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The introduction and applications of
        TOTAL STATION
       (Leica TS02/06/09)
            LUONG BAO BINH
     Dept....
Contents

• Introduction
  – Fundamental measurements
  – Why is the total station?
  – Modern technologies
• Basic functi...
Contents (cont.)

• Applications
  –   Surveying & Traverse
  –   Stake out
  –   Free station
  –   Reference line & Refe...
Fundamental measurements
Angle with theodolites      Leveling with levels




                         Distance with tape ...
Why is the total station?
• Problem: in practice, not only individual
  measurements but also the combinations
  of measur...
Advantages of total station
• All-in-one instrument for multi-task
• Reliable and highly accurate
• Integrated application...
Accuracy and range
   Prism mode




                     7
Accuracy and range
 Non-prism mode




                     8
Modern technologies
• Reflectorless (non-prism mode)
• Integrated GPS (smart station)
• Auto tracking (robotic)




      ...
Integrated GPS




                 10
Integrated GPS




                 11
Basic functions
•   Target offset
•   Height transfer
•   Hidden point
•   Check tie




                                12
Target offset




Determines the target point P2 from:
_ the offset point P1 and
_ two distances: traverse offset and leng...
Cylinder offset

Determines the center P1
and radius R from
_ three points on the border




                             ...
Height transfer

Determines the instrument height at P0 from:
_ the point(s) Pi with known height(s)




                 ...
Hidden point




Determines the hidden point P1 from:
_ two points 1 and 2, and
_ distances d1 & d2 on the rod         16
Check tie




Calculates from 2 measured points P1 & P2::
_ slope and horizontal distance
_ azimuth
_ grade
_ height diffe...
Applications
•   Traverse and Surveying
•   Stake out
•   Free station
•   Reference line & Reference arc
•   Area and vol...
Traverse
• Helmet transformation
• Adjustment
• Checking point and tolerance
• Start the traverse with or without known
  ...
Traverse




           20
Traverse




           21
Stake out
Polar mode   Orthogonal mode   Cartesian mode




                                            22
Free station
Determines the instrument position P0 from at least 2 known points Pi




                                   ...
Reference line
• Reference Line is an application that facilitates
  the easy stake out or checking of lines, for
  exampl...
Base line
Base line is defined by 2 points
which can be:
_ measured, or
_ entered / selected from memory




             ...
Reference line




Reference line is created by:
_ parallel / longitudinal offset
_ rotated
from base line / base point   ...
Line & offset
 to calculate:
 _ offsets
 _ height difference
 of target point relative to ref. line




                  ...
Stake out



Grid stake out




                 Point stake out   28
Line segmentation stake out




                              29
Reference arc
• Line & offset
• Stake out:
  – Point
  – Arc
  – Chord
  – Angle



                             30
Reference arc




                31
Line & offset




                32
Stake out (point & angle)




                            33
Stake out (arc & chord)




                          34
Tie distance
Polynomial method




                    35
Tie distance
Radial method




                36
Area




       37
Volume




     38
Remote height

       to compute points (without prism)
          directly above the base prism




                      ...
Geometry calculations
•   Inverse and Traverse
•   Intersection
•   Offset
•   Extension




                             ...
Inverse




to calculate:
_ distance
_ direction
_ height difference
_ grade
between 2 known points

                     ...
Traverse
           to calculate the position
           of a new point using:
           _ distance
           _ bearing
...
Intersections
Bearing-Bearing              Bearing-Distance
   (2 lines)                 (a line & a circle)




         ...
Intersections
                            By Points
Distance-Distance      (4 points on 2 lines)
    (2 circles)




     ...
Offsets



Distance-offset      Set point   Plane offset




                                          45
Extension
to calculate the extended point
    from a known base line




                                      46
Road 2D




      47
Road 3D
Quadratic Parabola




                           48
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  1. 1. The introduction and applications of TOTAL STATION (Leica TS02/06/09) LUONG BAO BINH Dept. of Geomatics Engineering University of Technology, HCMC, VN
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction – Fundamental measurements – Why is the total station? – Modern technologies • Basic functions – Target offset – Height transfer – Hidden point – Check tie 2
  3. 3. Contents (cont.) • Applications – Surveying & Traverse – Stake out – Free station – Reference line & Reference arc – Tie distance – Area and volume – Remote height – Coordinate geometry calculations – Road 2D and 3D 3
  4. 4. Fundamental measurements Angle with theodolites Leveling with levels Distance with tape or EDM Should we combine them in an instrument? 4
  5. 5. Why is the total station? • Problem: in practice, not only individual measurements but also the combinations of measurements and the calculations are required for many tasks. • Solution: the total station Electronic Total + EDM + Firmware = theodolite station 5
  6. 6. Advantages of total station • All-in-one instrument for multi-task • Reliable and highly accurate • Integrated applications available for many common tasks • Automatic and easy in data storage and transfer • A complete procedure from surveying to map plotting is available with appropriate softwares 6
  7. 7. Accuracy and range Prism mode 7
  8. 8. Accuracy and range Non-prism mode 8
  9. 9. Modern technologies • Reflectorless (non-prism mode) • Integrated GPS (smart station) • Auto tracking (robotic) 9
  10. 10. Integrated GPS 10
  11. 11. Integrated GPS 11
  12. 12. Basic functions • Target offset • Height transfer • Hidden point • Check tie 12
  13. 13. Target offset Determines the target point P2 from: _ the offset point P1 and _ two distances: traverse offset and length offset 13
  14. 14. Cylinder offset Determines the center P1 and radius R from _ three points on the border 14
  15. 15. Height transfer Determines the instrument height at P0 from: _ the point(s) Pi with known height(s) 15
  16. 16. Hidden point Determines the hidden point P1 from: _ two points 1 and 2, and _ distances d1 & d2 on the rod 16
  17. 17. Check tie Calculates from 2 measured points P1 & P2:: _ slope and horizontal distance _ azimuth _ grade _ height difference _ coordinates diference 17
  18. 18. Applications • Traverse and Surveying • Stake out • Free station • Reference line & Reference arc • Area and volume • Remote height • Coordinate geometry calculations • Road 2D & 3D 18
  19. 19. Traverse • Helmet transformation • Adjustment • Checking point and tolerance • Start the traverse with or without known backsight • Measure sideshot 19
  20. 20. Traverse 20
  21. 21. Traverse 21
  22. 22. Stake out Polar mode Orthogonal mode Cartesian mode 22
  23. 23. Free station Determines the instrument position P0 from at least 2 known points Pi 23
  24. 24. Reference line • Reference Line is an application that facilitates the easy stake out or checking of lines, for example, for buildings, sections of road, or simple excavations. It allows the user to define a reference line and then complete the following tasks with respect to that line: – Line & offset – Point & Grid stake out – Line segmentation stake out 24
  25. 25. Base line Base line is defined by 2 points which can be: _ measured, or _ entered / selected from memory 25
  26. 26. Reference line Reference line is created by: _ parallel / longitudinal offset _ rotated from base line / base point 26
  27. 27. Line & offset to calculate: _ offsets _ height difference of target point relative to ref. line 27
  28. 28. Stake out Grid stake out Point stake out 28
  29. 29. Line segmentation stake out 29
  30. 30. Reference arc • Line & offset • Stake out: – Point – Arc – Chord – Angle 30
  31. 31. Reference arc 31
  32. 32. Line & offset 32
  33. 33. Stake out (point & angle) 33
  34. 34. Stake out (arc & chord) 34
  35. 35. Tie distance Polynomial method 35
  36. 36. Tie distance Radial method 36
  37. 37. Area 37
  38. 38. Volume 38
  39. 39. Remote height to compute points (without prism) directly above the base prism 39
  40. 40. Geometry calculations • Inverse and Traverse • Intersection • Offset • Extension 40
  41. 41. Inverse to calculate: _ distance _ direction _ height difference _ grade between 2 known points 41
  42. 42. Traverse to calculate the position of a new point using: _ distance _ bearing from a known points 42
  43. 43. Intersections Bearing-Bearing Bearing-Distance (2 lines) (a line & a circle) 43
  44. 44. Intersections By Points Distance-Distance (4 points on 2 lines) (2 circles) 44
  45. 45. Offsets Distance-offset Set point Plane offset 45
  46. 46. Extension to calculate the extended point from a known base line 46
  47. 47. Road 2D 47
  48. 48. Road 3D Quadratic Parabola 48
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