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Eastern Europe After the Cold War

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Eastern Europe After the Cold War

  1. 1. East EuropeAfter the Cold War
  2. 2. Berlin Wall-Separated East Berlin and West Berlin for 28 years, just as the Inner German Border separated East Germany and West Germany-Soviet Union controlled East Germany and East Berlin, making East Germany and East Berlin under communist control
  3. 3. Reasons for fall of Berlin Wall-Economic slump of the 1980s due to decline of stocks-Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 22.6% in October 1987-Most of Eastern Europe was hit hard by the economic decline after the Cold War, including Germany
  4. 4. Erich Honecker, Leader of East Germany, Erich Honecker
  5. 5. Oppression of Honeckers Regime-Erich Honecker: German Socialist Politician leader who ruled East Germany-He did not accept any reforms as proposed by the people-Imprisoned anybody who criticized the government-Killed anybody who tried to leave East Germany, over a hundred people killed while attempting escape-People were not allowed to express opinions or leave East Germany
  6. 6. Opposition of Honeckers regimecont..-Honecker refused to make reforms in East Germany-Large demonstrations made in summer and fall of 1989 to protest the regime-One of the major protests was the Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig (1989)-Honecker and his regime lost power to the masses who resisted them-As of November 1989, the government of East Germany had no legitimate power and by
  7. 7. Video of the fall of the Berlin WallThe fall of the Berlin Wall united families who have been separated for 28 years
  8. 8. Photos of the fall of the Berlin Wall
  9. 9. Fall of Berlin Wall SummaryLong term causes: Economic depression in the 1980s and oppression of Honeckers regimeImmediate causes: Pressure of people in protests and pressure from other countries, such as the United StatesMotivations and Perceptions: Honecker and the East German government wanted to improve housing and goods of the country. By this point in 1990, East Germany was relying too much on West Germany to carry on as their own self-sufficient country.
  10. 10. Fall of the Berlin Wall Summarycont..Events: Mass protests, Monday Demonstrations, fall of the Berlin wall, Germanys unificationEffects:-July 1990: Economies of West and East Germany merge-Political unification accomplished in Germany-After the fall of the Berlin Wall, democratic reforms began in Eastern Europe. Communist control declines
  11. 11. Map of Czechoslovakia
  12. 12. Velvet Revolution-The Velvet Revolution took place in Czechoslovakia in 1989-Lead by intellectuals who wanted to get rid of the communist government-Mass protests were staged in order to do this-Human rights activist Vaclav Havel lead thisrevolution
  13. 13. Vaclav HavelLeader of the VelvetRevolution
  14. 14. Prague Demonstrations-Large protests were organized in Prague in order to get rid of the communist government-A peaceful protest in Prague on November 17, 1989 was violently suppressed by riot police, which sparked anger by protesters-Gustav Husak, the president, ordered army to suppress the rioters.-From November 19 to December, more protesters gathered in Prague.-General strike called for all citizens to meet on November 27 in Prague. (200,000 protesters in November, 500,000 in
  15. 15. Prague Protest Photo taken November 27, 1989
  16. 16. Velvet Revolution cont..-After protests, large meetings were held in order to convey peoples demands to the government-Vaclav Havel started the Civic Forum and Public Against Violence, which were organizations that tried to overthrow the communist regime in the country.-The Czechoslovakian government replaced high ranking officials in an attempt to satisfy the people
  17. 17. End of Velvet Revolution-Ultimately this was not radical enough-Communist government slowly declined-December 10, 1989 president Gustav Husak resigned-Vaclav Havel elected as nations president-Alexander Dubcek, leader of Prague Spring, was elected speaker of the Assembly
  18. 18. Summary of Velvet RevolutionLong term causes:-Czechoslovakias rulers built up heavy industryand the economy-Ignored agriculture and production ofconsumer goods-This lead to food shortages, scarce housing,and poor-quality consumer goods.Short term causes:-Mass Prague demonstrations
  19. 19. Summary of Velvet RevolutionMotivations and Perceptions of the protesters:- Protesters felt that their human rights, freedom, and prosperity were being neglected by the government.-Felt that they needed democracy in order to grant them rights-Did not like the oppressive regime
  20. 20. Summary of the Velvet RevolutionMotivation and Perceptions of the communists:- Government of Czechoslovakia were extremely loyal to the USSR-They felt that they needed to follow example of USSR and stress building of heavy industry and economic development-Felt that it would be the best for the country and increase power-To maintain communism they felt they had to take necessary measures to maintain it (even
  21. 21. Summary of Velvet RevolutionEvents:- Prague demonstrations, resignation of Gustav HusakEffects:-Transformed Czechoslovakia into a democratic government-Another sign of decline of communism in the world
  22. 22. Breakup of Czechoslovakia-Less than 3 years after the Velvet Revolution, Czechs and Slovaks agreed to form two new nations, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This dissolution was called the Velvet Divorce.-Czechs and the Slovaks disagreed on political parties and how the government should be run.-The Czechs voted mainly for the ODS party-The Slovaks voted mainly for the HDZS party
  23. 23. Czech Republic and Slovakia-December 31, 1992 Czechoslovakia split into Czech Republic and Slovakia-Czech Republic was led by prime minister Vaclav Klaus-Slovakia was led by Vladimir Meciar
  24. 24. Map of Yugoslavia
  25. 25. Breakup of Yugoslavia-The breakup of Yugoslavia refers to a series of events between 1990 and 1997-Strong nationalistic feelings and political problems led to the countries breakup-Different rivalries and fighting between ethnic groups within the country added tension-The death of communist Yugoslav leader Josip Tito and the fall of communism left the country in chaos with different ethnic groups in Yugoslavia fighting over land and power
  26. 26. Bosnian War-Within the years 1992-1995-Conflict in Bosnia in which Bosnian Serbsmurdered and destroyed homes of Non-Serbs-Muslims, Croats, and other Non-Serbs were targeted-Croats and Non-Serbs fought back against the Serbs-Serbians received most of the blame for the war
  27. 27. Ethnic Cleansing-Policy by the Serbs to get rid of any other ethnicities from Bosnia-Non-Serbs were forced to leave Bosnia, somemurdered-Concentration camps also set up by Serbs toget rid of other ethnicities-Croats and Muslims also did ethnic cleansing on Serbs
  28. 28. Kosovo Rebellion-Violent struggle between Serbs and Albanians who both claimed rights to the Kosovo region-Guerrilla warfare, merciless killings, and burning of homes were tactics-Kosovo wanted an independent state-The fighting was so bad in Kosovo that NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was forced to intervene
  29. 29. NATO intervention-Nato threatened leaders in Kosovo that if they did not withdraw troops and make peace, there would be a NATO airstrike-Serbian troops withdrawn, but shortly after fighting picked up again-NATO then warned fighting groups that if they did not reach an agreement, then they would send troops in to stop the fighting-In 1999, the US president Bill Clinton sent 27,000 troops to implement peace