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The thirteen colonies, mercantilism, navigation acts
Many colonist benefited from the trade relationship
with the home country.
Main purpose of the colonial system was to enrich
Economic theory that states a nation becomes stronger by
keeping strict CONTROL over its trade.
A nation should have more EXPORTS than imports
Colonies existed for one purpose only: to enrich the MOTHER
Americans provide raw goods to Britain
Britain used the raw goods to produce
Sold in European markets and back to the
• NO SHARING: only English ships and merchants
were used for manufacturing and shipping goods
to the colonies
Exports: Goods SENT markets outside of a county
• Imports: Goods BROUGHT into a country or
Theory of Mercantilism, why do you want to
have more exports than imports?
Answer: If you EARN (exports) more than you
SPEND (imports), then you will be left with a profit
in the end.
As the colonies became more successful and
profitable, England began to increase control over
The first major Act which was placed over the
colonist was the Navigation Acts.
Between 1651 and 1673
Detailed series of laws that restricted colonial trade
-No country can trade with the colonies unless the
goods were shipped in either colonial or English
-All vessels must be operated by crews that were
at least ¾ English or colonial
-Colonies can export certain products ONLY to
-Almost all goods traded between the colonies and
Europe had to pass through an English port
The Navigation Acts were beneficial to some colonists, and
VERY beneficial to England.
However, not all are satisfied
Many continue to smuggle
Trade goods illegally
King Charles II punishes the colonist the HE believes are the
most unruly: Massachusetts’ merchants and leaders.
England has too much on their plate
As long as raw materials continued to flow through England
and as long as the colonists continued to buy English
produced goods, then the colonies did not need to be
….This is the start of the colonies developing a taste for self-government.
manifested itself in the
form of the triangular
trade. Trade routes
linked the colonies,
West Indies, England,
New England rum was
shipped to Africa and
traded for slaves
Slaves are brought to the
West Indies and traded for
sugar and molasses.
Raw goods were shipped
from the colonies to
England, where they were
swapped for a cargo of
When the slave trade became
illegal, vessels often discharged
their human cargos rather than
be caught by the Royal Navy.
White colonists adopted
laws to ensure that African
Americans would be…
1. Held in bondage for life
2. Slave status would be
3. 1661 Virginia enacted
legislation stating that
inherited their mothers
enslaved status for life
By 1750, ½ of Virginia’s and
2/3 of South Carolina’s
population were enslaved.
The demand for slavery became
increasingly important in the
Reduced migration: England
reduced the supply of
immigrants to the colonies.
Dependable Workforce: They
thought slavery would provide a
stable labor force under their
Cheap labor: As tobacco prices
fell, rice and indigo became the
most profitable crop. To grow
these crops required a large
piece of land, and many
inexpensive, unskilled field