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Ten Novel and Innovative applications of water energy nexus

Ten Innovative Application of Water and Energy Nexus. Water used for energy generation or energy used for clean water production both can be referred to as an example of Water-Energy Nexus.This presentation depicts ten such innovative and novel examples of Water and Energy Nexus.

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Ten Novel and Innovative applications of water energy nexus

  2. 2. Introduction • Increasing populations in emerging countries will account for over 90 percent of global population growth by 2030; • Their rapid industrialization, urbanization, and motorization mean that these economies will contribute 70 percent of global GDP growth by 2030 and • Maximum of the growth will be in global water and energy demand. Source : https://www.who.int/gho/urban_health/en/
  3. 3. Contd. • The natural and physical systems of the Earth provides food, energy, and water (FEW) resources. • Water is required for the production of energy • Energy is needed for wastewater treatment, desalination, pumping groundwater, and for transport of water. • Water and energy are critical for agriculture and food production. Source : https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/ 2017RG000591
  4. 4. Water Energy Nexus : Why ? • Rapid urbanization, and climatic abnormalities have major effects on Food Energy and Water(FEW). • Impacts “the social, behavioural, and economic decisions made by individuals, organizations, and governments”. • The increased demand on these resources, specially for Water and Energy Resource, societies can no longer continue optimal operation for one system (i.e., food, energy, or water system) • “We must plan our interaction within the FEW system of systems so that no single one fails even if it means that all operate sub-optimally…as a result smart nexus in FEW is the need of the hour”. • Specially the energy and water resource has to be managed symbiotically such that the other component will be automatically managed optimally. Source : https://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/3985715
  5. 5. Water Energy Nexus : What ? Management of water in energy sector Management of energy in water sector For maximization of productivity. Can be referred as Water Energy Nexus
  6. 6. Points of Concern : Brazil • The “ripple effect” of water scarcity on food and power production where a persistent drought induced “The biggest shock” which has risen the cost of fruits and vegetables. • The drought is projected to continue to affect the coffee, sugar cane, and other crops production, with a resultant fallout to the country’s economy. • Drought can start to drive up electricity prices, as power companies could be forced to use more expensive thermoelectric power plants to compensate for the dwindling reservoirs behind hydroelectric power plants. • As a result growth rate of Brazil’s growth will reduce further by 1 to 2 percent. Source : https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/deloitte-review/issue- 17/water-energy-food-nexus.html
  7. 7. POINT OF CONCERN : CHINA • The impact on economic growth due to scarcity of FEW has been identified in China as early as 2011. • The largest portion of China's industrial water use is for energy production, like Chinese hydropower and China is the largest producer of hydropower in the world and plans to triple hydropower capacity by 2020. • “Less than half of the water used for irrigation actually reaching crops.” Source : https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/9684/chinas-growing- water-crisis
  8. 8. Point of Concern : USA • Water scarcity is now affecting both energy and food production in California • According to a recent report, the drought is estimated to drive an economic loss to the state economy of about $3 billion in 2015—an increase from about $2.2 billion in 2014. • Groundwater irrigation is also highly energy intensive (IWMI 2009). Source : https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40518-014-0024-3
  9. 9. Point of Concern : India • Indian government stressed on “increasing energy efficiency of electric irrigation pumps and given guidelines on increasing efficiency in energy use”. • Pushed for solar powered irrigation pumps in the 2018 Union budget • Effective monitoring of the arrangement is required to ensure that price per unit of water sold from pumping groundwater using solar energy is lower than actual cost paid to the power distriutor Source : https://www.teriin.org/article/water-food-energy-nexus-india
  10. 10. Water Energy Nexus Opportunities • United Nations’ 2015 Sustainable Development Goals includes three focused area : food, water, and energy. • World Bank, IUCN, and the World Economic Forum etc. have called for action for the nexus. • Aquafed, WBCSD etc private sectors are keen to ensure water and energy security through sustainable efforts like the actions adopted by the Coca-Cola Company and Royal Dutch Shell. Source : https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2015/12/sustainable-development-goals-kick-off-with- start-of-new-year
  12. 12. NEXUS EWATER RECYCLER • Nexus eWater has developed a technology to help save water and energy. • The Nexus eWater Recycler, can reduce domestic water usage by 34 percent, • Sewage flows can be decremented by 70 percent, and hot water with 75 percent less energy than conventional technologies, can be produced. • “Designed as a combined water purification and heating system, the Nexus eWater Recycler recycles grey water to a quality which is safe to use on lawns and in toilets while simultaneously extracting the waste heat in grey water and concentrating it in a hot water tank”. Source : https://nexus-ewater.webflow.io/
  13. 13. POWER PLANTS TO UTILIZE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER • Existing power plants can utilize municipal wastewater for meeting their water requirements. • Using a low-quality water source will have hazards like “precipitation, scaling, corrosion, and biomass growth inside recirculated cooling systems”. • The water may be treated using conventional technology, such as reverse osmosis, prior to circulating it through the plant;. • An “optimal approach for managing water quality inside the system requires testing, modelling, assessing the lifecycle cost, and conducting a lifecycle assessment of alternative treatments.” Source : https://www.wef.org/globalassets/assets-wef/3---resources/topics/a- n/energy/asmewef-municipal-wastewater-reuse-by-electric-utilities-9-12-12-final.pdf
  14. 14. NPXpress • American Water has developed a technology that decreases the energy used in the wastewater treatment process by 50 percent. • The technology is called NPXpress and it is already implemented at seven wastewater treatment plants in New Jersey and New York. Source : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1365693714701121
  15. 15. WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RENEWABLE ENERGY • “A solar electric system supplements 20 percent of peak usage at Canal Road Water Treatment Plant in New Jersey.” • In Pennsylvania Yardley Water Treatment Plant Facility runs entirely on wind-generated energy purchased from local provider. Source : http://uswateralliance.org/resources/blog/water-energy-nexus- benefits-innovations
  16. 16. THE EDF GROUP’S SOLUTION FOR WATER ALLOCATION BETWEEN IRRIGATION AND ENERGY GENERATION • Electricité de France, known as The EDF Group, devised a mechanism to allocate water for irrigation and power production of a region. • It devised a process of valuing water, which creates a mutually beneficial economic agreement for the stakeholders. Source : https://www.hydropower.org/sites/default/files/publications-docs/Multi- purpose_water_uses_of_hydropower_reservoirs.pdf
  17. 17. MULTIFAMILY ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY PROGRAM • Austin Water Utility, Texas Gas Service, and Austin Energy in 2011 developed a “Multifamily Energy and Water Efficiency Program”. • The program was designed to help conserve water, electricity, and gas. • The program provides resource efficiency home improvements for multifamily residential dwellings. Source : https://www.aceee.org/sites/default/files/publications/researchreports/e13h.pdf
  18. 18. “ACCELERATOR PROGRAM” OF IMAGINE H2O • Imagine H2O is an organization that promotes nexus technology innovation in areas of agriculture, water efficiency, wastewater reuse, and energy and resource recovery. • It offers an “accelerator program” to help competing entrepreneurs turn their plans into scalable technologies and become part of the nexus ecosystem. Source : https://www.imagineh2o.org/accelerator
  19. 19. FLOW-THROUGH ELECTRODE CAPACITIVE DESALINATION Flow-Through Electrode Capacitive Desalination— Patent No. 20120273359: FTE-CD represents : Process of Desalination Through the application of electricity cost-effectively and reliable produces clean drinking water. Source :https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2012/ee/c2ee21498a#!divAbstract
  20. 20. FRESH WATER FROM BRACKISH GROUND OR SURFACE WATER USING COMPOSITE RESIN ELECTRODES Fresh Water From Brackish Ground or Surface Water using Composite Resin Electrodes— Patent Pending: Uses composite resin electrodes and energy. Energy used for Ion Removal to produce fresh water from Brackish Ground Water. Source : https://ipo.lbl.gov/3121_3135/
  21. 21. ENHANCED RENEWABLE METHANE PRODUCTION SYSTEM • Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System from Wastewater Treatment Plants, Farms, & Landfills—Patent No. 8,247,009: • A low-cost process • accelerates biological methane production rates • thus addressing one of the largest barriers to the use of renewable methane which can be used for energy generation. Source : https://www.anl.gov/tcp/enhanced-renewable-methane- production-system-benefits-wastewater-treatment-plants-farms-and