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Short Presentation on Pancreas as endocrine and exocrine organ in the digestive system

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  1. 1. Organs of The Human System<br />The Pancreas.<br />
  2. 2. Organs…..Introductions.<br />An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose.<br />Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems.<br />Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in particular they are not restricted to animals, but can also be identified in plants.<br />There are many organs found in the human or animal body and are vital for existence.<br />Eg.<br />Brain<br />Heart<br />Kidneys<br />Spleen<br />Lungs<br />Stomach<br /> Liver<br />The Pancreas<br />
  3. 3. The Pancreas……..Anatomy<br />The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates.<br />It is situated transversely across the posterior wall of the abdomen, at the back of the epigastricand left hypochondriac regions.<br /> The pancreas consists of the:<br />Head:Lies within the concavity of the duodenum<br />Uncinateprocess: emerges from the lower part of head & lies deep to superior mesenteric vessels<br /> Neck: The constricted part between the head and the body<br /> Body: It lies behind stomach<br /> Tail: It is the left end of the pancreas. It lies in contact with the spleen and runs in the lienorenalligament<br />
  4. 4. The Pancreas…..Exocrine & Endocrine Gland<br />The Pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. <br />The Pancreas produce hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.<br />The Pancreas secrete pancreatic juice such as trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase<br />The part of the pancreas with endocrine function are clusters of cells called Islets of Langerhans.<br />
  5. 5. The Pancreas…..Cells of Langerhans<br />The clusters of cells are classified according to their secretions:<br />α cells secrete glucagon which causes increase in Glucose level in the blood. <br />βcells secrete insulin which causes decrease in Glucose level in the blood.<br />δcells secrete somatostatin regulates or stops α and β cells. <br />PPcells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.<br />
  6. 6. The Pancreas……Diseases<br />Diabetes mellitus : caused by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreatic gland<br />Acute pancreatitis: caused by inflammation of pancreas due to alcohol intake, drugs, trauma to pancreas, gall stones<br />Chronic pancreatitis: caused by excessive alcoholism<br />Pancreatic enzyme deficiency : Usually caused by diarrhea and sudden weight loss. Can also be caused by pancreatitis.<br />Pancreas tumor : caused by normal or cancerous growth of pancreatic cells.<br />
  7. 7. Summary.<br />Though each organ is unique and vital for normal functioning associated with living, the Pancreas is rather unique and essential organ for continuity of life. Its dual function and role as an exocrine and endocrine gland in the digestive system makes it indispensible for normal physiological process, hence at loss of function, disease and death ensues rather quickly.<br />
  8. 8. Reference<br />Wikipedia.<br />http://www.gicare.com/Diseases/Pancreatic-Disease.aspx.<br />http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/illustrations/figure?id=1105.<br />