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Landscape... a brief introduction

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Landscape... a brief introduction

  1. 1. Landscape …. A brief Introduction
  2. 2. LANDSCAPE MEANS SCAPELAND + VIEW/SCENEAN AREA/GROUND MEANS AN EXPANSE OF SCENARY (VISIBLE FEATURE OF AN AREA) A landscape includes the physical elements of landforms such as mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including vegetation, human elements including different forms of land use, buildings, and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions. NATURAL LANDSCAPE… naturally found ARTIFICIAL LANDSCAPE… intentionally created PUBLIC PARKS CREATED FOR RECREATION PURPOSE
  3. 3. SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS SOFT AND GROWING (i.e. LIVING) HARD , SOLID AND UNCHANGING ( i.e. non-living) Trees ,shrubs ,herbs , hedges, edges, ground covers , creepers and climbers like Built mass , retaining walls, walkways, driveways , deck, stone wall,sculpture ,stairs like LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE the art and practice of designing the outdoor environment, ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE LANDSCAPE SOFTSCAPE HARDSCAPE
  4. 4. TREES - A tree is a perennial woody plant. It most often has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance with a canopy. Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) Saraca asoca (Sita Ashok) Jacaranda mimosaefolia Mangifera indica ,Mango(Aam) Delonix regia (Gulmohar) Mimusops elengi (Maulshree) Polyalthia longifolia ‘Pendula’ (Drooping Ashok) Azadirachta indica (Neem) SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  5. 5. Shrub - A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m (15–20 ft) tall. Hibiscus rosasinensisNerium odorum Thevetia peruviana Murraya paniculata (Manokamni) ixora parviflora Murraya koenigii (Curry Patta) Bougainvillea Bela SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  6. 6. Herb ( medicinal property)is a non-woody flowering plant, regardless of its flavour, scent or other properties, and thus includes only grass-like plants and forbs. Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) Ocimum basilicum (Italian Basil) Curcuma longa (Haldi) Allium sativum (Garlic) SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  7. 7. Creepers , on the other hand literally ' creep ' along the soil surface and spread over a long distance. Climbers Climber plants have weak stem so in order to reach Sun light they climb up some support with some special organ. Creepers SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  8. 8. Climbers/creepers Pyrostegia venusta (Golden shower creeper ) Clerodendron splendens Adenocalymma alliaceum Quisqualis indicaWisteria sinensis Vernonia elaeagnifolia (Curtain Creeper) SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  9. 9. Ground Covers: • Ground cover refers to any plant that grows over an area of ground, used to provide protection from erosion and drought, and to improve its aesthetic appearance. They hold soil well. Reduse soil erosion and maintain moisture content in soil. • Paspalum distichum (Paspalum grass ). • Dichondra carolinensis (Dichondra) • Vinca major SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  10. 10. Hedges and Edges : • Hedges and Edges are the same but they differ in the height. • A row of bushes or small trees planted close together, especially when forming a fence or boundary. • Hedges are from 0.6 m to 3 m in height. • Edges are up to 10 cm in height. Murraya paniculata (Manokamni) Bougainvilleas •Duranta plumeri •Alternantera dentate (Alternantera) Golden duranta SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS
  11. 11. Water Water is used to break the monotony cause by vegetation in a landscape design. The soft bubbling of a fountain, the gentle sounds of water trickling brings life and serenity to your backyard. Turn your garden into a relaxing soundtrack for your every day life and enjoy the simple pleasures. SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS Aesthetic Factors • Visual • Psychological • Auditory • Sensory Effects
  12. 12. PATHWAYS/WALKWAYS Walkways are utilitarian paved surfaces used to facilitate foot traffic practically. They are often straight routes, usually made from hard paving materials. A pathway, on the other hand, can be considered a more recreational feature of a landscape, a meandering route, often made from casual, rustic materials. Pathways are appropriate for more natural settings, such as gardens, where they provide a means for enjoying landscape features at leisure. Natural materials such as loose gravel or mulch are common choices in pathways, whereas walkways are usually formed from stable hardscape materials, such as poured concrete, large slabs of mortared stone, or pavers. HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS WALKWAY PATHWAY
  13. 13. Retaining wall and landscape steps -A retaining wall is a specially designed structure that holds soil on one side and is free standing on the other. Steps are usually constructed as stone, granite slabs. Stones(uses in landscape design)- Stones in landscape design can be used in many ways like as pathway,as boulders. HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS
  14. 14. Sculptures - large pieces of artwork used for aesthetic purpose as focal points. They can be theme based or abstract design. In ancient times sculptures are used widely in Greek and gardens.HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS Decks & trellis - As “hardscape” elements of a garden or park a trellis is a permanent architectural structures that support climbing plants and provide shade or privacy.
  15. 15. HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS Fences & Gates give a sense of privacy and security. They can add visual interest and separate various parts of your landscape for specific purposes. Fences & gates can be made simply with wooden or metal posts and railing, or elegantly with stone, brick or other natural or man-made materials. Built forms – to sit and enjoy the scenery all around.
  16. 16. LANDSCAPE STYLES FORMAL INFORMAL
  17. 17. Formal Landscaping  Formal landscaping is best described as structured, orderly, balanced ,perfect or  Hedges are often used in formal landscaping.  Some hedges are straight, some have curves, but they tend to have a great sense of symmetry and balance.  Formal gardening attempts to fight with nature to make it stay growing and stay perfect. Features- • SYMMETRICAL • AXIAL • BALANCED • ORDERED • CLEAN • ARTIFICIAL • INORGANIC • STRICT GEOMETRY • DICIPLINED • ORGANISED • NEED MORE MAINTENANCE AXIS
  18. 18. This image of a Formal Landscape Example is a Garden Design that fits a formal colonial home- the hedges are equally spaced on both sides of the walk. The planting design is symmetrical and both sides of the walk match. GARDEN OF FIVE SENSES,DELHI
  19. 19. Informal Landscaping Informal landscaping is more relaxed than formal landscaping. If hedges are used at all, they are not sheared flat, but instead they are left fluffy and soft. Informal landscaping is more in-step with nature, it looks more natural. Informal Landscaping include the organic form. Features- • ASYMMETRICAL • HARMONIOUS • NATURAL • ORGANIC • FREE FLOWING • RELAX • FULL OF SURPRISES
  20. 20. Garden of five senses ,New Delhi ,India
  21. 21. Evolution of Gardens - earliest gardens were grown for practical reasons (for herbs and vegetables,FRUITS) When man became civilized gardens were used for leisure purposes by upper class After emergence of first civilization gardens were created purely for aesthetic purpose NEED PERSONAL LEISURE ELEMENT PUBLIC PURPOSES – ELEMENT OF AESTHETICS
  22. 22. TYPES OF GARDENS -  EGYPTIAN GARDENS  ROMAN GARDENS  MUGHAL GARDENS  CHINESE GARDENS  JAPANESE GARDENS
  23. 23. EGYPTIAN GARDENS  Firstly developed as orchards or fruit gardens , vegetable gardens.  Later they developed as pleasure gardens with flowers, ponds and alleys of fruit and shade trees.  They grew trees like sycamores, date palms, fig trees, nut trees and pomegranate trees. They also grew willows. The Egyptians also liked to grow fragrant trees and shrubs.  The Egyptians also grew a wide variety of flowers including roses, poppies, irises, daisies and cornflowers. Features - • ENCLOSED BY WALLS • USED SHADY TREES • RECTANGULAR PONDS WITH FISHES • FORMAL STYLE • ATTACHED BY CORRIDOR TO RESIDENCE
  24. 24. ROMAN GARDENS  Roman gardens were influenced by Egyptian, Persian, and Greek gardening techniques.  The garden was a place of peace and tranquillity – a refuge from urban life  The Romans were masters of the art of topiary.  Porticos were developed to connect the home with the outdoors and created outdoor living spaces  Roman gardens were adorned with statues and sculptures.  Roman gardens were laid out with hedges and vines. They also contained a wide variety of flowers including acanthus, cornflowers and crocus, cyclamen, hyacinth, iris and ivy, lavender, lilies, myrtle, narcissus, poppy, rosemary and violet. Features – • ENCLOSED BY WALLS • WATER ELEMENT AT CENTRE • FORMAL STYLE • TOPIARY • SCULPTURES
  25. 25. MUGHAL GARDENS • This style was influenced by Persian gardens and Timurid gardens. • Built in Islamic Style of architecture. • Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. • Some of the typical features include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens. • The famous gardens are the Char Bagh gardens at Taj Mahal, Shalimar Gardens of Lahore, Delhi and Kashmir as well as Pinjore Garden in Haryana. • The Muslim rulers tried to create manmade reflections of the Koranic images of Paradise on earth. Cool pavilions, flowing springs, rivers, gushing fountains, shady and fruit trees, are essential features of Mughal gardens. PERSIAN GARDENS ISLAMIC GARDEN MUGHAL GARDEN Features – • AXIAL PLANNING • WALLED ENCLOSURE • SYMMETRY • FORMAL STYLE • WATER ELEMENT – POOL,CANAL,FOUNTAIN • CONCEPT - REFLECTION OF PARADISE ON EARTH.
  26. 26. SALIENT FEATURES •Site and Style of Design •Walls •Gates •Terrace •Cannals of running water, fountains •Baradari or pavillion •Mosque •Tree, flowers and birds
  27. 27. PLAN 1 Complete, ideal Chahar Bagh with four channels of water flowing out from fountain in the centre to channels round edge of garden. The garden is into four parts, linked by bridges over the water channels. CHARBAGH CONCEPT PLAN 2 Only one arm of this Chahar Bagh is a water channel. The other three arms are tree-lined paths, plus little pools on the edge of the central pool. But the garden is still divided into four parts.
  28. 28. PLAN 3 Another Chahar Bagh plan which does not the full four water channels. This plan is from a famous medresse in Isfahan, Iran. PLAN 4 This garden is divided into four parts entirely by paths, not by water channels. There is a fountain pool in the centre.
  29. 29. HUMAYU’S TOMB ,DELHI NISHATBAGH, KASHMIR RASHTRAPATI BHAWAN, DELHI PINJORE GARDEN , HARYANA, SHALIMAR BAGH, KASHMIR
  30. 30. Chinese garden  Chinese recreates natural landscapes in miniature.  In garden, all components complement each other without losing individuality of each element such as rocks, water, plants, architecture .  A Chinese garden was not meant to be seen all at once; the plan of a classical Chinese garden presented the visitor with a series of perfectly composed and framed glimpses of scenery; a view of a pond, or of a rock, or a grove of bamboo, a blossoming tree, or a view of a distant mountain peak or a pagoda. PRINCIPLES OF CHINESE GARDENS BORROWED SCENERY ELEMENT OF SURPRISE WATER PLANTATION BUILT FORM ASYMMETRY ELEMENTS OF CHINESE GARDENS ROCKS
  31. 31. ROCKS  SYMBOLIZES MOUNTAIN  SYMBOL OF VIRTUE ,STABILITY AND ENDURANCE WATER  A pond or lake with lotus flower and gold fishes is the central element of a Chinese garden.  Represents lightness and communication  Usually have a view of a pavilion PLANTATION  Plants contrast with the immobility and hardness of rocks.  Trees like pine ,plum ,cypress ,bamboo , banana are used  Flowery plants like lotus ,crezanthemum ,orchids are used. BUILT FORM  Garden structures comprises of walkways, pavilions and bridges, Kiosk. ROCKS PAVILION VIEW WATER WITH LOTUS GOLD FISHES BRIDGE WALKWAY KIOSK WALKWAY PLANTATION
  32. 32. Japenese Garden  Japanese gardens largely followed the Chinese model, but later developed their own principles and aesthetics.  Created in miniature forms.  Nature is the ideal in Japanese gardens.  Living in harmony with nature is the principal of these gardens.  These gardens have irregular-shaped pond, or, in larger gardens, two or more ponds connected by a channel or stream, and a cascade, a miniature version of Japan's famous mountain waterfalls. PRINCIPLES OF JAPANESE GARDENS ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE GARDENS ROCKS & SAND WATER PLANTATION BUILT FORM- BRIDGES,WALKWAYS,FENCES,GATE. PAVILION STONE LANTERN WATER BASINS MINIATURIZATION OF NATURE CONCEALMENT(HIDING AND REVEALING) BORROWED SCENARY ASYMMETRY
  33. 33. ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE GARDENS ROCKS & SAND WATER PLANTATION BUILT FORM- BRIDGES,WALKWAYS,FENCES,GATE, PAVILION STONE LANTERN WATER BASINS • Rock, sand and gravel are an essential feature of the Japanese garden. • Rocks are traditionally classified as tall vertical, low vertical, arching, reclining, or flat. • Rocks are arranged in careful compositions of two, three, five or seven rocks, with three being the most common. • Japanese gardens always have water, either a pond or stream, or, in the dry rock garden, represented by white sand. • In Buddhist symbolism, water and stone are the ying-yang, two opposites which complement and complete each other • Bridges can be of wood or stone. These can be arched or flat. • walkways or pathways were usually winding and in stone/wood. •Fences and gates were in wood.
  34. 34. Differences between Japanese and Chinese gardens JAPANESE GARDENS CHINESE GARDENS Architecture – • The architecture in a Japanese garden is largely or partly concealed. • The buildings are well apart from the body of water. • the buildings are simple, with very little ornament. Architecture –  Emphasis is being given to buildings  These are in the center of the garden, occupying a large part of the garden space.  They are very elaborate, with much architectural decoration. Viewpoint – Later Japanese gardens are designed to be seen from the outside. Viewpoint – These are designed to be seen from the inside, from the buildings in the center of the garden. Use of Rocks – Rocks were smaller and placed in more natural arrangements. Integrated into the garden Use of Rocks – Rocks were selected for their extraordinary shapes or resemblance to animals or mountains, and used for dramatic effect. They were often the stars and centerpieces of the garden.
  35. 35. THANK YOU…..

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