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Historical perspective of education and the curriculum of
Historical Perspective of Education and theCurriculum of the Philippines Leonilita Ferrer-Badillo
The development of curriculum in history is basically founded on five outstanding motives• Religion • Mass education• Political • Excellence in• Utilitarian education
Pre-Spanish Curriculum• Before the coming of the Spaniards, the Filipinos possessed a culture of their own. They had contacts with other foreign people from Arabia, India, China, Indo- China and Borneo.• The diaries of Fr. Chirino attest to the historical facts that “the inhabitants were civilized people, possessing their system of writing, laws and moral standards in a well organized system of government
• They did not have an organized system of education.• They have the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas – their belief in the Bathala, the solidarity of family, the modesty of the women, the children’s obedience and respect for their elders and in the valour of the men.
• Informal education is what they have; ideas and facts were acquired through suggestions, observation, example and imitation. There’s no direct teaching, no formal method of information.• Education was oral, practical and hands- on
Spanish-Devised Curriculum• The Spanish curriculum consisted of 3R’s – reading, writing and religion.• The schools were parochial or convent schools.• The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the catecismo.
• The schools were ungraded and the curriculum organization was separately subject organization• The method of organization was predominantly individual memorization
The American-Devised Curriculum• The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of American and her hierarchy of values• English was the medium of instruction
• The primary curriculum prescribed in 1904 by the Americans for the Filipinos consisted of three grades which provides training in two aspects• Body Training that is consist of singing, drawing, hard word and physical education• Mental Training that is compose of English (reading, writing, conversation, phonetics and spelling), nature study and arithmetic
• In grade III geography and civic were added to the list of the subjects• Intermediate Curriculum consisted of subjects such s arithmetic, geography, science and english science, plant life, physiology and sanitation• Collegiate level, normal schools were opened with a teacher’s training curriculum appropriate for elementary mentors. It’s aim was to replace the soldiers and the Thomasites
• The curriculum organization remained separate subjects• Group method of teaching was adopted• A significant aspect of the American devised curriculum was the prohibition of compulsory religious instruction in the public schools
Commonwealth Curriculum• Also known as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum• American trained Filipino teachers applied in the Philippines the educational reforms they learned from the United States.• The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing courses in farming, trade, business science
• The curriculum for the training of elementary school teachers was expanded by the Bureau of Education by elevating it from the secondary schools to the collegiate level, organizing eight regional normal schools• Commonwealth Act 586, also know as Educational Act of 1940, reorganized the elementary school system by eliminating Grade VII and providing for the double-single session in which elementary pupils attended classes for one- half day only.
Japanese Devised Curriculum• They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nipongo and abolishing English as a medium of instruction and as a subject• All textbook were censored and revised• The Japanese-Devised curriculum caused a blackout in the Philippine education and impeded the educational progress
Liberation Period Curriculum• Great experiments in the community school idea and the use of the vernacular in the first two grades of the primary school as a medium of instruction were some of them• Some reforms were merely extensions of the educational trends in previous decades• Others were implemented in response to circumstances in the culture
• And still others were results of research and experimentation in education and related disciplines• An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine education and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar• The community school concept had for its goal the improvement of pupil and community life through the curriculum
• Due to its successful implementation the community school concept was given official cognizance by the Bureau of Public Schools in June 1949• Another experiment led by Aguilar was the use of the vernacular as a medium of instruction in the first two grades of the primary school. He believed that the primary school would give the pupils a leverage on social, political and economic forces and for those who go through these grades, the vernacular based may promote better learning in English
• The crucial role of instructional materials in the promotion of nationalism is now well organized• According to the responsible education leaders, we are in great need of instructional materials that will give emphasis on the following areas:• The improvement of home industries so that they will be patronized• The appreciation of the services of great men and women of our country• Preservation of our cultural heritage
The Implications For Philippine Education• Education dramatically changed in terms of goals, focus and methodology every new conqueror forcibly took control of our country
Period Goal Focus Method Course of General Study CharacteristicPre Hispanic Era Integration of Customs and Oral Immersion None Not Formal; individuals into traditions community tribes based; no educational system Spanish Era Spread of religion Catechetical Not prescribed; No grade level; Christianity instruction; use flexible; not church based; no of corporal centralized educational punishment; rote system memorization American Era Spread of Academic Democratic Prescribed Formal; Democracy English language English as a uniform; structured; and Literature medium of centralized existence of an instruction educational system Japanese Era Spread of the Principles of the Rote Prescribed; Propaganda tool; New Asian Order New Order memorization; uniform; repressively anti- use of threat and centralized American and punishment anti- British; military-backed existence of an educational system
Education After 1946• When filipinos regain our sovereignty on July 4, 1946 there were no immediate changes instituted in the educational system• In 1955, the Board of National Education, approved a set of new objectives that reflect desire to mold and develop the youth into useful and upright citizens that integrated nationalistic and democracy inspired educational system
The List of Objectives• To inculcate moral and spiritual values inspired by the abiding faith in God• To develop an enlightened, patriotic, useful and upright citizenry in a democratic society• To instill habits of industry and thrift, and to prepare individuals to contribute to the economic development and wise conservation of the nation’s natural resources
• To maintain family solidarity, to improve community life, to perpetuate all that is desirable in our national heritage, and to serve the cause of the world peace.• To promote the sciences, arts and letters for the enrichment of life and the recognition of the dignity of the human person