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A. Endogenous processes
which occur beneath the surface
of the Earth.
B. Exogenous processes
which take place above the
Note: these two major are responsible in the
changes of landscapes in the different
regions of the world.
Plate tectonics (from the Late
Latin tectonicus, from
the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to
building") is a scientific theory that
describes the large-scale motions
of Earth's lithosphere.
The lithosphere is broken up into tectonic
plates. On Earth, there are seven major
plates and many minor plates.
Plates is made up of thick slabs of rocks.
PLATES is composed of a continental crust
and an oceanic crust
is composed of a continental crust and
an oceanic crust
STRESS a force that acts on rock to
change its shape or volume.
Deformation: The Breaking,
Tilting, and Folding of rocks
Prefix de = undo
Form = shape or configuration
1.Tension – pulls
on the rocks of
so that it
in the middle.
– squeezes the
rocks of the
crust until it
folds or break. Think: Covergent
3. Shearing –
pushes a mass
of rock in two
Movements of plates
When the plates move and interact
with each other and bring about
Earth’s crust brought by
tectonic forces or the
movements of the
1.Faulting this movement refers to the
fracturing or breaking of
rock masses or the Earth’s
this usually happens when the
rock masses are under tension
due to plate movement.
1. Normal faults occur when tensional
forces act in opposite directions and
cause one slab of the rock to be
displaced up and the other slab down.
2. Reverse faults develop when
compressional forces exist compression
causes one block to be pushed up and
over the other block.
3. Graben fault is produced when tensional
stresses result in the subsidence of a block
of rock. On a large scale these features are
known as Rift Valleys.
4. Horst fault is the development of
two reverse faults causing a block of rock
to be pushed up.
5. Strike slip or transform fault
are vertical in nature and are
produced where the stresses
are exerted parallel to each
Result of displacement of structures
on the earth’s crust.
2. Folding occurs when the
Earth’s crust is compressed
due to plate movement.
1. Anticline – fold that forms an upward
3. Monocline--fold involves a slight bend in
otherwise parallel layers of rock.
Is another process that takes place
beneath the Earth’s crust.
This happen when molten materials
from the interior of the earth forced
into the crust and even onto the
Earth’s surface because of high
pressures with the Earth.
Is both constructive and
Magma is a molten materials that
still inside the Earth.
is a hot liquid rock below the
surface of the Earth
Lava--- once they are spewed out
of the Earth’s surface and
--- melted rock from a volcano.
Rich in sulphur deposits.
Sources of geothermal energy.
Bring damage to man:
Damage to human lives
Faulting and folding
1.Weathering– this refers to the breaking up
of solid rocks into fragments. It is also the
process that results in the chemical decay of
soli rocks in place or near the surface of the
Two kinds of Weathering
1.Physical or mechanical weathering
Refers to the disintegration or
breaking down of solid rocks into
2. Chemical weathering
Is the breaking down of rocks and
minerals with a change in their
Is also the result of chemical
reactions bet. The rock mineral and
the moisture, rain water, sea water
and organic acids produced by
plants and animals.
2. Erosion– is the movement of weathered
materials like rock fragments and particles of
soil that have been broken down and
carried by the different agents of erosion.
3. Deposition– is the process of
accumulation of soil particles and other
materials carried by the agents of erosion.
Helen de la cruz BEED 2-A…