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Hydro Geek Volume 1 Issue 1

A series of a graphical monologue on hydrology, hydropower, hydraulics and water quality issues. The first issue tries to highlight the role and significance of water filters in the creation of sustainable and healthy human society.The issue depicts the way you can select the best filter for your self-use. Tries to teach you the most popular two techniques of decision making which can be used to make objective decisions when you have many options. The major impurities of water can be removed by the filters but you have to use different filters or combination of filters at different locations as no two locations have the same quality of water. Learn how to distinguish.

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Hydro Geek Volume 1 Issue 1

  1. 1. Hydro-GEEK Issue 1 Vol 1 A series of graphical monologue on hydrology, hydro power, hydraulics and water quality issues Founding Editor : Dr.Mrinmoy Majumder Blog : https://hydroideas.blogspot.com/ Six types of filters mostly used in purifying water for city dwellers
  2. 2. Content • 1) Six types of filters mostly used in purifying water for city dwellers • 2) Five most common contaminants in rural water and how to remove them? • 3) How to identify the filter for purifying raw water? • 4) Tutorial: Analytical Hierarchy Process • 5) Tutorial: Analytical Network Process • 6) Smart Use of Water and Energy in Domestic Households • 7) Tools: Simple Decision Maker by AHP • 8) Recent Jobs in Water Quality Engineering
  3. 3. Six filters used in purifying water for city dwellers
  4. 4. Different Types of Filters • Broadly filters can be classified into six types : • Physical Filters : “filtering by gravity” • Ion Exchange : “filtering by exchanging bad ions with good ions” • Activated Carbon : “filtering by trapping impurities within pores of carbon material” • Reverse Osmosis : “filtering by reversing the process of osmosis thus separating the impurities and water by semipermeable membrane” • Distillation : “filtering by boiling” • UV Light : “filtering by lights of ultra-violet frequency” • A brief description, strength and weakness of the filters are explained in the next slides.
  5. 5. Different Types of Filters
  6. 6. PHYSICAL FILTERS AND ION EXCHANGE FILTERS
  7. 7. ACTIVATED CARBON REVERSE OSMOSIS
  8. 8. ACTIVATED CARBON AND REVERSE OSMOSIS FILTERS
  9. 9. Distillation vs UV Filters
  10. 10. DISTILLATION AND UV FILTERS
  11. 11. Water Pollutants in Urban Areas • Sediment, nutrients, oxygen-demanding substances, road salts, heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pathogenic bacteria, and viruses. • Suspended sediments constitute the largest mass of pollutant loadings to receiving waters from urban areas • Emerging Organic Compounds : Hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste- and-odour compounds(Pal et.al.,2014)
  12. 12. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • In urban areas generally water is supplied from surface or waste water treatment plants. At the treatment plant the suspended sediments are already reduced by different high end filtration procedures. The toxic chemicals and other harmful infectious compounds were removed at the treatment plant by chlorination process and then after disinfection the water is supplied to the consumers. • Thus first of all the supplied water will have high concentration of Chlorine due to the conduction of chlorination at the treatment plant for disinfecting the treated water before supplying. • Water may also get contaminated with organic compounds like micro-bacterium (thus increasing the Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD)) or by the presence of inorganic pollutants like microplastics (that will aggravate the Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD)) in the pipelines through which water is supplied to your household. There is also a high chance of heavy metal presence. • There is also a probability of high concentration of Calcium and Magnesium ions (which is responsible for hardness) in the treated water if required treatment for reducing hardness is not available in the treatment plants.
  13. 13. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • For such cases a four stage filter will be required having one activated carbon to remove the chlorine and other organic pollutants followed by ion exchange to remove the hardness. • At the third stage a reverse osmosis filter can be used to reduce the concentration of inorganic pollutants including heavy metals. • In the last stage a UV light can be utilized to remove the remaining concentration of organic pollutants which will mainly consist of micro- organisms. • However such configuration will attract high amount of operation as well as maintenance cost. That means such filter configurations will not be economically viable for middle income group of consumers.
  14. 14. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • A cheaper alternative can be a three stage filter having a physical filter in the first part to remove the suspended solids which will include most of the inorganic pollutants. • The second stage can include activated carbon which can adsorb most of the organic pollutants including chlorine and lastly an ion exchange filter which will remove the hardness of water. • Such arrangement will be cheaper but the quality of the treated water will not be as good as from the earlier configuration of filters. • But you can avoid the additional requirement of electricity consumption and waste water removal produced at the end of RO process
  15. 15. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • If you stay in a location where the water is heavy (i.e.presence of Calcium or Magnesium ions) then go for a filter configuration with activated carbon filter in the first stage, ion exchange in the second and physical filter in the last stage. • This configuration will remove most of the hardness of water during the medium stage and the salt which will be produced by the medium stage as a by-product of ion exchange filter, can be removed by the physical filter at the last stage. • Off course if you have high budget then you can go for ion exchange at first stage followed by reverse osmosis(RO) filter in the second stage and Ultraviolet(UV) light in the last stage. In this type of configurations, the ion exchange will remove hardness of the water and then the reverse osmosis filter will remove the sodium as well as other inorganic contaminants like sodium, chloride, copper, chromium, and lead; may reduce arsenic, fluoride, radium, sulphate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, and phosphorous etc. also (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,2015). • Lastly, the UV light will kill the micro-bacteriums which can seep through the semi- permeable membrane of the RO filter.
  16. 16. Five most common contaminants in rural water and how to remove them?
  17. 17. Contaminants in Rural Water • In rural areas, sources of diffuse water pollution include: run-off from agricultural land containing substances including pest control products, animal medicines, slurry, sewage sludge and manure. run-off and leaching from contaminated land. silt and dust from mining, quarrying, construction and demolition. • “….much of the pollution originates from animal wastes and commercial fertilisers. To a lesser extent, groundwater contamination also occurs in this sector as a result of inadequate percolation at septic tanks and from leaching of water soluble plant nutrients from the soil.”…. (Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government.Ireland,2020) • Infectious diseases caused by bacteria like E Coli and parasites like Cryptosporidium are the most significant health risk indicators associated with contaminated drinking water mainly found in rural water.
  18. 18. Tips and Tricks • In rural areas as described earlier (slide 25) water is generally collected from surface water sources like lakes, ponds or rivers and there will be high chance of contamination by both organic and inorganic pollutants which can be present in the fertilizers and pesticides used in the agricultural fields for cultivation. • In some location where ground water is extracted and used, probability of concentration of heavy metals will be more compared to the water collected from surface water sources. • As the soil in the agricultural fields are loosely bound, soil particles can be carried away by the surface runoff after a spell of rainfall which will also contaminate the surface water source by increasing the Total Suspended Solids in the water body. • Rural Water may also contain hardness.
  19. 19. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • In such areas activated carbon followed by ion exchange and if you have high budget for procuring filters, then you can use RO at the last stage. Activate Carbon filter will remove the suspended soil particles, Volatile Organic Compounds(VOC), herbicides, pesticides, chlorines and some other inorganic chemicals. In a study conducted by Abdulrazak et.al.(2016) activated carbon filter was found to be able to remove heavy metals like Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from waste water. • The remaining inorganic pollutants like sulphates and nitrates which was dissolved due to the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides including hardness of the water can be removed by the ion exchange filter.
  20. 20. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • RO filter will remove the remaining micro-organisms as both activated carbon and ion-exchange filter can not remove micro-organic pollutants. • However if you want to reduce your electricity consumption and avoid using additional infrastructure for managing the waste water which is produced as a by-product at the end of RO process then RO stage can be replaced by UV lights which consume less electricity and also does not require any additional waste water management procedure. • On the other hand UV lights can remove the remaining amount of microorganic pollutants after filtration by the ion exchange filter.
  21. 21. References • Abdulrazak, Sani, K. Hussaini, and H. M. Sani. "Evaluation of removal efficiency of heavy metals by low-cost activated carbon prepared from African palm fruit." Applied Water Science 7, no. 6 (2017): 3151-3155. • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Household Use." (2015). • Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government,2020,Urban and Rural Water Pollution, Retrieved from http://www.askaboutireland.ie/enfo/irelands- environment/water/water-pollution/urban-and-rural-water-pol/ • Pal, Amrita, Yiliang He, Martin Jekel, Martin Reinhard, and Karina Yew-Hoong Gin. "Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle." Environment international 71 (2014): 46-62.
  22. 22. How to identify the best filter for purifying raw water?
  23. 23. Common Impurities and how to remove it from water ?
  24. 24. How to select the best water filter ? • Step 1 : Go to https://tinyurl.com/y4g2slld. This is the link to a “Simple Decision Maker by AHP” Webware which will help to select the best filter(to be more precise : filter configurations) with the help of some criteria and following the most famous decision making method : Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP). For more details about AHP go to : https://learnmetaheuristics.blogspot.com/2019/06/simple-decision-making-tool-following.html • Step 2 : Select the set of criteria based on which you will identify the best filter among the available options (Go to Slide No.10). • Step 3 : For example, let four different types of filter configurations are available for procurement. The table in the next slide depicts the cost of purchase, type of filter, number of stages, maintenance cost and frequency and contaminant removal efficiency of the available filter configurations.
  25. 25. Name of Filter Configurations* Cost of procurement (INR) Type of filter Number of Stages Cost of Maintenance (INR/six month) Frequency of Maintenance(pe r year) Contaminant Removal Efficiency (%) Filter A 2500 Activated Carbon 2 100 3 55 Filter B 3500 Activated Carbon + UV Light 2 125 2 65 Filter C 7500 Activated Carbon + Ion Exchange + UV Light 4 250 2 75 Filter D 15000 Activated Carbon + Reverse Osmosis + UV Light 5 500 1 85 *Number of different types of filters are arranged to create one filter configuration which is sold to consumers. Normally a filter configuration have more than one stage(Stage means one type of filter). In this example only those configurations which have minimum 2 stages are considered. Same type of filter can also be used in more than one stage. Note : This example is for demonstration purpose only.
  26. 26. Now try to rank the filter configurations based on its characteristics represented by the selected criteria. It is better to represent Type of filter and number of stages by a single criteria :Number of Stages(as it depend on both type and number of stages) and Cost and frequency of maintenance as : Cost of Maintenance(cost will depend on cost per maintenance as well as number of times maintenance is required per year). Name of Filter Configurations* Cost of procurement (INR) /Rank Number of Stages /Rank Cost of Maintenance /Rank Contaminant Removal Efficiency (%) /Rank Filter A 2500/ 01 Activated Carbon 2 / 03 100 3 / 02 55 / 04 Filter B 3500 / 02 Activated Carbon + UV Light 2 / 03 125 2 / 01 65 / 03 Filter C 7500 / 03 Activated Carbon + Ion Exchange + UV Light 4 / 02 250 2 / 03 75 / 02 Filter D 15000 / 04 Activated Carbon + Reverse Osmosis + UV Light 5 / 01 500 1 / 03 85 / 01
  27. 27. How the filter configurations were ranked ? • For Cost of Procurement and Cost of Maintenance, more the cost less will be preference to buy as all the consumers tries to look for cheaper alternatives having low cost and requirement of maintenance. That is why while ranking the filter configuration with respect to the cost of procurement and maintenance more the cost of the configuration less rank was awarded. The configurations were sorted in such a manner that the costliest configuration received the worst rank or preference. • For Number of Stages criteria, as more the number of stages more contaminant can be removed. That is why more the number of stagers higher rank of preference was awarded to the configuration • For Contaminant Removal Efficiency, more the removal efficiency of the configuration more preference will be given and thus highest rank of preference was awarded to the configuration which have maximum contaminant removal efficiency.
  28. 28. How to find the best filter configuration by Simple Decision Maker Webware ? • When the link is opened the Home page will delineate the procedure to be followed. First of all convert the ranks to “Complement of Normalized Rank” by following the instruction in the home page of the software. • For the present example, we have four alternatives. So rank assigned to the alternatives will be converted to its normalized rank by : 𝑥 4 + 1 where x is the rank assigned to the alternative. and Complement of Normalized Rank will be calculated by : {1 - 𝑥 4+1 }
  29. 29. Complement to Normalized Rank Name of Filter Configurations* Cost of procurement (INR) /Rank Number of Stages /Rank Cost of Maintenance /Rank Contaminant Removal Efficiency (%) /Rank Filter A 0.8 Activated Carbon 0.4 100 0.6 0.2 Filter B 0.6 Activated Carbon + UV Light 0.4 125 0.8 0.4 Filter C 0.4 Activated Carbon + Ion Exchange + UV Light 0.6 250 0.4 0.6 Filter D 0.2 Activated Carbon + Reverse Osmosis + UV Light 0.8 500 0.4 0.8
  30. 30. Assigning Rank of Preference to the Criteria • Now a Complement to Normalized Rank of Preference to the Criteria is required to be assigned. • For this example : Contaminant Removal Efficiency(CRE) will be the most important criteria followed by Cost of Maintenance(M), Cost of Procurement(P) and lastly the Number of Stages(S)(See Slide 10). • Accordingly the Complement to Normalized Rank of Preference was calculated and found to be equal to • CRE : 0.8 > M : 0.6 > P : 0.4 > S : 0.2. • After these values were entered in the place of Criteria go to AHP page to find the results. • For this example Filter A becomes the best filter due to very low cost of maintenance and procurement. Filter D, although it has the best CRE but due to high cost of procurement and maintenance it become the least preferred alternative.
  31. 31. Assign Rank Window in Simple Decision Maker PLACE OF CRITERIA PLACE OF ALTERNATIVE
  32. 32. AHP window of Simple Decision Maker Webware PLACE OF RESULT
  33. 33. A SIMPLE TUTORIAL ON ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
  34. 34. ORIGINAL PROCESS
  35. 35. ORIGINAL PROCESS PHASE 1
  36. 36. ORIGINAL PROCESS PHASE 2
  37. 37. EXAMPLE APPLICATION
  38. 38. EXAMPL E APPLICA TION HOWTO USE AHP FOR SELECTION OF WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER IN SHORELINE PROTECTION
  39. 39. EXAMPLE APPLICAT ION PHASE 2
  40. 40. EXAMPLE APPLICATI ON PHASE 3
  41. 41. THE EXCEL SHEET USED FOR THE EXAMPLE PROBLEM
  42. 42. FIGURE SHOWING THE EXCEL SHEET USED FOR THE EXAMPLE P PAGE 1 RETURN
  43. 43. FIGURE SHOWING THE EXCEL SHEET USED FOR THE EXAMPLE PROBLEM PAGE 2 RETURN
  44. 44. Analytic Network Process Dr. Mrinmoy Majumder Course Name : Intro to Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods Lecture No.06 out of 15 https://opticlasses.teachable.com Follow me on : RG : Mrinmoy Majumder Twitter : kuttu80 Founding Honorary Editor http://www.baipatra.ws http://www.energyinstyle.website
  45. 45. What is Analytic Network Process • The analytic network process (ANP) is a more general form of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) • Used as a multi-criteria decision analysis method. • AHP structures a decision problem into a hierarchy with a goal, decision criteria, and alternatives where as the ANP structures it as a network.
  46. 46. How it Works ?
  47. 47. Example of ANP Decision Goal : To buy a car Criteria : Cost and Speed Alternatives : Mercedes Benz(M), Jaguar(J), Toyota(T) Aggregation Methods to be used : Analytic Network Process
  48. 48. Please note: • Step 1 to 4 : AHP Process (same as AHP method) • Step 5 to 8 : ANP Process
  49. 49. Step 1 • Compare each criteria with the other with respect to goal of the decision problem Goal : Buy a car Cost Speed Geometric Mean(GM) Normalized Geometric Mean(GM/S um(GM) Weightage of Criteria Cost 1 2/1 1.414 1.414/2.1 21 0.667 Speed 1/2 1 0.707 0.707/2.1 21 0.333 Rank of Criteria as per their significance : Cost : 1st Rank, Speed : 2nd Rank
  50. 50. Step 2 • Compare each alternative with every other alternatives with respect to criteria Criteria : Cost M J T Geometric Mean Normalized GM= GM/sum of all GM M 1 3/2 3/1 1.651 0.500 J 2/3 1 2/1 1.101 0.333 T 1/3 1/2 1 0.550 0.167 Rank of Alternative as per their significance with respect to cost: M : 1st Rank, J : 2nd Rank, T : 3rd Rank You can also directly use the numerical equivalent of the ranks(say R)
  51. 51. Numerical Equivalent of Ranks ( R ) • R • = {1 – Rank of alternative or criteria / (n +1) } • here n is total number of alternatives or criteria
  52. 52. Step 3 • Compare each alternative with every other alternatives with respect to criteria Criteria : Speed M J T Geometric Mean (GM) Normalized Geometric Mean M(3) 1 1/3 1/2 0.550 0.167 J(1) 3/1 1 3/2 1.651 0.500 T(2) 2/1 2/3 1 1.101 0.333 Rank of Alternative as per their significance with respect to speed: J : 1st Rank, T : 2nd Rank, M : 3rd Rank
  53. 53. Step 4 • Now multiply the weightage of the Criteria with the weightage of the alternative for that criteria and calculate the row wise average. Normalize the average to find the weight of significance of the alternatives : Cost (Weight of significance) : 0.667 Speed (Weight. of significance) : 0.333 Average Normalized Average M 0.667x0.500 0.333x0.167 0.195 0.389 J 0.667x0.333 0.333x0.500 0.194 0.389 T 0.667x0.167 0.333x0.333 0.111 0.222 END OF AHP
  54. 54. Step 5 : Start of ANP • Compare each criteria with the other with respect to the alternatives Alternative : Mercedes Benz Cost Speed Geometric Mean(GM) Normalized Geometric Mean(GM/S um(GM) Weightage of Criteria Cost 1 2/1 1.414 1.414/2.1 21 0.667 Speed 1/2 1 0.707 0.707/2.1 21 0.333 Check the rank and numerical equivalent of rank for Mercedes with respect to Cost and Speed. Then use the same numerical equivalent of the rank at the time of comparison. For example while comparing Cost and speed for M, use Rc / RS RC and RS is the R of M for Cost and Speed criteria respectively
  55. 55. Step 6 • Compare each alternative with every other alternatives with respect to criteria Alternative : Jaguar Cost Speed Geometric Mean(GM) Normalized Geometric Mean(GM/Sum (GM) Weightage of Criteria Cost 1 1/2 0.707 0.707/2.1 21 0.333 Speed 2/1 1 1.414 1.414/2.1 21 0.667 Check the rank and numerical equivalent of rank for J with respect to Cost and Speed. Then use the same numerical equivalent of the rank at the time of comparison. For example while comparing Cost and speed for J, use Rc / RS RC and RS is the R of J for Cost and Speed criteria respectively
  56. 56. Step 7 • Compare each alternative with every other alternatives with respect to criteria Alternative : Toyota Cost Speed Geometric Mean(GM) Normalized Geometric Mean(GM/Sum (GM) Weightage of Criteria Cost 1 1/2 0.707 0.707/2.1 21 0.333 Speed 2/1 1 1.414 1.414/2.1 21 0.667 Check the rank and numerical equivalent of rank for Toyota with respect to Cost and Speed. Then use the same numerical equivalent of the rank at the time of comparison. For example while comparing Cost and speed for T, use Rc / RS RC and RS is the R of T for Cost and Speed criteria respectively
  57. 57. Step 8 • Now multiply the weightage of the Alternatives with the weightage of the Criteria for that alternative and average. Normalize the average to find the updated weights of Criteria M (Weight of significance as estimated in the last step of AHP) : 0.389 J (Weight of significance as estimated in the last step of AHP) : 0.389 T(Weight of significance as estimated in the last step of AHP) : 0.222 Average Normalized Average Cost 0.389x0.667 0.389x0.333 0.222x0.333 0.154 0.462 Speed 0.389x0.333 0.389x0.667 0.222x0.667 0.179 0.538 The weightage of importance depicted in the last column shows the updated weights of the criteria. The entire process of AHP is repeated with the updated weights of criteria. If the difference between the existing weights of the alternatives and the new weights of alternatives is more than 0.0001 then the ANP process is again repeated followed by the AHP process and so on until the difference of new and old weight does not exceed 0.0001.
  58. 58. SMART USE OF WATER AND ENER DOMESTIC HOUSEHOLDS
  59. 59. How water is utilized in domestic households ? • Washing and Cleaning • FlushingToilets • Bathing • Cooking • Gardening “Most high-efficiency washers use only 15 to 30 gallons (56.8 to 113.6 L) of water to wash the same amount of clothes as older washers (29 to 45 gallons per load (109.7 to 170 L).” in USA. In the US “Older toilets can use 3.5, 5, or even up to 7 gallons of water with every flush. Federal plumbing standards now specify that new toilets can only use up to 1.6 gallons per flush (GPF), and there are high efficiency toilets that use up to 1.28 GPF.” Indian Standards : Maximum amount of water allowed to be used by a person per day : “Bathing: 55 litres; Toilet flushing: 30 litres; Washing of clothes: 20 litres; Washing the house: 10 litres; Washing utensils: 10 litres; Cooking: 5 litres; Drinking: 5 litres”. In USA, estimated use of water per person per day is about 80-100 gallons whereas in India the standard(IS 1172 ) is 135L/35.66 gallons per person but actual use varies widely.
  60. 60. Groundwater based Households (GWS) • The required amount of water is withdrawn by electric pumps or tube wells from underground aquifers • Water may be “heavy and hard” • Can be contaminated • Presence of Iron and Fluorine sometimes Arsenic • Scarcity : When adjacent water table is decreased during summer
  61. 61. Surface Water Based Households (SWS) Withdraws water from surface water sources like rivers, lakes, ponds etc. with the help of electric pumps and pipelines/canals which brings the water from the source to consumers. More the length of the pipelines more will be energy utilized by the pump May be contaminated with coliform and algae : the concentration of the algae or bacteria depends on the amount of dissolved oxygen. Presence of “Iron/Fluorine/Arsenic/Oil and Grease/Suspended as well as dissolved matters”
  62. 62. Consumes Municipal/Treated Water (MS) • Uses submersible pumps to withdraw water. • Supplied by the municipality after treatment. • As purified, minimum chance of contamination. • Reduced amount of heavy metal concentration. • Minor amount of dissolved and/or suspended solids. • Increased amount of dissolved oxygen. • Free of Oil and Grease. • Expensive. • Infrequently supplied in some places. • Sometimes taste and colour of the supplied water becomes untenable. • Amount of chlorine may be more compared to the surface or ground water sources.
  63. 63. Consumes Water from Surface Water Treatment Plant(SWTP) • House hold is fed by the treated water from SWTP . • May have greater amount of chlorine. • Turbidity may be high which make the transparency low. • Chance of contamination during supply and in the supply lines. • Dissolved oxygen will be high which may effect the taste of the water. • Expensive due to the treatment process, so wastage of water will effect the bill paid by the consumer.
  64. 64. Consumes Water from Waste Water Treatment Plant(WWTP) • The house hold is fed by treated water from WWTP. • Such water have a higher chance of contamination compared to other sources • Probability of the presence of chemical compounds will be more. • Dissolved oxygen may not be as high as the water received from other sources which may effect the taste and quality of the water • Presence of faecal coliform and bacteria will be more compared to the supply received from the SWTP • Highly Expensive, more than SWTP, for the advanced treatment process adopted for purification of the waste water, so wastage of water will effect the bill paid by the consumer
  65. 65. Consumes Water from Treated Rain Water • Water is withdrawn from the rain water harvesting tank or recharge pits. • Contamination chance is high and depend on the tank and supply lines used. • Chance of contamination during supply and in the supply lines. • Suspended solids and turbidity will be high compared to SWTP but lower compared to WWTP. • Cheap but quality is .doubtful and will depend upon the treatment mechanism adopted by the system. • Quantity that can be treated and supplied for consumption is uncertain and depend upon the amount and frequency of rainfall along with the volume of the storage tank.
  66. 66. Contaminants • SWTP • Aluminium, Arsenic, Asbestos, • Barium, Beryllium, Boron, • Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Cyanides, • Iron • Lead, Mercury • Nickel, Nitrogen • Selenium, Silver. • WWTP • Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals • Illicit drugs • Personal care products • SWS • sludge, brine disposal from the petroleum industry, mine wastes, deep-well disposal of liquid wastes, animal feedlot wastes, ... • GWS • Nitrates, Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products
  67. 67. Problems • Physical : Scarcity of Water : Most of the water supplied to a household is actually wasted. The practice of recycling is not widely observed and also avoided due to misconceptions related to the quality of the water. Sometimes due to head difference between the source and consumers water flow gets reversed and phenomena like water hammering occurs which have the capacity to damage the pipelines. • Chemical : Poor quality of water. The concentration of Dissolved Oxygen depend upon the presence of dissolved and suspended solids specially the bio-degradable products. As a result the taste and visibility of the supplied water get affected most of the times • Biological : The supplied water is often contaminated by organic wastes released from other households which leads to the presence of various types of microorganism. Tests show that contaminants affect the health of the consumers and many time is the sole reason for health related disasters.
  68. 68. Major Problem • Scarcity of Water : Both amount and frequency of supply is unreliable and irregular • Degradation in the quality of supplied water • Another problem which is an indirect problem of the previous two problems is : • Wastage of electrical energy in pumping • To maintain supply, water has to be pumped frequently • Degraded quality of water can corrode the internal materials of the pump(if submerged) • Which will lead to a reduction in pumping efficiency Solution  Water has to be conserved at least at the side of the consumers  Different types of water filter can be used to treat the supplied water.
  69. 69. Pattern of Consumption Time of Use Type of Use
  70. 70. Time • Frequent Use : The water consumption is frequent and practiced at an regular interval. • Example : • Washing and Cleaning • Flushing Toilets • Bathing • Cooking • Infrequent Use : The consumption of water is irregular. It happens at an interval of one or more days. • Example: • Water used in Gardening
  71. 71. Type • Drinking : For consumption by the residents of the household • Washing : For washing the clothes • Cleaning : For cleaning the car/floor/utensil etc. • Cooking : For cooking the foods • Gardening : For watering the garden • Other uses
  72. 72. Location of Water Used within a Household Washing and Cleaning, Bathing ,Flushing Toilets etc.Bathrooms CookingKitchens GardeningGarden Tank Multi - Purpose Ceiling or Ground water Tank Other
  73. 73. Idea to conserve water : • Use a holding tank in every locations where water is used. • The volume of the tank must equal to 1.5 times the amount of water (per day) required at that location. • A sensor to detect water level can be placed there to measure the water level of the tank and a minimum depth can be earmarked so that once the level crosses this mark the tank will be refilled
  74. 74. Idea to conserve water : (CONTD.) • The tanks will be attached to the main supply and from the tank water may be distributed to the taps, toilets etc. of that location only. • The replenishment of the tank may also be monitored and some cutting off threshold may be implemented to prevent over use. • During the lean period of water supply the tank will conserve the water
  75. 75. Idea to conserve water contd. : • A tank is generally located in the roof top in a house from where the water is supplied to each of the location of water use. • All the sub-tanks mentioned previously can be connected to this main tank . • A level detecting sensor can be used here also, for automatic replenishment of tank and also to prevent over withdrawal of water, if a cutting off threshold is implemented in this aspect. • Once the threshold is crossed, further replenishment of the tank will be prevented if not manually overridden or if the duration of refill is over. • The volume of the tank must also be equal to the 1.5 times the total volume of all the sub-tanks. • The 0.5 times is kept as a free body or buffer within which the water use generally varies even during the time of uncertainty. The previous data for water use can be utilized to detect the amount of water required by the household(Standard in India is 135l per person per day). • This type of arrangement can save sufficient amount of water which is generally flushed out after use. • Here the use of water is also monitored by the implementation of water level detectors. This type of monitoring help to avoid unnecessary use of water and conserve the supplied water for later use.
  76. 76. What about quality of water ? • Instead of using a water purification unit in the kitchen or bathrooms the same may be installed at the outlet of the main tank. • This will ensure that the water will be first treated and then disbursed to different location of water use. • But the pumps are mainly effected from direct contact of the supplied water.
  77. 77. What about quality of water ? (CONTD.) • That is why, if a filtration unit is used at the inlet nozzle through which water is supplied to a household by the municipality, then the treated water will only reach the pumping arrangement and as it will be devoid of corrosive agents, it will not rust the pump and its internal materials. • The same arrangement may be implemented in the inlet from the well or outlet of a rain water harvesting tank if the water is taken from groundwater or surface water sources or from the rain water tank. • The treatment unit at the inlet may not be highly sophisticated but it must ensure the removal or reduction of the concentration of heavy metals, dissolved and suspended solids.
  78. 78. SUBTANK SUPPLYTANK TANK TREATMENT UNIT PIPELINE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE ARRANGEMENT FOR SMART USE OF WATER AND ENERGY Water level indicatorElectric Pump
  79. 79. What s next ? • Water is conserved at a level required to maintain the disbursement of supply among the different location of the water use. • As the water level is monitored the use of pump will be minimum, only during the replenishment. • The number of times of replenishment is also monitored. Overuse of the pump will be prevented as a result of the monitoring. • The water is supplied as per the need of the location of different water use. The wastage will be minimum as water can be used only if required. • The treatment unit at the inlet of the tank or towards the pump unit will ensure that suspended matters and corrosive agents can be filtered before supplying the water to the pumps. • The economic liability of sensors and treatment unit will be much lesser compared to the conventional arrangement of water if only the cost of pumping and repumping is considered.
  80. 80. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Data and texts were collected from the following sources for which I want to show my gratitude : • A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: Current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135414006307 • ClothesWasher | Home WaterWorks • www.home-water-works.org/indoor-use/clothes-washer • Toilet | Conserve H2O - RegionalWater Providers Consortium • www.conserveh2o.org/toilet-water-use • How much water does an urban citizen need? by S.Vishwanath on Feb 15,2013 • http://www.thehindu.com/features/homes-and-gardens/how-much-water-does-an-urban- citizen-need/article4393634.ece • How much water does the average person use at home per day? • https://water.usgs.gov/edu/qa-home-percapita.html
  81. 81. SIMPLE DECISION MAKER BY ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS https://tinyurl.com/y4g2slld
  82. 82. Recent Jobs in Water Quality Engineering • SUEZ International is looking for Global Supplier Quality System Analyst in Bangalore,Karnataka,India Link for More Details : https://g.co/kgs/ob4EX7 • Organization : https://www.suezwatertechnologies.com/ • AECOM India Private Limited requires Consultant (Environment & Water Quality) in J&K in India. Link for More Details : https://g.co/kgs/7pZRoi • Organization : http://www.aecom.com/ • Toruise.com is in the search for a Water Quality Analyst in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Link for More Details : https://g.co/kgs/pRN29v • Organization : http://www.toruise.com • ESRI India requires GIS Industry Solutions Manager Water to be located at India.Link for More Details : https://www.timesjobs.com/job-detail/gis-industry- solutions-manager-water-esri-india-10-to-13-yrs-jobid- L5HiKrkC09BzpSvf__PLUS__uAgZw== • Organization : https://www.esri.in/en-in/home • United Nations Human Settlements Programme offers home based employment as a Wastewater and Water Quality Data Technical Specialist. Link for More Details : https://careers.un.org/lbw/jobdetail.aspx?id=146806 • Organization : https://careers.un.org/

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