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Mangrove & It,s threats

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANGROVE WET LANDS. It’s POLLUTION, THREATS . E.Kushan, Master of Public Administration School of Postgraduate Studies Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration Colombo Sri Lanka
  2. What are mangroves?  Mangroves significantly facilitates in moving organic matter and energy from the land to marine ecosystems.  Mangroves are those plants that thrive along coastlines, lagoons, and estuaries in the tropics and sub-tropical regions.   These salt-tolerant plants make significant socio-economic and environmental contributions as they protect the coastal and inland areas from severe conditions, like erosion, wind, waves, water currents, tsunamis, and storm surge.
  3. Why are mangroves important?  Mangroves are often called coastal bio shield because of its crucial role in the ecological system. They provide a safe refuge for  Aquatic organisms,  Protects mankind from storm surge,  Secures economic livelihood of coastal communities.
  4. Mangroves Map In Sri Lanka  The largest tracts of mangrove habitats in Sri Lanka are found in..  Puttlam Lagoon,  Kala Oya basin and  Trincomalee.
  5. Source: World Conservation Union
  6. Puttlam Lagoon
  7. Roles of mangroves to the ecosystem  Mangroves are among the most productive ecosystems in the world.  In Sri Lanka mangroves occur along the sheltered inertial coastlines associated with estuaries and lagoons.  Mangroves, or mangrove forests, are highly valuable ecosystem that provide a thousand and one benefits to humans, other living organisms, and the environment.
  8. Mangroves provide many ecosystem products and services Habitats Feeding grounds Nursery and hunting grounds for animals Protect the lagoons The estuaries from erosion Reduce pollution of near-shore coastal waters by trapping pollutants Provide recreational grounds. Field laboratory for researchers Ecotourism Opportunities for bird watching
  10. Mangrove Fruits.
  11.  Mangroves can extract fresh water from the saline water and some have the ability to remove excess salts through special salt glands on leaves.
  12. Importance of Mangrove They are the buffer zone between the land and the sea. Mangrove protect the soil from erosion.
  13.  They play an invaluable role as a nature’s shield against cyclones, ecological disasters and as protector of shore lines.  They are a breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of marine animals.
  14. Harbor a variety of life forms like, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and even mammals. Good source of timber, fuel and fodder. Main source of income generation for shore line communities like fisher folk. Save the marine diversity, which is fast diminishing. Purify the water by absorbing impurities and harmful heavy metals and help us to breathe a clean air by absorbing pollutants in the area. Several species of fish, prawns, crabs and mollusca are harvested.
  15. Main Advantages of the Mangroves  Maintain coastal water quality  Coral reef protection and nutrients source.  Habitat of aquatic animals and fisheries, and wildlife refuge.  Help against climate change and slow down global warming.  Food source and livelihood for coastal communities.  Tourism.  Useful products.
  16. Waterways surrounded by rich mangrove belts in Vidathaltheevu, Mannar district
  17. Coastal stabilization  Dissipate waves by absorbing wave energy and reducing water velocity.  Trap sediments carried by incoming currents and high tides  Control water flow  Serve as important catalyst in reclaiming land from the sea; thus, contributing to land building  Stabilizes the substrate and the coastline  Prevent uncontrolled shifting of the coastline sand
  18. The role of mangroves Better connecting mangrove ecosystems with the role they play in the global carbon cycle and climate system could change the economic calculus for mangroves. The role of mangroves in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction should be integrated in local and national adaptation plans. The key role of mangroves as carbon stores and sinks needs to be highlighted in national and international strategies that address climate change. Enhance existing carbon stocks and reverse CO2 emissions by increasing protection and restoration of mangrove ecosystems, and build mangroves into emissions trading and climate change mitigation planning.
  19. Mangrove Forests: Threats  Mangrove forests are one of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems.  More than 35% of the world’s mangroves are already gone.  Over the past thirty years or so, Sri Lanka’s coastal zone has witnessed a rapid conversion of it’s mangroves for various uses such as aquaculture and housing development. This combined with pollution has reduced the benefits of the mangrove habitat for fisheries and sustainable fuel wood production.
  20. POLLUTION  Fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic man- made chemicals carried by river systems from sources upstream can kill animals living in mangrove forests, while oil pollution can smother mangrove roots and suffocate the trees.
  21. IMPACTS ON MANGROVES  Human Impacts Mangroves are victims of dredging, filling, and diking, water pollution from oil leakages of ships and urban development within the Sri Lanka.
  22. Polytheane cause to the disturbance of the germination in mangrove
  23. WATER POLLUTION  Causing tremendous damage to mangroves, herbicides, oil spills, and other types of water pollution may result in the death of these plants.  Oil spills cause damage to mangroves by coating roots, limiting the transport of oxygen to underground roots. Mangrove communities including invertebrates, fishes, and plants are also highly susceptible to damage from petroleum products.
  24. Source Pix-Sunday Times, August 26, 2012-
  25. URBAN DEVELOPMENT  Urban development of areas in and near mangroves results in the destruction of this habitat as well as other associated wetland habitats.  Responsible for total loss of mangrove habitat in some locations, urban development includes the construction of buildings and canal systems as well as the consumption of water by a growing human population. Human activity upland from mangroves may also impact water quality and runoff. These land and coastal activities result in increased erosion as well as the reduction of nursery areas supporting commercial and game fisheries
  26. CLEARING  Mangrove forests have often been seen as unproductive and smelly, and so cleared to make room for agricultural land, human settlements and infrastructure ,and industrial areas.
  27.  OVER FISHING  The global overfishing crisis facing the world’s oceans has effects far beyond the directly overfished population. The ecological balance of food chains and mangrove fish communities can also be altered.
  28. OVER HARVESTING  The ecological balance of food chains and mangrove fish communities can also be altered.
  29.  RIVER CHANGES Dams and irrigation reduce the amount of water reaching mangrove forests, changing the salinity level of water in the forest. If salinity becomes too high, the mangroves cannot survive. Freshwater diversions can also lead to mangroves drying out. In addition, increased erosion due to land deforestation can massively increase the amount of sediment in rivers
  30.  DESTRUCTION OF CORAL REEFS Coral reefs provide the first barrier against currents and strong waves. When they are destroyed, the stronger-than- normal waves and currents reaching the coast can undermine the fine sediment in which the mangroves grow. This can prevent seedlings from taking root and wash away nutrients essential for mangrove ecosystems.
  31. NATURAL IMPACTS  Mangroves are specially adapted to high salinities and temperatures, tidal changes, and anaerobic sediments.  These same adaptations make them somewhat vulnerable to natural stresses. The aerial roots are especially sensitive to long periods of flooding.  If these specialized roots are covered for extended periods of time by sediments or water, the mangroves may die due to lack of oxygen to the plant tissues.  Ex:Tsunami, Floods.
  32. Tsunami Hit Areas
  33.  CLIMATE CHANGE  Mangrove forests require stable sea levels for long-term survival. They are therefore extremely sensitive to current rising sea levels caused by global warming and climate change.
  34. Over 80% of Mangroves pollution comes from land-based activities
  35. Worse, the remaining mangrove forests continue to be threatened by land use conversion, pollution, and harvesting for timber, fuel and polystyrene. .
  36. Mangroves are among the most powerful natural defenses against global warming. But their decline, due to the spread of polluting agents and clearances.
  37. Solid garbage also makes its way to the ocean. Plastic bags, balloons, glass bottles, shoes, packaging material – if not disposed of correctly, almost everything we throw away can reach the sea and finally it stuck the mangroves.
  38. Government Authorities.  Central Environment Authority  Tourist Board  Relevant Urban Councils.  Local Governments.  Disaster Management Authorities.  Coastal Conservation Department. 
  39. What can we do to help protect our mangroves?  Support the enforcement & implementation of fishery laws & laws protecting coastal habits.  Report any violation of these laws to the police or the local government or central environment authority.  Stop the cutting of mangroves & conversion of mangrove areas in to other uses.  Rehabilitate/Reforest denuded areas.  Recover abandoned fishponds & Re-establish these as mangrove areas.  Establish mangrove nurseries to provide a reliable source of seedlings for mangrove replanting & rehabilitation. 
  40. Establish/ Support marine protected areas or marine sanctuaries. Advocate for and support the establishment of a coastal resource and fisheries management programe in local government. Advocate for and support coastal zoning initiatives that will allow for rationalization of fishing gear and other resources use. Don’t pollute. Stop others from polluting our coastal areas and river banks. Educate school childrens, youths, and elder societies, learn more about our marine ecosystems- Coral reefs, mangroves, sea grasses.ect,. Controlling the tannin work related to coconut products
  41. Members of the Sri Lankan navy join local women to replant mangroves.
  42. Childrens are involved to cultivate the mangroves plants.
  43. Thank You!

Notas do Editor

  1. Sunday, August 26, 2012