1. Module 2 Valuing Others and their Circumstances
FINDING OTHER’S GREATNESS
We forge lasting relationships with others when we recognize their greatness instead of their weaknesses. This is an
essential step in becoming connected with them. As the lesson unfolds, think of the question,
“What is greatness?”
- The quality of being great; something we yearn for, we dream. Greatness will be achieved through an enormous
hard work over of what you wish for an extended period.
Be not afraid of greatness; some are born great, some achieve greatness, and others have….greatness thrust upon
Explanation: The quote means that every person is destined to be great at some point in their life and they should not be
afraid of carrying that type of responsibility but there are some people are born great while others have to work at it.
READING TEXT 1 Auld Lang Syne
“The song Auld Lang Syne is referring to the new beginnings and changing times. It’s about letting go of the past and old
Motive Question: How do we celebrate the “greatness” of the people we know?
- We can celebrate the greatness of the people we know y not forgetting the things they did that made them
great and also having a small feast will do.
READING TEXT 2 I Think Continually Of Those Who Were Truly Great- Stephen Spender
Motive Question: Who do we consider truly great?
- The poem I Think Continually of Those Who are Truly Great by Stephen Spender has an attempt to describe
what makes a person “truly” great. The poem consider soldier as truly great not only the war men but also the
people who selflessly fights for what they believe in.
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Onomatopoeia is sound device used by poets to suggest actions, mvements, and meanings.
e.g., The hissing of the snake made me shoo it away.
The bubbling brook breaks.
Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed
syllables of an English language phrase.
Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrase or sentences, and together with
alliteration and consonance serves as one of the building blocks of verse. Assonance is a rhyme, the identity of which depends
merely on the vowel sounds.
Consonance is a poetic device characterized by the repetition of the same consonant two or more times in short succession, as
in "pitter patter" or in "all mammals named Samare clammy“
Imagery refers to the "pictures" which we perceive with our mind's eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and through which we
experience the "duplicate world" created by poetic language.
Repetition is a central part of poetry that adds to the enjoyment of a poem. Words , phrases , or lines are repeated to serve a
Examples: Oh, her eyes, her eyes make the stars look like they’re not shining.
Metaphor is a figure of speech that is used to refer to another thing in order to show or suggest that they are similar.
Example. My brother was a boiling mad. (This implies that he was too angry.)
A simile is a figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison. It is a figure of speech
comparing two unlike things using either “like” or “as”.
It is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes. (Pagbibigay buhay sa mga bagay na
Example: The wind whispered.
It is a figure of speech which uses exaggeration to evoke strong feelings .
Example: I ate tons of hamburgers.
2. BODY LANGUAGE
Tone of Voice
Shows that a person does not know or understand what you are talking about
Ring or Ok – means all correct
It is an OK signal normally, but, when it is jerked sharply upwards it becomes an insult signal
AGGRESSIVE PALM POSITION DOMINANT PALM POSITION SUBMISSIVE PALM POSITION
High clenched hands indicate people who are difficult to decipher
MOUTH GUARD CATCH A LIE..
Suppress the deceitful words Sometimes indicates thinking
COLLAR PULL STANDARD ARM CROSS GESTURE
Indicates anger & frustration Defensive or negative attitude
ARM GRIPPING GESTURE PARTIAL ARM-CROSS BARRIER GESTURE
Show that the user is 'cool’ lacking in self-confidence
and to make his superiority felt
READINESS STANDARD LEG-CROSS POSITION
‘Readiness' which in the right context is correct, Shows nervous, reserved or
but the basic meaning is aggression defensive attitude
THE 4 LEG LOCK POSITION
Sign of the tough-minded, stubborn individual
Indicates pride of ownership
SPEAKER: Martin Luther King Speech
TITLE: I Have a Dream
TOPIC: He calls for an end to racism in the United States.
SIGN POSTS AND KEY WORDS:
I still have a dream, a dream deeply rooted in the American dream – one day this nation will rise up and live up to its
creed, "We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream... Martin Luther King, J r.
MAIN IDEA: An American Dream
Information graphics or info graphics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to
present complex information quickly and clearly. They can improve cognition by utilizing graphics to enhance the human
visual system’s ability to see patterns and trends. The process of creating info graphics can be referred to as data
visualization, information design, or information architecture.
7 ELEMENTS IN MAKING INFOGRAPHIC
A story that is factual that can catch an attention to
Style is subjective but a good designer will know from
experience what works.
Simple design may do. Avoid confusion by creating flow
Consider the number of pixels. It must be clear. Avoid
lengthy texts. Be concise. The shorter, the better.
If it is about stats, make sure they are factual and
reliable, current and helpful.
#6. Share ability
Make your info graphic easy to share. Provide an embed
Make sure you attribute and let your audience know
where you got the facts and figures from. Credibility is
an important factor for a successful Info graphic.
4. What is an adverb of place?
- These adverbs always answer one
important question: Where?
- An adverb of place always talks about the
location where the action of the verb is
being carried out.
- Adverbs of place are normally placed after
a sentence’s object or main verb.
- Adverbs of place can be directional: Up,
down, around, away, north, southeast
- Adverbs of place can refer to distances:
Nearby, far away, miles apart
- An adverb of place can indicate an
object’s position in relation to another
object: Below, between, above, behind,
through, around and so forth.
- Many adverbs of place indicate movement
in a particular direction and end in the
letters “-ward or -wards”: Toward,
forward, backward, homeward, westward,
A narrative paragraph tells a story. It shows readers what happened at a particular place and time.
1. Vocal Variety: The Four P’s
Power refers to the volume you project.
Pitch is the frequency of the sound you emit.
Pace is your speaking rate.
Pause is a temporary stop in action or speech.
2. Gestures / Body Language
Gesture is a movement of part of the body, especially a hand or the head, to express an idea or meaning.
“Great speakers move around the speaking area with purpose.”
Staging your speech means utilizing the 3-dimensional space around you in the most effective way possible.
If you’re going to order the 3 (Speech Preparation) from the most to least important, what and why?
- Vocal Variety- This is the most important in speech preparation because the audience needs to hear your voice
because the message comes from your mouth and it needs to be heard.
- Gestures-Gestures is important because this can make you and your speech interesting to watch.
- Staging- This is important because making use of the area can make you a great speaker.
5. Module 2 Valuing Others and their Circumstances
Observing Others’ Circumstances
In the previous lesson, you have explored the concept on greatness. As you engage in the tasks in this
lesson, ask yourself,
“How do I view other people’s circumstances?”
- I view others circumstances as a challenge to them to face that can make them and their life
READING TEXT 1: The Man With the Hoe by Edwin Markham
Motive Question: What circumstance is the persona faced with?
- Today the farmers face a problem about their low salary. Their salary is not enough for their
family, for their food and for other expenses.
- is a poetic form which originated in Italy; Giacomo Da Lentini is credited with its invention.
- sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto a little poem, song
- Latin sonus a sound
- By the thirteenth century it signified a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme
scheme and specific structure.
- Writers of sonnets are sometimes called "sonneteers", although the term can be
What is a Sonnet?
- It has 14 lines, and is written in iambic pentameter.
Two types of sonnet:
- Italian (or Petrarchan)
- English (or Shakespearean)
*The type of sonnet is determined by its rhyme scheme.
Petrarchan (Italian) Sonnet
- named after the 14th century Italian poet Francesco Petrarch
- Italian, sonnet has an octave (or octet) of eight lines followed by a sestet of 6 lines.
- patterns for the octet are: abbaabba and abbacddc
- sestet has a pattern of defdef or dedede.
Shakespearean (English) Sonnet
- this form was used by William Shakespeare
- differs from the Petrarchan sonnet in both its structure and its rhyme scheme
- three quatrains of four lines
- followed by a couplet of two lines
- Shakespearean sonnets have a rhyme pattern that never varies: abab, cdcd, efef, gg
Addressing this jobs challenge requires meeting a dual challenge: expanding formal sector
employment even faster while rapidly raising the incomes of those informally employed.
Adverb of manner
An adverb of manner tells us how something is done or happens. Most adverbs of manner end in –ly
such as badly, happily, sadly, slowly, quickly, and others that include well, hard, fast, etc.
The brothers were badly injured in the fight.
They had to act fast to save the others floating in the water.
At the advanced age of 88, she still sang very well.
6. Word Formation: Derivation and Back-Formation
- is the process of creating new words
11. Nonce words
Derivation is the word formation process in which a derivational affix attaches to the base form of a word to create a
new word. Affixes, which include prefixes and suffixes, are bound morphemes.
Morphemes are the smallest linguistic unit of a language with semantic meaning.
a- – without, not
co- – together
de- – opposite, negative, removal, separation
dis- –opposite, negative
en- – cause to be
ex- – former, previous, from
in- – negative, not
non- – absence, not
re- – again, repeatedly
un- – negative, not, opposite, reversal
-able – sense of being
-er – agent
-ful – characterized by
-fy – make, become, cause to be
-ism – action or practice, state or condition
-less – lack of
-ly – -like
-ology – study, science
-ship – condition, character, skill
-y – characterized by, inclination, condition
Grammatical Form Retaining Derivation
verb to verb: appear → disappear
noun to noun: friend → friendship
adjective to adjective: practical → impractical
Grammatical Form Changing Derivation
verb to noun: preserve → preservation
noun to verb: code → codify
adjective to adverb: quick → quickly
7. Back-formation is the word formation process in which an actual or supposed derivational affix detaches from the base
form of a word to create a new word.
Original – Back-formation
babysitter – babysit
donation – donate
gambler – gamble
hazy – haze
moonlighter – moonlight
obsessive – obsess
procession – process
resurrection – resurrect
sassy – sass
television – televise
Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more lexemes combine into a single new word. Compound
words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen.
noun-noun compound: note + book → notebook
adjective-noun compound: blue + berry → blueberry
verb-noun compound: work + room → workroom
noun-verb compound: breast + feed → breastfeed
verb-verb compound: stir + fry → stir-fry
adjective-verb compound: high + light → highlight
verb-preposition compound: break + up → breakup
preposition-verb compound: out + run → outrun
adjective-adjective compound: bitter + sweet → bittersweet
preposition-preposition compound: in + to → into
Clipping is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the
word. Clipping differs from back-formation in that the new word retains the meaning of the original word.
advertisement – ad
memorandum – memo
alligator – gator
photograph – photo
examination – exam
public house – pub
gasoline – gas
raccoon – coon
gymnasium – gym
reputation – rep
influenza – flu
situation comedy – sitcom
laboratory – lab
telephone – phone
mathematics – math
FOUR TYPES OF CLIPPING
- Back clipping is removing the end of a word as in gas from gasoline.
- Fore-clipping is removing the beginning of a word as in gator from alligator.
- Middle clipping is retaining only the middle of a word as in flu from influenza.
- Complex clipping is removing multiple parts from multiple words as in sitcom from situation comedy.
Blending is the word formation process in which parts of two or more words combines to create a new word whose
meaning is often a combination of the original words. Blended words are also referred to as portmanteaus.
advertisement + entertainment → advertainment
prim + sissy → prissy
biographical + picture → biopic
simultaneous + broadcast → simulcast
breakfast + lunch → brunch
smoke + fog → smog
chuckle + snort → chortle
Spanish + English → Spanglish
cybernetic + organism → cyborg
spoon + fork → spork
guess + estimate → guesstimate
telephone + marathon → telethon
hazardous + material → hazmat
web + seminar → webinar
motor + hotel → motel
Conversion is the word formation process in which a word of one grammatical form becomes a word of another
grammatical form without English any changes to spelling or pronunciation.
Noun to Verb Conversion- is also referred to as verbification or verbing, as humorously discussed by Calvin and Hobbes.
access – to access
fiddle – to fiddle
name – to name
bottle – to bottle
fool – to fool
pocket – to pocket
can – to can
Google – to google
salt – to salt
closet – to closet
host – to host
shape – to shape
email – to email
knife – to knife
ship – to ship
eye – to eye
microwave – to microwave
spear – to spear
8. For example:
My grandmother bottled (verb) the juice and canned (verb) the pickles.
My grandmother put the juice in a bottle (noun) and the pickles in a can (noun).
She microwaved (verb) her lunch.
She heated her lunch in the microwave (noun).
The doctor eyed (verb) my swollen eye (noun).
Verb to Noun Conversion- is also referred to as nominalization
to alert – alert
to attack – attack
to call – call
to clone – clone
to command – command
to cover – cover
to cry – cry
to experience – experience
to fear – fear
to feel – feel
to hope – hope
to increase – increase
to judge – judge
to laugh – laugh
to rise – rise
to run – run
to sleep – sleep
to start – start
to turn – turn
to visit – visit
The guard alerted (verb) the general to the attack (noun).
The enemy attacked (verb) before an alert (noun) could be sounded.
Sometimes one just needs a good cry (noun).
The baby cried (verb) all night.
We need to increase (verb) our productivity to see an increase (noun) in profits.
Abbreviation is the word formation process in which a word or phrase is shortened. Initialisms are a type of
abbreviation formed by the initial letters of a word or phrase. Abbreviation is related to both the word formation
processes of clipping and blending.
Apr. – April
cm – centimeter(s)
d. – died, died in
dept. – department
Dr. – doctor
Jr. – Junior
Mr. – Mister
oz – ounce(s)
Sun. – Sunday
yd – yard(s)
A.M. – ante meridiem [in the morning]
B.C.E. – Before Common Era
GOP – Grand Old Party (Republican Party)
HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus
i.e. – id est [that is]
JFK – John Fitzgerald Kennedy
OJ – orange juice
PMS – premenstrual syndrome
RSVP – répondezs'ilvous plait
VIP – very important person
Acronyms are words formed by the word formation process in which an initialism is pronounced as a word. Acronyms
are related to the word formation process of abbreviation.
ASAP – as soon as possible
AWOL – absent without leave
laser - light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDAQ - National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations
PIN – personal identification number
radar - radio detection and ranging
scuba - self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
TESOL – Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
WASP – White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
9. Eponyms are a word form by the word formation process in which a new word is formed from the name of a real of
atlas – Atlas
mirandize – Ernesto A. Miranda
boycott – Charles C. Boycott
narcissistic – Narcissus
cardigan – James Thomas Brudnell, 7th Earl of Cardigan
nicotine – Jean Nicot
cereal – Ceres
pasteurization – Louis Pasteur
dunce – John Duns Scotus
poinsettia – Noel Roberts Poinsett
guillotine – Joseph IgnaceGuillotin
praline – César de Choiseul, Count Plessis–Praslin
jacuzzi – Candido Jacuzzi
sadistic – Marquis de Sade
luddite – Ned Ludd
salmonella – Daniel Elmer Salmon
malapropism – Mrs. Malaprop
sandwich – John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich
mesmerize – Franz Anton Mesmer
volcano – Vulcan
Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using
the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing. Coinages are also referred to simply as
neologisms, the word neologism meaning "new word."
Nonce words are new words formed through any number of word formation processes with the resulting word meeting
a lexical need that is not expected to recur. Nonce words are created for the nonce, the term for the nonce meaning " for
a single occasion."
cotton-wool – to stuff or close (the ears) with cotton-wool.
jabberwock – The name of the fabulous monster in Lewis Carroll's poem Jabberwocky.
touch-me-not-ishness – having a "touch-me-not" character; stand-off-ish.
twi-thought – an indistinct or vague thought.
witchcraftical – The practices of a witch or witches; the exercise of supernatural power supposed to be possessed by
persons in league with the devil or evil spirits.
Borrowing is the word formation process in which a word from one language is borrowed directly into another
language. Borrowed words are also referred to as loanwords.
algebra – Arabic
murder – French
bagel – Yiddish
near – Sanskrit
cherub – Hebrew
paprika – Hungarian
chowmein – Chinese
pizza – Italian
fjord – Norwegian
smorgasbord – Swedish
galore – Irish
tamale – Spanish
haiku – Japanese
yo-yo – Tagalog
kielbasa – Polish
Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is translated from one language to another.
Calques are also referred to as root-for-root or word-for-word translations.
beer garden – German – Biergarten
blue-blood – Spanish – sangreazul
commonplace – Latin – locus commūnis
flea market – French – marché aux puces
free verse – French – verslibre
loanword – German – Lehnwort
long time no see – Chinese – hǎojiǔbujiàn
pineapple – Dutch – pijnappel
scapegoat – Hebrew – ezozel
wisdom tooth – Latin – dēnssapientiae