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# Total station

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### Total station

1. 1. The introduction and applications of TOTAL STATION (Leica TS02/06/09) LUONG BAO BINH Dept. of Geomatics Engineering University of Technology, HCMC, VN
2. 2. Contents • Introduction – Fundamental measurements – Why is the total station? – Modern technologies • Basic functions – Target offset – Height transfer – Hidden point – Check tie 2
3. 3. Contents (cont.) • Applications – Surveying & Traverse – Stake out – Free station – Reference line & Reference arc – Tie distance – Area and volume – Remote height – Coordinate geometry calculations – Road 2D and 3D 3
4. 4. Fundamental measurements Angle with theodolites Leveling with levels Distance with tape or EDM Should we combine them in an instrument? 4
5. 5. Why is the total station? • Problem: in practice, not only individual measurements but also the combinations of measurements and the calculations are required for many tasks. • Solution: the total station Electronic Total + EDM + Firmware = theodolite station 5
6. 6. Advantages of total station • All-in-one instrument for multi-task • Reliable and highly accurate • Integrated applications available for many common tasks • Automatic and easy in data storage and transfer • A complete procedure from surveying to map plotting is available with appropriate softwares 6
7. 7. Accuracy and range Prism mode 7
8. 8. Accuracy and range Non-prism mode 8
9. 9. Modern technologies • Reflectorless (non-prism mode) • Integrated GPS (smart station) • Auto tracking (robotic) 9
10. 10. Integrated GPS 10
11. 11. Integrated GPS 11
12. 12. Basic functions • Target offset • Height transfer • Hidden point • Check tie 12
13. 13. Target offset Determines the target point P2 from: _ the offset point P1 and _ two distances: traverse offset and length offset 13
14. 14. Cylinder offset Determines the center P1 and radius R from _ three points on the border 14
15. 15. Height transfer Determines the instrument height at P0 from: _ the point(s) Pi with known height(s) 15
16. 16. Hidden point Determines the hidden point P1 from: _ two points 1 and 2, and _ distances d1 & d2 on the rod 16
17. 17. Check tie Calculates from 2 measured points P1 & P2:: _ slope and horizontal distance _ azimuth _ grade _ height difference _ coordinates diference 17
18. 18. Applications • Traverse and Surveying • Stake out • Free station • Reference line & Reference arc • Area and volume • Remote height • Coordinate geometry calculations • Road 2D & 3D 18
19. 19. Traverse • Helmet transformation • Adjustment • Checking point and tolerance • Start the traverse with or without known backsight • Measure sideshot 19
20. 20. Traverse 20
21. 21. Traverse 21
22. 22. Stake out Polar mode Orthogonal mode Cartesian mode 22
23. 23. Free station Determines the instrument position P0 from at least 2 known points Pi 23
24. 24. Reference line • Reference Line is an application that facilitates the easy stake out or checking of lines, for example, for buildings, sections of road, or simple excavations. It allows the user to define a reference line and then complete the following tasks with respect to that line: – Line & offset – Point & Grid stake out – Line segmentation stake out 24
25. 25. Base line Base line is defined by 2 points which can be: _ measured, or _ entered / selected from memory 25
26. 26. Reference line Reference line is created by: _ parallel / longitudinal offset _ rotated from base line / base point 26
27. 27. Line & offset to calculate: _ offsets _ height difference of target point relative to ref. line 27
28. 28. Stake out Grid stake out Point stake out 28
29. 29. Line segmentation stake out 29
30. 30. Reference arc • Line & offset • Stake out: – Point – Arc – Chord – Angle 30
31. 31. Reference arc 31
32. 32. Line & offset 32
33. 33. Stake out (point & angle) 33
34. 34. Stake out (arc & chord) 34
35. 35. Tie distance Polynomial method 35
36. 36. Tie distance Radial method 36
37. 37. Area 37
38. 38. Volume 38
39. 39. Remote height to compute points (without prism) directly above the base prism 39
40. 40. Geometry calculations • Inverse and Traverse • Intersection • Offset • Extension 40
41. 41. Inverse to calculate: _ distance _ direction _ height difference _ grade between 2 known points 41
42. 42. Traverse to calculate the position of a new point using: _ distance _ bearing from a known points 42
43. 43. Intersections Bearing-Bearing Bearing-Distance (2 lines) (a line & a circle) 43
44. 44. Intersections By Points Distance-Distance (4 points on 2 lines) (2 circles) 44
45. 45. Offsets Distance-offset Set point Plane offset 45
46. 46. Extension to calculate the extended point from a known base line 46

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