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production of antibodies

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production of antibodies

  1. 1. Contents  Acknowledgement  Abstract  Introduction  History  Classification  Nomenclature  Antibiotic production o Importance of limited use o Measures for controlling antibiotic resistance  Summary  Discussion  Conclusion  References
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to record my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Almighty God for supporting me in every walk of life and making me capable seeing dreams and ultimately strive hard to achieve it. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the people in my life who have helped me in completing third project and providing me with their abled support. I owe my gratitude to the faculty and staff members of Hamdard Public School .Our honorable Additional Secretary, Mr. Samar Hamid, and Madam Principal, Mrs. Zakia Majid Siddiqui, who have always been a source of inspiration for us. I owe special sense of gratitude to our Biotechnology teacher, Mr. Khalid Anwer, for his learned suggestions and encouraging attitude. I am equally thankful to our Laboratory Assistant, Mr. Anwer for providing me necessary aids during this project. The internet services have been an immensely important part of my project in providing all the necessary details, articles, information and pictorial representations made use of in this project. My sincere thanks are to my friends and classmates Sonam, Anam, Varsha and Shafaque for their valuable suggestions, constant support and encouragement to do my best. I would be failing in my duty if I do not acknowledge the indebted support of my family members. I thank my beloved brother who lend a helping hand in completing this project as well as my parents who have always stood by me in every right decision. This project has only been able to be completed due to the trust, well wishes and unending support of all the people associated with me. AQSA FATIMA XII-B2
  3. 3. ABSTRACT Broadly defined, antibiotics include a chemically heterogeneous group of small organic Molecules of microbial origin that, at low concentrations, are deleterious to the growth or metabolic activities of other microorganisms. That soil is rich in microorganisms capable of antibiotic synthesis is well accepted, but the frequency with which synthesis occurs at ecologically significant levels in nature has been much less clear. Over the past decade, however, genetic and molecular techniques, coupled with sensitive and bioanalytical assays and equipment, have been applied to demonstrate conclusively that microorganisms synthesize a variety of antibiotics, even under field conditions, in the rhizosphere (that portion of the soil enriched in carbon and energy resources released by plant roots). These antibiotics can contribute to microbial competitiveness and the suppression of plant root pathogens, and the bacteria that produce them are therefore of considerable interest as a practical means of plant disease control. More generally, the techniques used to understand the role of antibiotics in the rhizosphere are applicable to other habitats where mechanisms of microbial antagonism or the production of bioactive metabolites are of interest. When used together, the bioanalytical and molecular approaches are complementary, allowing the detection and quantification of metabolites produced in situ as well as an evaluation of their activity, and hence their ecological significance. The direct detection of a metabolite provides irrefutable evidence that the genetic and physiological potentials for its synthesis have been met, and the amounts recovered are in part a function of the net rates of synthesis and turnover under particular experimental circumstances. Direct measurements are most informative when the identity and physical properties of the metabolite are known so that procedures for extraction can be optimized, and are of value in assessing the relative amounts present over a range of conditions or in monitoring persistence and dissemination in the environment. Even when the structure is known, sensitivity of detection is likely to be the single most limiting factor to the direct analysis of metabolites produced in situ. The comparatively large sample sizes from which metabolites are extracted generally preclude direct analyses of substances produced by localized populations in spatially restricted sites in soil or on plant surfaces. Molecular approaches offer highly sensitive but indirect alternatives to the direct analysis of
  4. 4. bioactive metabolites produced in situ. These techniques detect either the potential for synthesis as inferred from the presence or expression of biosynthetic genes, or an activity attributable to the presence of the metabolite itself. For example, introduced and indigenous antibiotic-producing strains can be detected and enumerated by using probes and primers based on unique DNA sequences within genes specific for antibiotic biosynthesis. Such sequences also have been applied to access novel biosynthetic genes directly from soil without the need for culturing. Reporter gene systems (described elsewhere in this volume) can be used to monitor the transcription of antibiotic biosynthesis genes expressed in situ. When the impact of metabolites on other organisms is of primary interest, as when antibiotic-producing agents are introduced for purposes of biological control, bioremediation, or bio fertilization, antibiotic-nonproducing mutant derivatives are indispensable in distinguishing between effects due specifically to the antibiotic and those attributable to other activities of the introduced agents. This project reviews factors known to affect the production, activity and detection of antibiotics in situ, discusses methods for extraction and quantification from soil and plant materials, and describes approaches to detecting biosynthetic genes, their expression, and the effects of synthesis in soil habitats. Research until now has focused mainly on the activities of a few bacterial genera producing compounds of known structure, but the techniques that have been developed may be applicable to diverse taxa producing structurally undefined bioactive metabolites as well.
  5. 5. Summary From the data presented here it would appear widespread use of antimicrobials in both inpatient and outpatient settings has been associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Bacterial strains that have been susceptible to all antimicrobial agents for decades have now developed resistance not only to those classic therapies, but to newer agents as well. Other organisms have developed resistance to new antimicrobials almost as soon as the drugs have been marketed, if not earlier. Organisms that are resistant to several different groups of antimicrobials have become more prevalent in recent years. Antibiotic resistance has been a concern in the medical community since the 1950s, when an increase was documented in colonization and infection rates of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized patients. In March 1991, the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) distributed a document, “Position Paper on the Control of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hospitals and Long-term Care Facilities”, to the acute and long-term care facilities in Alabama. As there continues to be an evolution of knowledge concerning antibiotic resistance, this document has been written to update the 1991 document and to incorporate the present standards of care. As the need arises, it will be revised. A rapid increase in the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) reported in United States hospitals has generated concern comparable to that observed when the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem was first recognized. In addition, the first clinical strain of vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has recently been documented in the United States. In September, 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published the document “Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of Vancomycin Resistance, Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)”. While this valuable CDC document addresses prevention and control issues in the acute care setting, it does not provide guidance for management of vancomycin resistance in other healthcare settings. The purpose of this document is to update and expand the previous ADPH position paper on MRSA and to include infection control recommendations concerning VRE resistance
  6. 6. in Alabama healthcare facilities/settings. Since today’s trend is toward shorter hospital stays, more outpatient surgery, outpatient IV therapy, and a shift to home therapy, and because a colonization/infection may not be resolved when the patient is discharged or transferred, we have included recommendations for nontraditional healthcare settings in an effort to prevent and control antibiotic-resistant organism transmission. Preventing and controlling the spread of all potential antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a variety of healthcare settings will require a coordinated, conscious effort from all individuals participating in the healthcare delivery system. Elements of this effort will require: (1) instituting a system for surveillance of clinical antimicrobial susceptibility summary reports by location and risk, (2) prudent use of antibiotics, (3) early detection and prompt reporting of MRSA, VRE, and other epidemiologically important antibiotic resistant organisms by clinical microbiology laboratories, (4) immediate implementation of Standard Precautions and other appropriate infection control measures with specific emphasis on hand hygiene (to include monitoring of healthcare worker adherence) to prevent further spread, (5) implementing protocols for removal of invasive devices when they are no longer needed, (6) educating healthcare staff, as well as the general public, regarding the problems of antibiotic resistance, (7) meticulous communication between healthcare facilities/settings, and (8) incorporating the concept of infection control and prevention of transmission of infections into the healthcare facility’s/setting’s safety culture.
  7. 7. Discussion Since the discovery of penicillin in 1929 by Alexander Fleming the importance of antibiotics as chemotherapeutic agent has been increasing year after year. More than 800 antibiotics are known though only few of them have a therapeutic importance. The study of the biosynthetic pathway of many antibiotics have served as a way to design new pathways and products. Penicillin production can be studied as an example for the antibiotic world because it was the first antibiotic produced on a large scale and also because today it is the one most commonly used inthe treatment of human infectious diseasearound the world. In addition many of the techniques used for the industrial production of penicillin have served as a model for the industrial production of other antibiotics or secondary metabolites. Traditionally increase in the production of antibiotics has been obtained using classical improvement methods which have given good results and the use of these methods have allowed researchers to improve the strains and the production processes. However over the last few years molecular biology techniques have been implemented in order to increase final antibiotic production and also to obtain products that are not naturally synthesized. After approximately 20 years of gene manipulation there is still one question open. Can the DNA Recombinant technology improve natural evolution or simply make it go faster? Since industry still uses classical mutation and screening methods to select for better producing strains, molecular biology can probably serve as an additional tool to improve strains which must be combined with the classical improvement techniques to get the better result.
  8. 8. Conclusion The emergence and spread of resistance to antibiotics among common pathogenic bacteria is an important healthcare concern. Today, the magnitude of the problem has become so great that it is threatening to reverse the scientific progress made so far. Several factors contribute to the problem including misuse on the part of physicians and patients, widespread use of antibiotics with high resistance potential, use of antibiotics as animal growth promoters and in household products. Antibiotic resistance, especially the development of bacteria resistant to multiple drugs, is a rapidly growing global problem. Diverse factors, including patient’s expectation, over-the-counter availability of antibiotics, rampant use of antibiotics with high resistance potential and use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animals contribute to the problem. Effective strategies to control antibiotic resistance are: • Increasing public awareness through public education campaigns • Promoting prudent use of antibiotics by health professionals • Restricting the use of antibiotics with high resistance potential • Checking over-the-counter sale of antibiotic • Discouraging the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry and household products • Formulating evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common infections • Surveillance at local and national level to assess the magnitude of the problem and effectiveness of interventions. Interventions may have limited effect as long as other regions of the world continue to misuse antibiotics, select for resistant bacteria and spread them. Therefore, we must all join hands in this fight to return to the world of susceptible microbes.
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