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City Vitals 3.0 (2014) Preview

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City Vitals and City Dividends were first developed by economist Joe Cortright of Impresa, Inc. and CEO + President Lee Fisher's predecessor, Carol Coletta, now VP/Community and National Initiatives for the Knight Foundation. With the expert assistance of our Senior Research Advisors, Dr. Ziona Austrian and Merissa C. Piazza and their team at the Center for Economic Development at Cleveland State University's Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, CEOs for Cities has expanded on the groundbreaking work. Visit ceosforcities.org/cityvitals for more information.

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City Vitals 3.0 (2014) Preview

  1. 1. www.ceosforcities.org CITY VITALS 3.0 CONNECTED CITY INNOVATIVE CITY TALENTED CITY YOUR DISTINCTIVE CITY Cleveland State University Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs Center for Economic Development
  2. 2. Prepared by SENIOR RESEARCH ADVISORS FOR CEOS FOR CITIES: ZIONA AUSTRIAN, PH.D. DIRECTOR MERISSA C. PIAZZA, RESEARCH ASSOCIATE NIKKI GLAZER, RESEARCH ASSISTANT MARCUS NOTARO, RESEARCH ASSISTANT CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY MAXINE GOODMAN LEVIN COLLEGE OF URBAN AFFAIRS CENTER FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1717 EUCLID AVE. CLEVELAND, OHIO, 44115 HTTP://URBAN.CSUOHIO.EDU Designed by Studio Graphique TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 INTRODUCTION BY LEE FISHER: ABOUT CEOS FOR CITIES 8 CITY VITALS INDICATORS 10 C.I.T.Y. 12 METROPOLITAN AREAS 15 THE CONNECTED CITY 16 VOTING 18 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT 20 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 22 TRANSIT USE 24 WALKABILITY 26 INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 28 FOREIGN TRAVEL 30 DATA TRANSFER SPEED 32 BROADBAND ADOPTION RATE 35 THE INNOVATIVE CITY 36 PATENTS 38 VENTURE CAPITAL 40 ENTREPRENEURSHIP 42 SMALL BUSINESS 45 THE TALENTED CITY 46 COLLEGE ATTAINMENT 48 CREATIVE PROFESSIONALS 50 YOUNG & RESTLESS 52 TRADED SECTOR TALENT 54 INTERNATIONAL TALENT 57 YOUR DISTINCTIVE CITY 58 WEIRDNESS INDEX 60 CULTURE/INTERNET RATIO 62 RESTAURANT VARIETY 64 INTERNET SEARCH VARIETY 67 CORE VITALITY 68 PER CAPITA INCOME 70 COLLEGE ATTAINMENT 72 POVERTY 75 METROPOLITAN PERFORMANCE 76 POPULATION 78 PER CAPITA INCOME 80 POVERTY 82 VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED 84 GREENHOUSE GASES 86 APPENDIX 87 CHANGES FROM CITY VITALS 2.0 88 VARIABLE NAMES AND SOURCES 89 RANKINGS 113 REFERENCES 115 SELECTED CEOS FOR CITIES RESEARCH
  3. 3. ABOUT CEOS FOR CITIES At a time when cities and metro regions have become the economic engines of the nation and when the most valuable currency of the new economy is knowledge and ideas, cities must be constantly learning, sharing, and reinventing. No city lacks talent and ideas, but almost every city lacks a vehicle for regularly connecting with talent and ideas outside their own city and a cross-sector vehicle and framework for mobilizing, accelerating, and sustaining action on important goals in their city. The world is moving increasingly fast, resources are increasingly scarce, and challenges are increasingly complex. As a result, the collective impact of leaders from multiple sectors working together to advance city success never has been more essential. None of us is as smart as all of us, and no one sector, discipline, or generation can create sustainable change alone. Sustainable change happens when leaders from different sectors come together to share a vision for change that includes a common understanding and framework for addressing the challenges and opportunities facing their city. Too often, each sector and profession is its own audience, working inside an echo chamber and operating within a narrow frame. CEOs for Cities is a cross-sector city success learning and action network. We connect cross-sector leaders with each other and with the smartest ideas and practices for moving the needle on the four key dimensions of city success — Connections, Innovation, Talent, and Your distinctive assets. We are “civic CEOs”- rather than be self-limited by our name, our inclusive definition of “CEO” honors urban leadership where it happens, regardless of rank, title, or sector. We’re not just Chief Executive Officers. Think Chief Entrepreneurial Officers, Chief Experience Officers, Chief Education Officers, Chief Economic Officers, etc. We believe that given the complex, interconnected problems that cities and regions face, it is critical to first research, frame, and organize work that puts a focusing lens on cities and regions, and helps to see and understand the critical levers for their success. We believe that framing is critically important, because, as Wayne Dyer has noted, “If you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change” (Dyer, W.W., 2009) We believe that the cities that will succeed in the new networked economy are those that: • make their boundaries porous to new ideas and talent; • demonstrate the humility to understand that there is always something more to learn from other cities; • approach their challenges and opportunities with a clear framework; • set measurable, actionable, achievable goals; and • harness collective cross-sector energy to chart a well-informed, collaborative, accelerated path to success. There is no shortage of theories about the secret sauce for city success. Some experts argue that geography matters more than ever and success depends on physical capital and authentic placemaking. Others submit that in a knowledge economy, cities must build human capital and creative talent. Some insist that social capital and economic opportunity ultimately define the soul of a city. Still others predict that the future city is about smart digital capital and harnessing the power of technology. Each of these theories alone is wrong. A successful city must have all of these elements. Cities succeed because they are well-connected, both internally and to the wider world, because they are fertile places for innovation and entrepreneurship, because they nurture, retain, and attract talent, and because each invests in its own distinctive characteristics and strengths. Economic growth and development is about linking and leveraging a city’s distinctive assets of people, place, and opportunity. OUR FOUR CORE ELEMENTS Although this report focuses only on City Vitals, our work is best understood as having four core elements: • We curate smart ideas and benchmark city success through our City Vitals. • We connect cross-sector leaders through our network of City Clusters. • We catalyze collaborative change through our City Dividends. • We accelerate progress through our Dividend Prize Challenges. CITY CLUSTERS A CEOs for Cities City Cluster is a group of cross-sector, cross-generation leaders who join the CEOs for Cities network together as a team. It is a vehicle for regularly connecting cross-sector leaders and ideas between cities, and focusing and accelerating cross-sector work on issues of high importance to your city. The Cluster model helps cities maximize the impact of ongoing local and regional initiatives and enables faster adoption of innovation and the intentional cross-fertilization of ideas within and between cities. We provide the national platform for City Clusters to connect with each other to share successes, challenges, and lessons learned and the latest cutting-edge ideas and practices for city success through our webinars, newsletter, and website. Participating in our workshops and national meetings as a group significantly enhances the chances that you’ll do something with what you learned and explore ways to take some new ideas and customize them to your city. CITY DIVIDENDS A City Dividend is the return on investment for achieving a targeted, measurable, actionable goal toward your city’s economic success. City Dividends are premised on our research and experience that measurable progress, or “moving the needle,” on targeted work can reap huge economic growth dividends for cities, and accelerate and sustain movement on important goals. This theory of action is based on what Harvard Professor Teresa Amabile calls the “progress principle”- the single most important motivator and catalyst of positive action is making progress and showing forward momentum in meaningful work. Small but regular “wins” have a cumulative increase, and can trigger much bigger reactions. (Amabile & Kramer, 2011). We have developed four City Dividends – the Talent, Green, Opportunity, and Health/Diabetes Dividends, and are developing more. Each dividend reflects one small change that leads to a big economic dividend. • The Talent Dividend: A one percentage-point increase in the four-year college attainment rate for the population aged 25 and older in the 51 largest U.S. metropolitan areas means, on average, a $974 increase in annual per capita income for the metropolitan area, totaling an increase of $111 billion for the 51 largest metro areas. • The Green Dividend: If we can reduce the number of vehicle miles traveled per person per day in the 51 largest U.S. metro areas by one mile, these regions would save $35 billion in fuel and the expense of purchasing and maintaining vehicles. • The Opportunity Dividend: A one percentage-point reduction in poverty in the nation’s 51 largest metro areas means government savings of $31 4 5
  4. 4. billion per year – as each additional person in poverty is associated with, on average, over $18,000 in antipoverty expenditures in a metropolitan area. • The Health/ Diabetes Dividend: A one percentage point decrease in the diabetic population in the nation’s 51 largest metro areas means a savings in medical and other costs, on average, of $1,070 for each person in the metropolitan area, totaling an economic savings of $1.2 billion per year in the largest 51 metro areas. DIVIDEND PRIZE CHALLENGES CEOs for Cities’ highly successful $1 million Talent Dividend Prize, funded by the Kresge and Lumina Foundations in partnership with Living Cities, helped to catalyze, motivate, and accelerate work on the goal of college completion in 57 American cities competing to achieve the greatest increase in college degree completion over a three-year period. That’s why we launched the City Dividend Prize Challenge. We have found that a city dividend, powered by a prize challenge, can be a strong catalyst for convening stakeholders from different sectors around a common agenda and set of metrics for addressing an important challenge. The Prize Challenge provides a powerful incentive to achieve a targeted city dividend and accelerates progress by shining a bright light on the opportunity. CITY VITALS 3.0 City Vitals and City Dividends were first developed by economist Joe Cortright of Impresa, Inc. and my predecessor, Carol Coletta, now VP/Community and National Initiatives for the Knight Foundation. With the expert assistance of our Senior Research Advisors, Dr. Ziona Austrian and Merissa C. Piazza and their team at the Center for Economic Development at Cleveland State University’s Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, we have expanded on their groundbreaking work. The four letters that make up the word ‘city’ spell out the genetic code of urban success: Connections, Innovation, Talent, and Your distinctiveness. Using 30 different indicators, we analyze these four key dimensions to economic success in the 130 largest metropolitan areas of the United States. These are what we call City Vitals. EVERY CITY MUST ASK THESE FOUR CRITICAL QUESTIONS: 1. Connected City: How do we connect our physical, human, social, and digital capital? 2. Innovative City: How do we foster a culture and ecosystem of innovation and entrepreneurship? 3. Talented City: How do we educate, develop, retain, attract, train, employ, and deploy our talent? 4. Your Distinctive City: How do we find our authentic voice? Our DNA? How do we link and leverage our distinctive assets of people, place, and opportunity? We know that there is no one recipe for success, no single path for cities to follow. As CEOs for Cities argued in our research report City Success: Theories of Urban Prosperity, city leaders ought to think about elements of success as an artist would view a color palette. Each city is different and needs a different blend. It’s not enough simply to check boxes off a checklist. We understand that data are only a piece of the city success story. There are, as is often the case, limitations to the data. It has become fashionable to rate and rank cities as most livable or best for business or best for some activity or demographic group. High rankings are a source for celebration and marketing. Low rankings tend to be disputed or ignored. It is important to note that we have not made any attempt to add these various measures together to generate some overall ranking. Such combinations, in our opinion, are arbitrary and frequently obscure useful information rather than reveal insights. City Vitals 3.0 is not a collection of “best and worst of” lists. It is not a set of value judgments. It is certainly not intended to be viewed in a vacuum. Each metropolitan region is different, and can reasonably expect to have different opportunities and challenges than other metropolitan areas. The intent of our research is to provide a set of tools for exploring the performance of your city and metro region. We have compiled data in each of these four key areas of city success to illuminate and better define the discussion of what it takes to build a successful city and metropolitan economy. The future belongs to those cities and regions who can frame their opportunities and challenges, act in ways that demonstrate measurable progress, and connect and collaborate with the smartest people and the smartest ideas in the most places and in the most ways. City Vitals is an important component of our mission to, in the words of Steve Jobs, “…tear down walls, build bridges, and light fires” (Jobs, 2011). Lee Fisher President and CEO CEOs for Cities Lfisher@ceosforcities.org 6 7
  5. 5. THE CITY VITALS INDICATORS The Connected City As Edward Glaeser notes in Triumph of the City “… our ability to connect with each other is the defining characteristic of our species.” We know that cities thrive as places where people can live, work, play, and connect. Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, likened the art form of a city to “an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole.” It is through these connections that regions prosper. Internal connections among residents and firms, and external connections with the global economy are essential for a city’s prosperity and vitality. There are numerous ways cities connect, from physical connections (roads, airports, railroad), to virtual connections, to interpersonal connections. We measure the Connected City by examining voter participation, community involvement, economic integration, transit use, walkability, foreign students, foreign travel, and internet connectivity. T he Innovative City Innovation and generation of new ideas play an important role in regional economic growth and prosperity. Many factors, including but not limited to the aggregation of talent, clusters of innovative firms, key research institutions, and a business and social culture amenable to change and risk-taking, have been found to be correlated with a city/region’s potential for generating new ideas. Regional competitiveness is based on the fact that generating new ideas is not evenly distributed across space. Invisible and weightless, ideas cannot be measured directly, but the footprints they leave in the economic landscape can be traced by measuring the number of patents, the amount of venture capital, the number of the self-employed, and the number of small businesses. The Talented City As Ed Glaeser notes in Trumph of the City, “all great cities have something in common…(they) attract smart people and help them to work collaboratively.” The indispensable asset in a knowledge-based economy is human capital—especially a region’s ability to grow, retain, and attract a well-educated, skilled workforce. The Great Recession has underscored the importance of talent to economic success. Better-educated metropolitan areas saw smaller increases in unemployment in the depths of the recession, and most of the job growth in the recovery has been among better-educated workers. The relationship between higher education and income also holds for cities. Many cities with a more-educated workforce have higher personal income while a lower personal income is often correlated with a less-educated workforce. We measure the Talented City by analyzing college attainment, abundance of creative professionals, percentage of the population that is young and well-educated (young and the restless), size of the private sector workforce, and international talent. Metropolitan Performance CEOs for Cities works with cross-sector urban leaders and policy makers to benchmark and accelerate their city’s and region’s economic performance. In order to measure metropolitan performance, we present five measures that reflect the four dimensions of success outlined in City Vitals; these dimensions are connections, innovations, talent, and your distinctiveness. The five performance measures included in Metropolitan Performance are population, per capita income, poverty rates, vehicle miles traveled, and greenhouse gas emissions. Your Distinctive City The unique characteristics of place may be the only truly defensible source of regional competitive advantage. While globalization has allowed regions to connect more frequently and efficiently with faraway places, regions understand that it is important to be unique, distinctive, and authentic while maintaining a global presence. Regions that create their own distinctively authentic cities and identities create a sense of place and a brand that can transcend their own advocacy efforts. As Dolly Parton notes, “Find out who you are and do it on purpose” (Parton, n.d.). There are many dimensions to distinctiveness and each city has its own set of unique characteristics, so it may be difficult to compare adequately metropolitan areas and cities on distinctiveness. We measure the Distinctive City using four indicators: the weirdness index, culture, internet search variety, and ethnic restaurant options. Core Vitality The success of a regional economy heavily depends on the vitality of its urban core or central city. Vibrant metropolitan areas have strong centers that are hubs of economic, social, cultural, and recreational activities. Strong cities attract talent, foster creativity and innovation, and appeal to business startups. Conversely, metropolitan areas with weak central cities have lower economic performance. An assessment of the vitality of the urban core is conducted by analyzing a series of measurements illustrating the performance of the core. Here, we define the urban core as the central city as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau Principal City. We use three performance indicators to measure Core Vitality: income, college attainment, and poverty. 8 9
  6. 6. C.I.T.Y. CEOs for Cities has identified four essential characteristics that underlie economic prosperity. In a sense, the four letters that make up the word “city’’ spell out the genetic code of city and regional economic success: Connections, Innovation, Talent, and Your Distinctiveness. City Vitals 3.0 contains 30 variables for the 130 largest metropolitan areas in the United States that define the four areas of a city’s performance—connections, innovation, talent, and your distinctiveness. Our analysis recognizes that there are limitations to the data and that there is no one recipe for success, so we purposely avoid any overall ranking from best to worst. As Albert Einstein said “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” (as quoted in Kaufmann, 2003: 5). However, these data do provide a means for cities and regions to assess certain relative strengths and weaknesses against their peers nationally. City Vitals 3.0 is a benchmarking tool for practitioners, policy makers, city leadership, and engaged citizens to monitor the economic performance of their city and region and engage in “intelligent benchmarking” - comparing oneself to others to provide support for investment and policy decisions (Malecki, 2007). More and more metropolitan areas are becoming the change makers for economic and social change in the United States. With more people living in cities and metro regions than ever before, municipal governments have unique leverage to change positively their regions and citizens’ lives. In their book, Metropolitan Revolution, Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley note that with the U.S. government entrenched in disagreement and dysfunction, regions are at the forefront of innovation and connectivity with each other and the globe. They go on to emphasize that metropolitan areas can be economic players, innovate locally, network globally, and advocate nationally. City Vitals 3.0 honors and highlights the performance and importance of our nation’s metropolitan regions and their cities through their connections, innovations, talent, and distinctiveness. By ascertaining what is important to your community and evaluating it through metrics, regions can “move the needle” and create a better, more prosperous region – however defined. Variables are computed at the city or metropolitan level, where available. These 130 metropolitan areas are regions that have a population greater than 400,000. For more information on the methodology and how City Vitals 3.0 differs from City Vitals 2.0, see the Appendix. 10 11
  7. 7. LARGEST 130 METROPOLITAN AREAS Akron, OH Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Albuquerque, NM Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Asheville, NC Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX Bakersfield-Delano, CA Baltimore-Towson, MD Baton Rouge, LA Birmingham-Hoover, AL Boise City-Nampa, ID Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT Brownsville-Harlingen, TX Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Canton-Massillon, OH Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC Chattanooga, TN-GA Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH Colorado Springs, CO Columbia, SC Columbus, OH Corpus Christi, TX Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Dayton, OH Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI Durham-Chapel Hill, NC El Paso, TX Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Flint, MI Fort Wayne, IN Fresno, CA Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI Greensboro-High Point, NC Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Honolulu, HI Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX Huntsville, AL Indianapolis-Carmel, IN Jackson, MS Jacksonville, FL Kansas City, MO-KS Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX Knoxville, TN Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL Lancaster, PA Lansing-East Lansing, MI Las Vegas-Paradise, NV Lexington-Fayette, KY Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN Madison, WI Manchester-Nashua, NH McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX Memphis, TN-MS-AR Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Mobile, AL Modesto, CA Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN New Haven-Milford, CT New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA New York-N. New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL Ogden-Clearfield, UT Oklahoma City, OK Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ Pittsburgh, PA Port St. Lucie, FL Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA Provo-Orem, UT Raleigh-Cary, NC Reading, PA Reno-Sparks, NV Richmond, VA Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Rochester, NY Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Roseville, CA Salinas, CA Salt Lake City, UT San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Shreveport-Bossier City, LA Spokane, WA Springfield, MA Springfield, MO St. Louis, MO-IL Stockton, CA Syracuse, NY Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Toledo, OH Tucson, AZ Tulsa, OK Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Visalia-Porterville, CA Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Wichita, KS Winston-Salem, NC Worcester, MA York-Hanover, PA Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 12 13
  8. 8. Appendix For the reader’s convenience, this appendix includes a discussion on the changes from City Vitals 2.0, and a list of the variable names and data sources used in City Vitals 3.0. The appendix also provides all of the data in each of our City Vitals indicators grouped according to each of the four dimensions—connections, innovation, talent, your distinctiveness—plus core vitality and metropolitan performance. Cities are listed alphabetically so the reader can easily identify data for individual cities. CHANGES FROM CITY VITALS 2.0 This is the third iteration of City Vitals. The first report published in 2006 and the second in 2012, both identified trends in the largest 51 metropolitan areas (Cortright, 2006; Cortright, 2012). This report extended the list of metro areas to include the 130 largest metro areas in the nation. These 130 metropolitan areas are regions that have a population greater than 400,000 based upon the 2010 Decennial Census Population. This report uses the most recent data available for the metropolitan areas. In addition, City Vitals 3.0 has an additional variable raising the total variables (also referred to as indicators) to 30. Caution is required when comparing City Vitals 2.0 to City Vitals 3.0 since some of the metropolitan geographic boundaries may have changed. DATA We used the same data sources in City Vitals 3.0 as were used in City Vitals 2.0. For almost all variables, we updated the data to incorporate the most current year available and to extend the cohort to 130 metro areas. Due to problems with data availability, data sources were changed from City Vitals 2.0 for Internet Connectivity, Venture Capital, and Restaurant Variety. JiWire, the source used for internet connectivity of Wi-Fi hotspots in City Vitals 2.0 was no longer available; therefore, Net Index was used to compare metropolitan internet download speeds. The variable, Broadband, was added to City Vitals 3.0 (making the new total 30 variables) to measure a metropolitan area’s broadband adoption rate. Moreover, in City Vitals 3.0 we modified the Culture/HDTV Ratio variable used in City Vitals 2.0 to Culture/Internet Ratio since the variable “households that have a high definition television receiver” was no longer published by SRDS. The Core Vitality section is based upon the principal city as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau in this document, rather than the computational method used in City Vitals 2.0, which used a 3-mile area around the central business district, using the Geographic Information System (GIS) GEOGRAPHY The unit of analysis for most variables is that of the metropolitan area. Metropolitan areas are defined as Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and are geographically delineated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)2. The variable Vehicle Miles Traveled is based on Federal-Aid Urban Areas (FAUA)3, which feature boundaries different from those used in MSAs. FAUAs are comprised of only urban areas, while MSAs follow county lines, which include both urban and rural areas. A conversion method was developed to match FAUAs to MSAs as closely as possible, but it is important to note that the regions are not an exact match, and many rural areas found within MSA counties are not factored into the average daily vehicle miles of travel. For continuity, the MSA names are still used when describing the Green Dividend. Data from SRDS (variables: foreign travel, weirdness index, and culture/ internet ratio) and Scarborough Research (variable: community involvement) are only available by Designated Market Area (DMA) rather than the metropolitan area. DMAs are a geographic area used by market research firms to define a media market. These areas are geographically larger than metro areas; therefore, some metro areas have the same value because they are located in the same DMA. 2 MSAs are associated with at least one urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000, comprised of the central county/counties (or equivalent entities) containing the core, plus adjacent, outlying counties having a high degree of social and economic integration with the central county/counties as measured through commuting. For more information: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/doc/sf1.pdf. 3 FAUAs are adjusted urban area boundaries allowed for transportation purposes. These boundaries extend US Census Bureau Urbanized Area and Urban Cluster boundaries outward, which include, at a minimum, 2,500 persons with a population density. For more information: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/processes/statewide/related/highway_ functional_classifications/section00.cfm. 86 87
  9. 9. 116 © 2014 CEOs for Cities. All Rights Reserved. www.ceosforcities.org

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