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Process improvement

integration and intensification

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Process improvement

  1. 1. Process improvement in sulfur industries (Claus process) Prepared by : Nurul Najwa Bte Mustafa SA10100 Noor Azizah Bt Md Jenal SA10101
  2. 2. INTroduction A catalytic chemical process that is used for converting gaseous hydrogen sulphide (H2S) into elemental sulphur (S). The most significant gas desulfurizing process, recoveri ng elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.
  3. 3. Process improvement Related to the development of more efficient technologies. Two type’s most important approaches are i) process integration ii)process intensification.
  4. 4. Process intergration 2 H2S + O2 → S2 + 2 H2O Process Integration does not stop withthe synthesis of process flow sheets forindividual processes. Individual processeswould normally operate as part of anintegrated manufacturing site consisting of a
  5. 5. Process intensification Refers to any chemical engineering development that leads to a substantially smaller, cleaner, and more energy efficient technology
  6. 6. Example Superclaus catalyst A tail gas clean-up process Oxygen Enrichment Of Sulfur Recovery Units (Sru) Partial oxidation
  7. 7. Superclaus Catayst Designed to give complete and highly selective conversion of H2S to elemental sulfur, low formation of SO2, and low sensitivity to water concentrations in the process gas so it has no Claus reaction reactivity. The catalyst consists of active metal oxides on a carrier. Its properties include the following: i. H2S conversion to sulfur higher than 85% ii. not sensitive to excess air, not sensitive to high water concentrations, iii.no CO/H2 oxidation, iv.no formation of COS/CS2,
  8. 8. A tail gas clean-up process to allow the process to increase the conversion An example is the amine-based tailgascean-up process, which reduces all of the sulfur compounds in the tailgas leaving the front-end Claus sulfur plant back to H2S, then uses selective amine absorption to remove the H2S while allowing most of the carbon dioxide to slip by. The H2S and carbon dioxide removed by
  9. 9. Oxygen Enrichment Of Sulfur Recovery Units (Sru) To enrich the combustion air in the Claus burner with oxygen. Because of oxygen enrichment, inert nitrogen is kept out of the Claus plant due to less air flow, so that the gas volume and the pressure drop there are reduced compared with the original operation with air. The pressure difference gained by oxygen enrichment can be used to transport the gas through the subsequent tail-gas cleanup. Can also be used to add more crude-gas-
  10. 10. Cost & benefitsSUPERCLAUS PROCESS To give complete and highly selective conversion of H2S to elemental sulfur, low formation of SO2 and low sensitivity to water concentrations in the process gas. Other than that, higher activities have been achieved with catalysts that provide higher surface areas and macro porosity
  11. 11. Cost & benefitsOxygen Enrichment of Sulfur Recovery Units (Sru) Increased capacity in the Claus plant, so that the sulfur capacity can be increased by up to 100%. Higher flame temperature from the Claus burner, giving better conversion of pollutants, especially of ammonia. Lower volume of gas from the Claus plant that reduces the load on the tail- gas treatment process the cost of implementing SRU oxygen enrichment is only 5-20% of the cost for building a new SRU.
  12. 12. conclusionTo achieve the optimum Claus processdesign for any feed composition, all suitable processes should be fully explored with a process simulator before making design decisions.
  13. 13. referencesi. http://www.chemicalprocessing.co m/articles/2005/452/ii. http://chemengineering.wikispaces. com/Claus+processiii. http://www.iitk.ac.in/che/jpg/pap ersb/full%20papers/S%20- %20122%20.pdfiv. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claus _process