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Philosophy of Time, Science, and Aesthetics

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Aesthetics and science are two modes of understanding reality, with a greater possibility of rapprochement through the philosophical consideration of time

Philosophy of Time, Science, and Aesthetics

  1. 1. Melanie Swan Philosophy of Time Perspectives in Science and Aesthetics Indianapolis IN, January 24, 2020 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga All that we call invention, discovery in the highest sense of the word, is the meaningful application and the putting into practice of a very original feeling of truth - Goethe, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, 1829
  2. 2. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time 1 Book Publications 2015 2019 2020 Blockchain Blockchain Economics Quantum Computing
  3. 3. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Agenda  Philosophy of time  Aesthetics and time  Science and time 2 Philosophy of Time Perspectives in Science and Aesthetics
  4. 4. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Framing conjecture: two cultures split?  C.P. Snow: “Literary intellectuals and physical scientists with a lack of understanding and attitudes so different that they cannot find common ground”  Non-scientists think that scientists are shallowly optimistic and scientists think that literary intellectuals lack foresight  Oliver Sacks: Deep insights about human nature come first to poets and artists, to be systematically explored by scientists only decades or centuries later  Horace: Ut pictura poesis, as is painting so is poetry; as is art so is science (not favorizing one mode)  Science: vaunted, arts: everyone has an experience 3 Sources: C.P. Snow, Two Cultures, 1959; Oliver Sacks, In Lehrer, Proust was a Neuroscientist, 2008; Horace, Ars Poetica
  5. 5. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time 4 Aesthetics and science are two modes of understanding reality, with a greater possibility of rapprochement through the philosophical consideration of time Thesis
  6. 6. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Philosophy, art, and science are modes of intelligibility for encountering reality, “separate melodic lines in constant interplay with one another” – Deleuze, Negotiations, 1997 5 Understand the Universal and the Particular together Experience the UniversalExplain the Particular Relation of Philosophy, Art, and Science AestheticsScience Philosophy Concern: Concern: Concern: Examples: disease causality, drug response Examples: suffering, love, inspiration  Two cultures is a problem of universal and particular
  7. 7. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Problem of Time in Aesthetics and Science  Duration: snapshot, perdurant (elapsing, enduring for an interval, for example, a musical piece), eternal  Integrate diverse temporalities  Structure: past-present-future  Defining the present  Movement between past-present-future 6 UniversalIntervalParticular Future Present (constantly elapsing moments) Past EternalPerdurantSnapshot
  8. 8. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Two kinds of Time 7 Time of Reality Axiomatic Time Time of Human Experience Phenomenological Time Quantitative Time Chronos (sequential time) External objective Clocktime Qualitative Time Kairos (propitious time) Internal subjective durée vs.  Axiomatic and Phenomenological Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time - Macbeth
  9. 9. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Bergson: clock time and felt time (duration)  Two time regimes 1. Objective (quantitative): Measurable clock time 2. Subjective (qualitative): Internal experience of lived time (flying by, taking forever, flow state); duration  The intensity of the lived experience of time produces memory, consciousness, self  Exercise of free will is possible, by tuning into the internal qualitative experience of time duration and spontaneity, and acting from there 8 Source: Bergson, Henri. (2001, 1889). Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness. London: Dover Publications.
  10. 10. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Hume: bundles of unconnected perceptions  Humean verification problem: mountain–teacup–mountain  Kant: there must be a meta-apparatus, an “I think” (consciousness) that collects individual sense impressions and recognizes them as the same object (Transcendental Unity of Apperception) 9
  11. 11. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Kant: two-stem theory of knowing  The “I think” (consciousness) connects the faculties of Sensibility and Understanding  The two stems of knowing must operate together since “without sensibility no object is given, and without understanding no object is thought”  This is why “thoughts without content are empty, and intuitions without concepts are blind” (A51/B75, 193-4)  Problem of time arises: integrating divergent temporalities of snapshot and eternality 10 Understanding (concept) (Plato: Ideal Form) Sensibility (perception) (Plato: Particular Form) EternalSnapshot Source: Kant, I. (1998, 1781). Critique of Pure Reason. Ed./Trans. P. Guyer, A.W. Wood. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
  12. 12. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time How does knowing work? Kant: determinate vs. reflective judgment  Sensibility and understanding operate together to make a judgment (judging is an exercise of freedom by grasping something in the world to have meaning) 11 Source: Kant, Immanuel. (2007). Critique of Judgment (Analytic of the Beautiful). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  Determinate judgment  Routine subsuming of particulars under a universal  Reflective (aesthetic) judgment  The encounter with the artwork (or the unknown), a new particular upon which we must reflect and derive a new concept
  13. 13. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Kantian neuroscience: study supports theory  Being told that an image is an artwork down-regulates (subdues) emotional response  Tendency to “distance” ourselves from the image  Critique of Judgment: detached aesthetic judgment 12 Source: van Dongen et al. (2016). Implicit emotion regulation in the context of viewing artworks. Brain and Cognition. 107:48-54.
  14. 14. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Kant: retentional time structure  The problem of time forces Kant to specify the third faculty of the imagination to join the two stems of knowing (sensibility and understanding)  The reproductive imagination runs through and gathers together sense perceptions (A102)  Introduces retentional time structure (“while” loop)  Sense perception (immediate snapshot), “while” loop remembers previous perceptions (mediate perdurance), to subsume under a concept (eternal) 13 Temporality S: Snapshot P: Perdurant E: Eternal UnderstandingImaginationSensibility EternalPerdurantSnapshot Source: Kant, I. (1998, 1781). Critique of Pure Reason. Ed./Trans. P. Guyer, A.W. Wood. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. “I think”
  15. 15. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Models of Knowing: Kant and Hegel 14 Outcome Snapshot Recognize an Object UnderstandingImaginationSensibility EternalPerdurantSnapshotProcess Outcome Perdurant Self-determining Substance Process Hegel: Phenomenological knowing (the self-aware experience of knowing) Kant: Epistemological knowing (recognizing an object)  Kant solves Hume but can only recognize objects, needs a general theory of the objective conditions of knowing  Again problem of knowing can be seen through lens of time Perdurant Self-negating, becoming self-identical, self-superseding
  16. 16. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Epistemology versus Phenomenology  Kantian Epistemology: knowing  Hegelian Phenomenology: experiencing  Subject-object relation  Kant: epistemological knower  Subject recognizes objects: S → O  Hegel: phenomenological self-aware agent  Subject introspects about its own process of recognizing objects: S → S → O 15 S S O Source: Swan, M. 2020. Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances. S O Kant: Epistemological Knowing Hegel: Phenomenological Knowing Subject recognizes objects Subject introspects about its own process of recognizing objects
  17. 17. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Model of Knowing: two-tier (Kant) and three-tier (Hegel) 16 Consciousness Sensibility (Representations) Imagination Understanding (Concepts) Appearances Mental structures “Concepts” Thinking Self-Consciousness Consciousness Kant “I think” (Transcendental Unity of Apperception) Representational Knowing (thinking based on representation) Conceptual Knowing (a thinking mind and an object brought together in a unity) Hegel: Self-conscious explanation mediates between thinking and the object of thinking (three-tier model of knowing: consciousness reflecting on its own thinking about the relation between appearances and mental structures) Kant: Imagination mediates between representations and concepts (two-tier model of knowing: consciousness reflecting on the relation between sensibility and understanding) Self-conscious Explanation: reflecting on its own thinking Hegel: objective conditions of all knowing: difference, necessity, otherness, infinity Part of self-conscious explanation is difference unification Kant: objective conditions of object recognition: quantity, quality, relation, modality Hegel 1 2 3 1 2 Source: Swan, M. 2020. Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances.
  18. 18. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time First problem of knowing Explaining Appearances  Specifying the relation between empirical appearances and abstract concepts 17 FormulationPosition Agreement between mind and world, representation and external reality Empiricism (Verification): Hume, etc. Agreement (in the mind) between representations (sensibility) and concepts (understanding) Epistemology: Kant Relation (in the mind) between determinate content and abstract form Phenomenology: Hegel Chair
  19. 19. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Explaining Appearances  Kant: subject recognizes object  Hegel: subject reflects on its own process of recognizing an object 18 Kant Hegel UnderstandingImaginationSensibility EternalPerdurantSnapshot Understanding Self-conscious Explanation (continuous) Sensibility Eternal PerdurantSnapshot Object Recognition (discrete) S S O S O Hegel Kant Snapshot
  20. 20. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Hegel: phenomenology of self-determination 19 All that it is All that it is not  An object is a unity of all that it is and all that it is not  Inner difference (difference as a Concept (unity of self/non-self))  Self-determination process (production of the new):  Self-negating, becoming self-identical, self-superseding  Solve problem of determinacy: perception is indeterminate Outcome Perdurant Self-determining Substance Process Hegel: Phenomenological knowing (the self-aware experience of knowing) Perdurant Self-negating, becoming self-identical, self-superseding Source: Swan, M. 2020. Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances.
  21. 21. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Structure of Time: Past, Present, Future 20  Time structure  Hegel: “multiplication of Nows” (§107-8)  Difference (negation: present is not-past and not-future)  Unity of all that it is/all that it is not: present contains past/future  Universal and particular (middle term syllogism); parts-whole Past Present Future Future Present (moments constantly elapsing to the past) Past
  22. 22. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Kant’s theory of knowing recognizes physical objects but not abstract objects of knowing such as justice  Problem formulation  No theory of difference unification  No full-blown past-present-future time structure Explaining Appearances 21 All that it is All that it is not Source: Swan, M. 2020. Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances. FutureHegel Past PKant Past P FormulationPosition Agreement (in the mind) between representations (sensibility) and concepts (understanding) Epistemology: Kant Relation (in the mind) between determinate content and abstract form Phenomenology: Hegel HegelKant Difference in the empirical sense: the “numerical difference” between “two drops of water” (B319-320)
  23. 23. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Philosophy of Time  Time structure  Kant: retentive time structure (memory)  Hegel: full-blown past-present-future time structure  Husserl: internal time consciousness with “long now”  Heidegger: the future reaches back to the past to determine the present (living into possibilities) (§65-8)  Derrida: non-present is present in the present 22 Future Present (moments constantly elapsing to the past) Past Kant Hegel Husserl Heidegger Derrida Source: Swan, M. 2020. Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances. Continental (open-ended questions) Analytic (provable claims) McTaggert A/B Time
  24. 24. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Agenda  Philosophy of time  Aesthetics and time  Science and time 23 Philosophy of Time Perspectives in Science and Aesthetics
  25. 25. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Kant and Aesthetics: two arguments 1. Integrate diverse temporal regimes 2. Derive aesthetic theory of felt knowing from the Kantian theory of cognition  Two-stem theory of knowing: sensibility and understanding 24
  26. 26. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Aesthetics: same problem of time 25 UnderstandingSensibility EternalSnapshot Verbal (text, music)Visual (image) PerdurantSnapshot Cognition Aesthetics  Problem of joining diverse temporal regimes  Visual artwork: snapshot temporality  Verbal artwork (music, poem): perdurant temporality
  27. 27. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Verbal-Visual (Ekphrasis) Example: Breughel and Auden 26 In Brueghel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away Quite leisurely from the disaster, the ploughman may Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry, But for him it was not an important failure Musée des Beaux Arts, Auden Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, Bruegel the Elder Temporality: snapshot Visual Verbal Temporality: perdurance
  28. 28. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Aesthetics: imagination and problem of time 27 UnderstandingImaginationSensibility EternalPerdurantSnapshot Verbal (text, music)ImaginationVisual (image) PerdurantPerdurantSnapshot Philosophy Aesthetics  Imagination needed to join diverse temporal regimes  Visual artwork: snapshot temporality  Verbal artwork (music, poem): perdurant temporality
  29. 29. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Kant and Aesthetics: two arguments 1. Integrate diverse temporal regimes  Intermediary faculty of imagination needed to join diverse temporal regimes in the domains of both cognition (sensibility and understanding) and aesthetics (verbal and visual; image and text) 2. Derive aesthetic theory of felt knowing from Kant  Two-stem theory of knowing: sensibility and understanding relies upon both emotion and intellect 28 Marble Torso of the Apollo Lykeios AD 130-161; Archaic Torso of Apollo, Rainer Maria Rilke, 1918
  30. 30. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Aesthetic theory of felt knowledge  Derive an aesthetic theory of felt knowing from Kant  Two-stem theory of knowing: sensibility and understanding relies upon both emotion and intellect  Stakes: give Kant a full-blown aesthetic theory, directly from the first Critique (Critique of Pure Reason); not merely a theory of aesthetic judgment from the third Critique (Critique of Judgment)  Add aesthetics to the Kantian theory of cognition 29 UnderstandingSensibilityCognition Theory of Felt Knowledge IntellectEmotion
  31. 31. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Definition Aesthetic theory of felt knowledge is…  The feeling tone that knowledge is true  The right answer to a problem clicks into place  Mathematician break-throughs: ease, elegance  Occam’s Razor: the simplest solution is correct  There is a special quality to truth  Claim: an emotionally-installed understanding is a superior form of intellectual understanding  There is an aesthetic aspect and a cognitive aspect to the right answer of felt knowledge, as an indication of emotion and intellect working together 30 All that we call invention, discovery in the highest sense of the word, is the meaningful application and the putting into practice of a very original feeling of truth. - Goethe, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, 1829
  32. 32. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Example: Moby-Dick 31  Poetry (poetic language) and praxis (practical manual)  Singular work because captures both the heart and the intellect through the imagination, Melville:  (May 1, 1850): The whaling voyage is a strange sort of a book; blubber is blubber tho’ you may get oil out of it, the poetry runs as hard as sap from a frozen maple tree  (June 27, 1850): The book is a romance of adventure, founded upon wild legends in the Southern Sperm Whale Fisheries Sources: Oriental Repose. Baleinier au Mouillage (Whaler at anchor) colored lithograph drawn by Jean-Baptiste-Henri Durand-Brager (1814-1879), Garneray’s Sperm Whaling Scene: Peche du Cachalot. Cachalot Fishery. Aquatint by Ambroise Louis Garneray (1783-1857).
  33. 33. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Moby-Dick: Problem of Representation 32  Previous representation only provided by myth  Though elephants have stood for their full-lengths, the living Leviathan has never yet floated for his portrait  The living whale, in his full majesty, is only seen at sea in unfathomable waters; the vast bulk of him out of sight  The only way to derive a tolerable idea of his living contour is by going a whaling yourself Source: Melville, Moby-Dick, 1851, Chapters 55 and 56: “Of the Monstrous Pictures of Whales” and “Of the Less Erroneous Pictures of Whales, and the True Pictures of Whaling Scenes”  A portentous, black mass of something hovering in a nameless yeast. A boggy, soggy, squitchy picture truly…
  34. 34. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Theory/Artwork Pairs Theory/ArtworkThinker/Artist Collected Works (Vol. 5)/ The Name of the Rose Peirce/Eco Distinction/In Search of Lost Time, Sentimental Education Bourdieu/Proust-Flaubert Science and Hypothesis/ Coup de Dés Poincaré/Mallarmé Curved spacetime Theory/ Las Meninas-The Ambassadors Riemann/Velasquez- Holbein Logical reasoning Social space (habitus) Probability theory and mathematics Geometric perspective and mathematical space Derrida’s GlasHegel/Genet (Rembrandt) Form & content: philosophical system vs poetic verse Domain  Poetry and praxis, theory and artwork Source: Swan, M. The Ekphrastic Diagram: Towards a Quantum Theory of Ekphrasis. 2019. Mallarmé‘s Coup de Dés poem (throw of the dice) illustrates Poincaré‘s probability theory
  35. 35. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Theory-artwork pairs in geometric space 34  The artwork breathes life into the scientific theory Holbein, The AmbassadorsVelasquez, Las Meninas Riemann: geometric perspective and mathematical space
  36. 36. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Imagination: intermediary faculty 35 UnderstandingImaginationSensibility ImaginationEmotions Philosophy Felt knowledge  Imagination needed to join diverse mental regimes (emotion-intellect) just as diverse aesthetic temporal regimes (visual-verbal (image-text))  There is both an aesthetic aspect and a cognitive aspect to the right answer of felt knowledge  Emotion and intellect working together through the imagination as an intermediary Intellect ImaginationVisual (image)Aesthetics Verbal (text)
  37. 37. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Summary Kant and Aesthetics: two arguments 1. Integrate diverse temporal regimes  Intermediary faculty of imagination needed to join diverse temporal regimes in the domains of both cognition (sensibility and understanding) and aesthetics (verbal and visual; image and text) 2. Derive Kantian aesthetic theory of felt knowing  Two-stem theory of knowing: relies upon both emotion (sensibility) and intellect (understanding)  An emotionally-installed understanding is a superior form of intellectual understanding (poetry and praxis)  Knowing has both an aesthetic and a cognitive aspect 36
  38. 38. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Philosophical Contribution of Aesthetics 37  Wide-ranging themes surface in aesthetics  Problem of integrating diverse temporal regimes  Problem of relating emotion and intellect  Relation between form-content, parts-whole, concrete- abstract, materials and practice, theory-praxis  Production of the new, mechanism for social critique  Deleuze: new concepts arise in the cinema Hitchcock, Frenzy, 1972  Example: The movement of individual characters and objects is shown at the same time to express a change in the whole, conveying the sense of the flow of movement itself Source: Deleuze, Gilles. (1986). Cinema 1: The-Movement-Image. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  39. 39. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Philosophical Contribution of Aesthetics  Van Gogh “is an artist and a thinker, every one of his works contains an idea that flashes on the eye of the viewer” – E. Bernard (painter colleague)  The Bedroom: “Looking at the painting should rest the mind, or rather the imagination” – Van Gogh  Starry Night: dusk, twilight, and night provides comfort and peace from the commotion of the day 38 Source: Heiligman, Vincent and Theo: The Van Gogh Brothers, 2017. Starry Night, 1889 The Bedroom, 1888
  40. 40. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Aesthetics: What is Art? 39  Relation of form and content  Winkelmann: focus on content  Lessing: at least 50% is form  Adorno: “art…is simply identical with form”  Art is a way of creating and expressing the element of truth in a culture – Heidegger  Art is pressing a representation of individual and collective self-concept into materials – Hegel  Examples: pyramids, Parthenon, skyscrapers, sculpture, snow forts  What art seeks to disturb is monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine - Oscar Wilde Schoenberg atonal Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. Source: Hegel, Georg W.F. Aesthetics. Vol. 1 and 2. Shoes, Van Gogh, engaged by Heidegger in The Origin of the Work of Art
  41. 41. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Aesthetics: What counts as a Work of Art?  Venue: if displayed in a gallery, it is art  Adorno: An artwork has its own law of form (a relation between its formal elements; a principle of self-legislation (freedom), vs. externally-imposed rules)  The autonomous artwork produces meaning out of itself (by acting as a free subject)  Deleuze: The artist has an encounter with originary time  The artwork is “a transmutation of substance” giving the viewer access to “an original world” 40 Sources: Adorno. (1997). Aesthetic Theory; Deleuze. (2000). Proust and Signs. Beckett, Play Duchamp, Fountain
  42. 42. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Agenda  Philosophy of time  Aesthetics and time  Science and time 41 Philosophy of Time Perspectives in Science and Aesthetics
  43. 43. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Scientific Aesthetics 42  Charles Henry (1859-1926): universal principles that apply to art, science, and any domain  Write equations from Degas paintings, calculate the value of Mallarmé metaphors (dynamograph) and the relation between the lead solubility and the Taiping Rebellion  Greeks: Pythagorean rules of proportion  Painting, sculpture, architecture, and music  Leonardo da Vinci: principles of ancient symmetry  Typographic characters (interlaced roundels) drawn for Pacioli’s De divina proportione  Michelangelo: symbolic precept in sculptural figures  Pyramidal, serpentine, and multiplied by one, two, three Source: Henry, Charles. “Introduction to a Scientific Aesthetics.” Art in Translation. 10(2), 2018, Pp. 198-222. Trans. Naomi Polonsky. (Published in French as Charles Henry, “Introduction à une esthétique scientifique.” La Revue contemporaine (2 August 1885): 441-69.) Michelangelo, Moses
  44. 44. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Kandinsky’s Color Theory 43  The eye is strongly attracted by warm, light, clear colors…keen lemon-yellow hurts the eye in time as a prolonged and shrill trumpet-note on the ear  Example: the struggle between yellow (pain) and blue (pleasure, relief), with red (fire) as a mediator Kandinsky, 1925 Yellow, Red, Blue Source: Kandinsky, The Art of Spiritual Harmony (1914).
  45. 45. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Aesthetics and the Scientific Diagram: Biophysics 44 Source: Wilson, J. & Aksimentiev, A. Water-Compression Gating of Nanopore Transport. Physical Review Letters. 120:268101, 2018.  Properties  Color theory  Green and blue  Red emphasis  Diverse temporal regimes  Snapshot  Perdurant elapsing  Processes involving interiority and exteriority
  46. 46. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time The Scientific Diagram: Neuroscience 45 Source: Cook, Steven J. et al. Whole-animal connectomes of both Caenorhabditis elegans sexes. Nature. (571):63-89, 2019.  C. elegans motor neurons  Portrayal of complex systems  Functional map of neuronal connections
  47. 47. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time The Scientific Diagram: Quantum Computing 46 Source: Sarma, S.D., Freedman, M., & Nayak, C. Majorana zero modes and topological quantum computation. Nature partner journal: Quantum Information. 1(15001), 2015. Clear examples  Quantum computing and Majorana braiding Confusing examples
  48. 48. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Feynman: Universal Quantum Computer 47 Source: Feynman, R.P. (1982). Simulating physics with computers. International Journal of Theor. Physics. 21(6):467-88.  The laws of physics present no barrier to reducing the size of computers until bits are the size of atoms  Vision: build a “universal quantum simulator” in the structure of nature  Simulate field theories with lattice works of spins
  49. 49. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Quantum Computing 48  Exploit properties of quantum objects (atoms, ions, photons)  Superposition, interference, entanglement  Test more permutations since particles exist across all states  Bit: fundamental unit of computational information: 0/1; qubit (quantum bit: bit in a quantum system)  Classical computing relies on electrical conductivity, using Boolean algebra (true/false, and/or) to manipulate bits  Quantum computing relies on quantum mechanics, using linear algebra to manipulate matrices of complex numbers (i.e. the amplitudes of possible states)  Create qubits: any two-state system of 0s and 1s  Methods: superconducting loops, trapped ions, silicon quantum dots, topological qubits, microscopic diamonds Ytterbium-171 isotopes below 1 Kelvin (-458°F)
  50. 50. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Quantum Computing  Threat: break existing cryptography standards (2048-bit RSA) “unlikely within 10 years” (US National Academies of Sciences, 2019), but methods constantly improving  Opportunity: US NIST: next-generation standards  Lattice cryptography: complex 3D arrangements of atoms, as opposed to the difficulty of factoring large numbers (RSA 2048)  Group theory (lattices) versus number theory (factoring)  Commercial systems (on-premises and cloud-based)  IBM & Rigetti (controllable gate model superconductors (~19 qubits))  D-Wave (less-controllable quantum annealing machines (2048 qubits)) 49 Source: Swan, M. 2020. Blockchain Physics.
  51. 51. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Scope of Quantum Advantage 50  One-tier improvement in computational complexity  Solve the next tier of designated problem difficulty with the current tier’s computational resource (in time and space)  NP becomes solvable in P, EXP becomes solvable in NP  Example: factoring large numbers becomes time-reasonable  Computational complexity: amount (time and space) of computing resources required to solve a problem P: polynomial time (e.g. solvable in human-reasonable amount of time); NP: non-polynomial (not solvable in human-reasonable amount of time); EXP: exponential (requires exponential time/space to solve) Computational Complexity
  52. 52. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Industry of the Future Optical Quantum Computing 51  Standard quantum computing  Massive parallelism from processing all problem inputs simultaneously (all permutations of 0/1 in 3D space)  Quantum circuit (chip) processes 0s and 1s simultaneously  Optical (photonic) quantum computing  Superposition of both problem inputs (0/1) and processing gates (“superposition of superpositions”)  Gate architecture  Standard quantum architecture: fixed gate order  Photonic quantum architecture: superimposed gate order  The circuits themselves are superpositioned  Result: optical quantum circuits exponential advantage over classical algorithms and linear advantage over standard quantum algorithms Source: Procopio et al. 2015. Experimental Superposition of Orders of Quantum Gates. Nature Communications. 6(7913):1-6.
  53. 53. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Industry of the Future Quantum Multiplexing of Time and Space 52  Quantum speed-up  Standard quantum computing: space accelerated by testing all 3D Hilbert space permutations of 0/1 (problem inputs)  Optical quantum computing: time also accelerated by superpositioning processing gates (gate order)  Quantum optical routing  Global fiberoptic communications parallel  TDM/WDM: time-division/wave-division multiplexing
  54. 54. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Scale 53 Physical TheoryScale Newtonian mechanics1 x 101 m Quantum mechanics1 x 10-9 m QCD/gauge theories1 x 10-15 m Planck scale1 x 10-35 m QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics  Theme: ability to understand and manipulate physical reality at increasingly smaller scales Atoms Subatomic particles Quantum objects: atoms, ions, photons Matter particles: fermions (quarks) Force particles: bosons (gluons) (nanotechnology)
  55. 55. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Holographic Principle  A 3D volume reconstructed on a 2D surface (bug on windshield)  Holographic Correspondence (gauge-gravity duality)  Connection between gravity and gauge theories (Maldacena 1997)  Gauge theories treat next scale level down from atoms  Quantum chromodynamics (subatomic particles)  Proton: three quarks bound together by gluons (lines of flux/field strength, like electromagnetic field lines, gravitational fields) The Holographic Principle 54 Sources: Susskind, L.; Maldacena, J. Gluons hold Quarks together to form a Proton Fields/Lines of Flux Matter particles: fermions (quarks) Force particles: bosons (gluons)
  56. 56. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Apply information theory to physics (Harlow & Hayden, 2013)  Formalization of the holographic principle/gauge-gravity duality  Claim: Any physical system with a bulk volume can be described by a boundary theory in one fewer dimensions  Bug on windshield : particles are smeared out on the black hole event horizon in one fewer dimensions than in the bulk interior AdS/CFT Correspondence (Anti-de Sitter Space/Conformal Field Theory) 55 Sources: Harlow, D. & Hayden, P. (2013). Quantum computation vs. firewalls. J. High Energ. Phys. 2013:85; Pastawski, S., et al. Is spacetime a quantum error-correcting code? arXiv:1503.06237, 2015; Escher, Circle Limits. AdS/CFT “soup can” Escher Circle Limits Quantum error correcting codes  Implications for  Black hole information paradox  Time/space emergence
  57. 57. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Practical application Computation at the Planck Scale? 56 Newton (1687) Difference Engine (1786) Transistor (1947) Quantum Mechanics (1905) Quantum Gravity (2016) ?? (2075e) Planck scale (1×10−35) Atomic scale (1×10−9) Classical scale (1×101) Scale Scientific Discovery Computing Paradigm Source: Feynman, R.P. (1960) There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Engineering and Science. 23(5):22-36. Quark scale (1×10−15) Quantum Computing (2019)
  58. 58. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time 57 Newton General Relativity Human scale Very large and very heavy Quantum Mechanics Very small and very light Physical Domains of Reality
  59. 59. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time 58 Newton General Relativity Human scale Very large and very heavy Quantum Mechanics Quantum Gravity Very small and very light Very small and very heavy Physical Domains of Reality
  60. 60. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Diverse Temporal Regimes  General Relativity: relativistic time (experienced time)  Time dilation: age faster mountain top than sea level  Twin problem, grandfather paradox, one party traveling  Quantum Mechanics: atomic time (clock time)  Measured regular movement of atomic particles  Klein-Gordon, Dirac, QFT (many particles)  Diverse Spatial Regimes  General Relativity: geometric space, phase space  Quantum Mechanics: Hilbert space (vector space), momentum space, configuration space, various polarizations of space General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics 59 Time dilation Atomic clock
  61. 61. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Positions 1. Time and space are fundamental  Time and space exist as concrete and basic “furniture” of reality that cannot be derived from other entities or structures 2. Time and space are emergent  Time and space exist, not fundamentally but as derived from other entities or structures (i.e. quantum matter and its relations)  What precedes? Geometry (domain in which things behave) or Dynamics (parameters of behavior) 60 Source: http://www.hss.caltech.edu/content/dennis-lehmkuhl Time and Space: Fundamental or Emergent?
  62. 62. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  What precedes?  Geometry (domain in which things behave)  General relativity view: geometry precedes  Theories: Loop quantum gravity (Rovelli, Oriti)  Dynamics (parameters of behavior, how system changes)  Quantum mechanics view: dynamics precedes  Theories: M-theory, D-branes, Lorentz-invariance Principle of Equivalence (Weinberg, Salimkhani)  Other models (mathematics, logic)  Theories: (Category) topos theory (Isham) vs Causal set theory functionalism (Wüthrich) 61 Time and Space as Emergent
  63. 63. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Time and Space at the Planck scale 62 Source: Loop and Spin Foam Quantum Gravity: A Brief Guide for Beginners. In Approaches to Fundamental Physics: An Assessment of Current Theoretical Ideas, 2007, pp. 151-84. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-71117-9_9. Spin Networks: Snapshot of Time and Space at the Planck scale Spin Foam: Evolution of Spin Networks over Time Artistic Rendering
  64. 64. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Time and Space at the Planck scale 63  Time and space are features  Selectable parameters: space, time, geometry  Focus on domain-specific questions (e.g. melonic gauge theory), time insight emerges  Portability between space and time models  Various space regimes  Diverse coordinate systems (Cartesian, polar, spherically-symmetric)  Hilbert space (infinite-dimensional function space generalized from regular Euclidean space)  AdS (toy model) of “regular” de Sitter space  Time parameter eliminated to simplify complexity (evolution over time)  Solve Einstein equations by dropping out time Source: https://towardsdatascience.com/a-weird-introduction-to-deep-learning-7828803693b0
  65. 65. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Fundamental furniture of reality Light’s Wave-Particle Duality  The first ever photograph of light as both a particle and wave (Mar 2015)  Light's wave-particle duality imaged in physical reality for the first time  Schrödinger's cat: dead or alive? 64 Source: http://phys.org/news/2015-03-particle.html, http://actu.epfl.ch/news/the-first-ever-photograph-of-light-as-both-a-parti Particle Wave
  66. 66. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Conjecture: Time Duality  Light duality: particle and wave  Time duality: discrete and continuous  Time is like light, simultaneously existing in two modes, discrete (snapshot) and continuous (perdurant)  Support from Information Theory  Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem: in digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a bridge between continuous and discrete time signals 65 Source: Swan, M. (2016). Derrida’s Perdurant Temporality and a New Theory of Time as Discrete-Continuous. 5th Derrida Today Conference. Goldsmiths, University of London. 8th – 11th June 2016.
  67. 67. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Support from Philosophy 66 Past Present Future Retention ProtentionPresent NowRecollection Expectation (Discrete) (Continuous) (Discrete) Source: Extended from Husserl, Edmund. (1991, 1964). On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (1893-1917). Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht NL.  Husserl: Internal Time Consciousness  Time as a ‘raw material’ existing uncollapsed as simultaneously discrete and continuous; a snapshot and a perdurant elapsing (like light as a superposition of particle and wave)  Time is an uncollapsed resource until deployed in a specific situation
  68. 68. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Support from Science  Composability of physical time  Conjecture: time and matter are composable at small scales  Matter at the atomic scale (1×10−9) via positional nanoassembly (actual)  Possibly time and matter at the Planck scale (1×10−35) via Lego-like time fabric bricks (loop quantum gravity) (theoretical) 67 Source: http://www.dedoimedo.com/physics/what-is-time.html, Kempf, Achim. (2010). “Spacetime could be simultaneously continuous and discrete, in the same way that information can be.” New Journal of Physics. 12. Atomic-scale Positional Nanoassembly of Matter Planck-scale ‘Lego-like’ Assembly of Spacetime
  69. 69. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time  Agenda  Philosophy of time  Aesthetics and time  Science and time 68 Philosophy of Time Perspectives in Science and Aesthetics
  70. 70. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time 69 Aesthetics and science are two modes of understanding reality, with a greater possibility of rapprochement through the philosophical consideration of time Thesis
  71. 71. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time 70 Understand the Universal and the Particular together Experience the UniversalExplain the Particular Conclusion AestheticsScience Philosophy Concern: Concern: Concern: Examples: disease causality, drug response Examples: suffering, love, inspiration  Two cultures problem (Aesthetics and Science) is an issue of the universal and the particular, which Philosophy attempts to bring together
  72. 72. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Conclusion  Problem of time is one of snapshot and perdurance and past-present-future  Philosophy discusses the unified time structure of past-present-future  Time duality: time existing as both discrete (snapshot) and continuous (perdurant), similar to light’s wave-particle duality 71 FuturePast P
  73. 73. 24 Jan 2020 Philosophy of Time Conclusion  At the smallest scale of reality (Planck scale) and in general at small scales, the focus is on time as an emergent feature  At the macro scale of philosophy, aesthetics, and applied science, the focus is on integrating snapshot and perdurant temporal regimes  Expected: the smallest scales of reality are still under physical investigation 72 Verbal (text)ImaginationVisual (image)Aesthetics IntellectImaginationEmotionsFelt knowing UnderstandingImaginationSensibilityPhilosophy
  74. 74. Melanie Swan Philosophy Department Purdue University Philosophy of Time Perspectives in Science and Aesthetics Indianapolis IN, January 25, 2020 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Thank you! Questions?
  • AngelaSoratos

    Jan. 12, 2021

Aesthetics and science are two modes of understanding reality, with a greater possibility of rapprochement through the philosophical consideration of time

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