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SMWP. day two_ppt_ERWC.Oceanside7-11.lps.2.14.final

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ERWC Day 2 with Oceanside 7-11 on Feb. 11, 2014

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SMWP. day two_ppt_ERWC.Oceanside7-11.lps.2.14.final

  1. 1. Middle School Professional Learning: Expository Reading and Writing Modules
  2. 2. Overview of our three days together December 11, 2013 February 11, 2014 February 25, 2014 Overview and background of ERWC Debrief homework; Debrief homework; Review ERWC outcomes Status check Alignment of the CCSS standards and ERWC outcomes What writers need, effective writing practice and writing argument Integration of reading and writing to support academic literacy Effective readers, academic literacy, close reading Continued work with academic literacy Differentiating ERWC for ELs, SPED, and advanced learners Experience with a module and the assignment template Adapting the assignment template to your own curriculum Planning time 2
  3. 3. Agenda: February 11, 2014  Debrief of “homework” Laurie & Erika  What writers need, effective writing practice Laurie & Erika – Supporting the development of habits of mind  Argument in writing Laurie  Academic literacy, close reading, text complexity Erika – Connections to the Assignment Template  Examination of an 8th grade module: Social Networking Erika  Adapting the assignment template to your own curriculum Erika  Homework: Teach all or part of one of the existing modules – OR Adapt one of your current unit’s to the Assignment Template 3
  4. 4. Writing in the Common Core Writing activities and assignments should be designed with genuine purposes and audiences in mind in order to foster flexibility and rhetorical versatility. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, co-authored by the Council of Writing Program Administrators, NCTE and NWP, as quoted in the Content Specifications for the Summative Assessment of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy , pp. 45
  5. 5. Writing in the Common Core Standardized writing curricula or assessment instruments that emphasize formulaic writing for non-authentic audiences will not reinforce the habits of mind and the experiences necessary for success as students encounter the writing demands of postsecondary education” [and the world of work and career]. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, co-authored by the Council of Writing Program Administrators, NCTE and NWP, as quoted in the Content Specifications for the Summative Assessment of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy , pp. 45
  6. 6. Timeline of writing experiences  Create a timeline of your writing experiences in (and out) of school from when you first remember writing to now. Put positive experiences above the line and negative below the line. 6
  7. 7. Writing: What works? 7
  8. 8. Hillocks Meta-analysis 8
  9. 9. Effective Writing Instruction for Grades 6-12 Writing Next: http://www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNe  Carnegie report that identified 11 elements of current writing instruction found to be effective for helping students in grades 4-12 learn to write well and use writing as a tool for learning. All eleven elements are supported by rigorous research but even taken together do not constitute a writing curriculum. 9
  10. 10. 11 Elements:  Writing strategies • Prewriting  Inquiry activities • Study of models  Collaborative writing •Summarization  Word processing • Process writing approach  Sentence combining  Specific Product goals  writing for content learning 10
  11. 11. Quickwrite: What do writer’s need? 11
  12. 12. What writers need:  Time • Room Structure:  Predictability basic structure  Choice procedures for solving  Immersion in writing problems  Response circulate & conference  Demonstration: Models/Mentor texts  Process centered approach  Direct Instruction  Expectation of success 12
  13. 13. Ralph Fletcher:  Mentors  A love of words  Voice  A significant subject  Beginnings, endings  Safe place to take risks  The art of specificity  Unforgettable language 13
  14. 14. Knowledge writers need:  According to Hillocks, all writers must have five kinds of knowledge to write effectively: 1.Declarative knowledge of form 2.Declarative knowledge of substance 3.Procedural knowledge of form 4.Procedural knowledge of substance 14 5.Knowledge of context
  15. 15. How do we create these conditions for effective writing? 15
  16. 16. The Special Place of Argument Argument is, “a serious and focused conversation among people who are intensely interested in getting to the bottom of things cooperatively . . . -Joseph M. Williams and Lawrence McEnerney as quoted in Appendix A of the CCSS 16
  17. 17.  Neil Postman (1997) called argument the soul of an education because argument forces a writer to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of multiple perspectives 17
  18. 18. From Appendix A of CCST “While all three text types are important, the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is to critical to college and career readiness. English and education professor Gerald Graff (2003) writes that ‘argument literacy’ is fundamental to being educated. The university is largely an ‘argument culture,’ Graff contends; therefore K-12 18 schools should ‘teach the conflicts’ so
  19. 19.  “A 2009 national curriculum survey of postsecondary instructors of composition, freshman English and Survey of American literature courses (ACT, Inc., 2009) found that ‘write to argue or persuade readers’ was virtually tied with ‘to convey information’ as the most important type of writing 19 needed by incoming college
  20. 20. Why argument? because . . .  “argument” is a significant part of the English/ Language Arts Content Standards, the recently adopted Common Course Standards (across disciplines) and college readiness.  “argument” is the central aspect of “reading rhetorically” and each of the modules (grades 7-10) – which have been designed – expressly – to be standards based AND to increase AP and college readiness  we and our students are not necessarily familiar with the language of “argument” used in this context
  21. 21. Why argument? Grade 7 “argument” is a significant part of the English/ Language Arts Content Standards Reading Comprehension 2.0 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. Reading Comprehension 2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author’s argument, point of view, or perspective in a text Reading Comprehension 2.5 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping Speaking Applications 2.4 a. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal b. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence. Writing Strategies 1.0 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples Writing Applications 2.4 2.4 (Write persuasive compositions)c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments
  22. 22. Why argument?  “argument” is a significant part of the cross disciplinary California Common Core State ELA/Literacy Standards Grade 7 Reading 1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Reading 6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. Reading 7 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. Writing 1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence . . . Speaking and Listening 2 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, and attitude toward the subject, evaluating the soundness of reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence Speaking and Listening 4a Plan and present an argument that: supports a claim, acknowledges counterarguments, organizes evidence logically, uses words and phrases to create cohesion, and provides a concluding statement that supports the argument presented
  23. 23. Theories underpinning CCSS  Different kinds of writing work differently. Writing requires task specific knowledge as opposed to the position that believes writers work in essentially the same way regardless of the kind of writing they are doing.  . Note the sequence and introduction of complexity in argument in the CCSS. Become familiar with the way the complexity of argument builds through the standards. It’s not enough to know the expectation of your particular grade level. As teachers we must 23 be familiar with the anchor standard and how
  24. 24. Why argument?  “argument” is a significant part of college readiness “Those values [of argument] are also an integral part of your education in college. For four years, you are asked to read, do research, gather data, analyze it, think about it, and then communicate it to readers in a form . . . which enables them to assess it and use it. You are asked to do this . . . because in just about any profession you pursue, you will do research, think about what you find, make decisions about complex matters, and then explain those decisions—usually in writing—to others who have a stake in your decisions being sound ones.” ~ Joseph M. Williams and Lawrence McEnerney as quoted in Appendix A of the CCSS
  25. 25. Why argument?  “argument” is the central aspect of “reading rhetorically” “ ‘reading rhetorically’ [is defined] as attending to a writer’s purposes within a rhetorical situation by examining both what the author says and how he or she says it. “In most cases, a writer’s goal is to change a reader’s understanding of a topic in some way . . . . and their efforts to do so involve both direct and indirect means. . . .” ~ Bean, Chappell, Gilliam, Reading Rhetorically, xii
  26. 26. Why argument?  we and our students are not necessarily familiar with the language of “argument” used in this context Essential Concepts  Text  Argument  Claim  Analysis  Audience  Purpose  Rhetoric / Persuasive Strategies  The Two Components of Critical Reading and Thinking
  27. 27. The Language of Argument: Text "By reading . . . we mean something more than simply lifting information out of books and articles. To read a text or event is to do something to it, to make sense out of its signals and clues . . . . Reading is thus not something we do to books alone. Or, to put it another way, books and other printed surfaces are not the only texts we read. Rather, a ‘text’ is anything that can be interpreted, that we can make meaning out of or assign value to. In this sense, all culture is a text and all culture can be read." ~ Joseph Harris and Jay Rosen, eds, The Media Journa l
  28. 28. The Language of Argument: Argument ar • gu • ment [ahr-gyuh-muhnt] a. A discussion in which disagreement is expressed; a debate. b. A quarrel; a dispute. c. A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood Latin root – arguere – to make clear Our Simple, Straightforward, and User-Friendly Definition A claim an author makes about how things are and/or ought to be.
  29. 29. The Language of Argument: Argument Arguments are:     explicit (clearly stated) or implicit/implied supported by reasons and evidence rooted in an author’s philosophical beliefs/assumptions placed in particular contexts – historical, social, political, religious, etc – and therefore respond to, are informed by, and shape what’s happening around them Some argue that all writing is an argument!
  30. 30. The Language of Argument: Claim For students to engage in this way, they must accept certain beliefs about the nature of knowledge: that knowledge is created; that they themselves are capable of creating knowledge; that authors present knowledge in the form of claims rather than truths; that the knowledge claims of one author often conflict with those of another; and that they can test knowledge claims and decide which are worthy of acceptance because they’re backed by good reasons. ~ Carolyn Boiarsky, Academic Literacy in the Classroom: Helping Underprepared and Working Class Students Success in College
  31. 31. The Language of Argument: Analyze an • a • lyze [an-l-ahyz] to examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
  32. 32. The Language of Argument: Audience au·di·ence [aw-dee-uhns] 1. the group of spectators at a public event; listeners or viewers collectively, as in attendance at a theater or concert: The audience was respectful of the speaker's opinion. 2. the persons reached by a book, radio or television broadcast, etc.; public: Some works of music have a wide and varied audience.
  33. 33. The Language of Argument: Purpose pur·pose [pur-puhs] 1. the reason for which something exists or is done, made, used, etc. 2. an intended or desired result; end; aim; goal.
  34. 34. The Language of Argument: Rhetoric rhet  o  ric [ret-er-ik] o the art or study of persuasion o the art or study of using language effectively and persuasively
  35. 35. The Language of Argument: Persuasive Strategies Ethos Logos the use of logic, which appeals to the audience’s reason and intellect the speaker’s attempts to project his or her character as wise, ethical, and practical Pathos appeals to the emotions or sympathies of the audience
  36. 36. Persuasion • Ethos (author credibility) • Pathos (emotional appeals) Argument • Logos (logical appeals) • Reason 36
  37. 37. Argument and persuasion  With its roots in orality, rhetoric has a bias for viewing audiences as particular. Aristotle said, ‘The persuasive is persuasive to someone.’ In contrast to rhetoric, writing has a bias for an abstract audience or generalized conception of audience. . . . For this reason, a particular audience can be persuaded, whereas the universal audience must be convinced; particular audiences can be approached by way of values, whereas the universal audience (which transcends partisan values) must be approached with facts, truths, and presumptions.” ~Miller & Charney 37
  38. 38. Argument or persuasion 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. Teaching argument writing 40
  41. 41. What is a good leader? 1. Pass out copies of “The Voluptuary” and ask students what they think of the man. 2. Ask students what a voluptuary is and why this man might be labeled one. 3. Ask, “What makes a good king?” and encourage them to justify their responses. Record their thinking. At the end of the discussion, you have a list of criteria for your question. 41
  42. 42. What makes a good king? 4. Work with the class to apply one of their criteria to the prince pictured in “The Voluptuary”. Record: Claim Evidence Warrant (Explanation) Prince is not good money manager. on Book on the floor called “Debts of Honor” which means gambling. Anyone with gambling debts is probably not a good manager of money because spending money gambling results in debt. It is common knowledge you lose money gambling. 42
  43. 43. 5.Put students in groups of 3-4 and ask them to work with the remaining criteria established by the class. 6.Students write an argument of judgment. 43
  44. 44. What is courage? Developing and supporting criteria for arguments of judgment. 44
  45. 45. Slip or trip? Puzzles from Crime and Puzzlement : Solve them yourself picture mysteries by Lawrence Treat Solving mysteries to teach 45
  46. 46. Resources for teaching argument  See student samples in Appendix C of CCSS. They have samples for every grade. Go to:  http://www.corestandards.org/ass  Download ELA Appendix C 46
  47. 47. iCivics In 2009, Justice Sandra Day O’Connor founded iCivics to reverse Americans’ declining civic knowledge and participation. iCivics prepares young Americans to become knowledgeable, engaged 21st century citizens by creating free and innovative educational materials. http://www.icivics.org/curriculum/persuasive-writing In this language arts unit, students learn how to “argue on paper” using a fictional case about a school dress code rule against band t-shirts. The lessons take them through the process of writing two persuasive essays: 47 one supporting the rule and one opposing it.
  48. 48. Free Resources  ASCD worked with the Literacy Design Collaborative to develop these resources. These modules, written by educators working through LDC, are designed to support core content teachers in implementing the Common Core State Standards. A standard format provides clarity and support for teachers as well as the flexibility for them to be creative. Each module focuses on a specific teaching task and includes the skills students need to be successful, a set of minitasks to guide instruction, and a scoring guide/rubric to help assess student performance. 48
  49. 49.  Sample argumentation modules can be found at: http://educore.ascd.org/channels/c8920746-9ae8-49bf(These are for grades 6-12)  Sample informational modules can be found at: http://educore.ascd.org/channels/c8920746-9ae849bf-bae3-f8b6cac46173 49
  50. 50.  Hillocks, G. (2011) Teaching argument writing grades 6-12. Heinemann.  iCivics: http://www.icivics.org/curriculum/persuasive-writing  Lapp & Fisher, Persuasion = Stating and arguing claims well. English Journal. April 2012  Smith, M., J. Wilhelm & J. Redricksen. (2012) Oh Yeah?! Putting argument to work both in school and out. Heinemann. 50
  51. 51. LUNCH!! 51
  52. 52. Academic literacy—developing habits of mind Text complexity, close reading, text-dependent questioning are part of academic literacy. Academic literacy is really about habits of mind. Read through the three handouts (habits of mind, students who are college and career ready, classroom discussion strategies). Annotate to note the big ideas, interesting concepts, and important points. Make notes about what habits do your students already exhibit and what habits they are working toward. Put the big ideas onto sticky notes (one idea per note). Create a concept map to represent your thinking about the concepts. www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/AcademicLiteracy/main.htm
  53. 53. Generate-Sort-Connect Concept Map
  54. 54. The Language of Argument: Critical Reading and Thinking Analysis Evaluation an  a  lyze: to examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelationships e  val  u  ate: to examine carefully for the purpose of determine value  rough synonyms: listen, observe, understand, break down, deconstruct  rough synonyms: judge, conclude, decide  facilitated by “listening to the text,” “trying to understand it on its own terms . . . trying to consider the ideas fairly and accurately before rushing to judgment”  facilitated by “questioning the text” and “carefully interrogating a text’s claims and evidence and its subtle forms of persuasion” in order to “make sound judgments and offer thoughtful responses” (Bean et all, Reading Rhetorically 70). (Bean et all, Reading Rhetorically 52).  involves:  Argument Analysis  Rhetorical Analysis The Two Major Components of Critical Reading and Thinking
  55. 55. Writing Review the “Reading the Assignment” section of the module, and answer the questions together in table groups. 55
  56. 56. Writing Review the writing prompt from Social Networking. Discuss the following: What appears to be the key learning objective of this prompt/assignment? What is the expected product? How does this kind of writing task prepare students to meet Common Core standards? Report to the group. 56
  57. 57. Writing Review the expectations for revision. How will you support your students in this work? Why is this work a good investment of your time? 57
  58. 58. Writing Editing happens only when revision is complete. How can you help your students see these as separate processes? 58
  59. 59. Writing Academic Literacy states that students should “demonstrate initiative and develop ownership of their education” How does this activity develop that skill? 59
  60. 60. Non-Examples & Examples Not Text-Dependent In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote? Text-Dependent What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? Give some examples of the humor from text. What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter that he received? Explain to whom he was addressing in this letter and give examples of how you know this. What year was “The Gettysburg Address,” and according to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? 60
  61. 61. 8th Grade Module: Social Networking  Read pages 1 & 2 from the module. Annotate the text through your teacher lens. – What is important to know about this module? – How do the module objectives connect to academic literacy and habits of mind?  Do activity 1: Getting Ready to Read 61
  62. 62. Social Networking—Reading the text Read the text: Teenage Social Media Butterflies May Not Be Such a Bad Idea. Prepare to discuss what makes it complex using both qualitative and quantitative criteria (day 1). Identify the reader and task considerations that might be posed for YOUR students. 62
  63. 63.  When you look at a module like Social Networking, with what aspects of it would your students be ready to engage and where would they require more support?  What moves will you make to – construct opportunities for students to do the hard work of analyzing the text? – support students who are unprepared for this work? – assess students along the way  What do you need to do to prepare for instruction of this module? Mark the module with your instructional notes. 63
  64. 64. Assignment Template 64
  65. 65. Homework for Day 3  Teach a module.  Please bring in three copies each of two students’ papers with the writing prompt attached. 65