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Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive development
He was born in Russia on
November 17, 1896 and
died on June 11, 1934 at
the age of 37.
His work began when he
was studying learning and
development to improve
his own teaching.
He wrote on
language, thought, psych
ology of art, learning and
educating students with
His experience, together
with his interest in literature
and his work as a
teacher, led him to
interaction and language
as two central factors in
His theory became known
as Socio-Cultural Theory of
Sociocultural theory of development: emphasizes the
crucial influence that social interactions and
language, embedded within a cultural context, have
on cognitive development.
Vygotsky emphasized that effective
learning happens through participation in
Parents , teachers and other adults in the
learner’s environment all contribute to the
process. They explain, model, assist, give
directions and provide feed back.
Peers, on the other hand, cooperate and
collaborate and enrich the learning
This child is learning
to walk with the
help of a parent.
The parent holds
both hands so the
child doesn’t have
to focus on both
moving her feet.
Soon, this child
will be able to
walk and run by
What are you
(date, salutation, bo
(friendly, formal, etc.
I’m writing a
Mom and dad write
and receive letters.
Language can be viewed as a verbal expression of
Every culture has the words it needs for its lifestyle.
It opens the door for learners to acquire knowledge
that others already have.
It is use to know and understand the world and solve
It serves a social function but it also has an important
individual function. It helps the learner to regulate
and reflect on his own thinking.
I gotta go
S is like a
Zone of Actual Development refer in
which the child may perform at a
certain level of competency and
she/he may not immediately proficient
Zone of Proximal Development refer to
the difference between what the child
accomplish alone and what he/she can
accomplish with guidance of another.
What I can do by myself Zone of Proximal Development:
What I can do with the help
of someone else.
THE LEARNING SPACE
What I cannot do at
refers to the support or assistance that lets the
child accomplish a task he/she cannot
It is not about doing the task for the child while
It is not about doing short cuts for the child.
It should involve the judicious assistance given
by the adult or peer so that the child can
move from the zone of actual to the zone of
Unzipping the lunch bag, opening the food
container and putting straw in the child’s
juice tetra pack for her / him is NOT
When the adult unzips the zipper an inch or
two and then holds the lunch bag still so
that the child can continue to unzip the
lunch bag is SCAFFOLDING.
Loosening the food container lid just a bit
and letting the child open the lid himself is
Leading the straw to the hole and letting
the child put the straw through the tetra
pack is SCAFFOLDING.
Adults and peers are critical to the learning
process through scaffolding .
Assisted learning: providing strategic help
in the initial stages of learning, gradually
diminishing as students gain independence.
Teaching in the Zone—not too hard, not too
easy, but JUST RIGHT.