is 150 min of medium aerobic activity and some strength activities for 2 or 3 days.
If we don't exercise we are in risk of getting illnesses even death and here are some
illnesses connect to low physical activity:
1. Obesity- is just when your body is overweight. Obesity if not treated can lower your
capacity to move independently
2. Type 2 diabetes- When your insulin producing cells can't produce insulin enough to
supply demand of the body
3. Stroke- A stroke is a brain attack. It happens when the blood supply to part of your
brain is cut off.
The benefits of physical activity can't be numbered, physical activity will make feel better,
sleep better, give you more energy throughout the day and even live longer. Here are some
of the benefits of physical activity:
1. Physical activity can prevent overweight or help you maintain it or lose it.
2. Physical activity combat diseases.
3. Exercise releases stress and improves self confidence
4. Exercise increases your energy
5. Exercise is fun and widens your friend circle.