AN EXPANSE OF SCENARY
(VISIBLE FEATURE OF AN AREA)
A landscape includes the physical elements of landforms such as mountains, hills, water bodies such
as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including vegetation, human elements including
different forms of land use, buildings, and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions.
PUBLIC PARKS CREATED FOR RECREATION PURPOSE
SOFTSCAPE ELEMENTS HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS
SOFT AND GROWING
HARD , SOLID AND
( i.e. non-living)
Trees ,shrubs ,herbs , hedges, edges, ground
covers , creepers and climbers
Built mass , retaining walls, walkways,
driveways , deck, stone wall,sculpture
the art and practice of designing the
ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE
TREES - A tree is a perennial woody plant. It most often has many secondary branches supported
clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance with a canopy.
Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) Saraca asoca (Sita Ashok) Jacaranda mimosaefolia Mangifera indica ,Mango(Aam)
Delonix regia (Gulmohar) Mimusops elengi (Maulshree) Polyalthia longifolia ‘Pendula’
Azadirachta indica (Neem)
Shrub - A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter
height, usually under 5–6 m (15–20 ft) tall.
Hibiscus rosasinensisNerium odorum
Murraya koenigii (Curry Patta)
Herb ( medicinal property)is a non-woody flowering plant, regardless of its flavour,
scent or other properties, and thus includes only grass-like plants and forbs.
Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) Ocimum basilicum
Curcuma longa (Haldi) Allium sativum (Garlic)
Creepers , on the other hand
literally ' creep ' along the soil
surface and spread over a long
Climber plants have weak stem
so in order to reach Sun light
they climb up some support with
some special organ.
• Ground cover refers to any plant that grows over an area of ground, used to
provide protection from erosion and drought, and to improve its aesthetic
appearance. They hold soil well. Reduse soil erosion and maintain moisture
content in soil.
• Paspalum distichum (Paspalum grass ).
• Dichondra carolinensis (Dichondra)
• Vinca major
Hedges and Edges :
• Hedges and Edges are the same but they differ in the height.
• A row of bushes or small trees planted close together,
especially when forming a fence or boundary.
• Hedges are from 0.6 m to 3 m in height.
• Edges are up to 10 cm in height.
Bougainvilleas •Duranta plumeri
•Alternantera dentate (Alternantera)
Water Water is used to break the monotony cause by vegetation in a landscape design. The
soft bubbling of a fountain, the gentle sounds of water trickling brings life and serenity to your
backyard. Turn your garden into a relaxing soundtrack for your every day life and enjoy the
• Sensory Effects
PATHWAYS/WALKWAYS Walkways are utilitarian paved surfaces used to facilitate foot
traffic practically. They are often straight routes, usually made from hard paving materials. A
pathway, on the other hand, can be considered a more recreational feature of a landscape, a
meandering route, often made from casual, rustic materials. Pathways are appropriate for more
natural settings, such as gardens, where they provide a means for enjoying landscape features
at leisure. Natural materials such as loose gravel or mulch are common choices in pathways,
whereas walkways are usually formed from stable hardscape materials, such as poured
concrete, large slabs of mortared stone, or pavers.
Retaining wall and landscape steps -A retaining wall is a specially designed
structure that holds soil on one side and is free standing on the other. Steps are
usually constructed as stone, granite slabs.
Stones(uses in landscape design)- Stones in landscape design can be used in many ways like as
Sculptures - large pieces of artwork used for aesthetic purpose as focal points. They can be
theme based or abstract design. In ancient times sculptures are used widely in Greek and
Decks & trellis - As “hardscape” elements of a garden or park a trellis is a permanent architectural structures that support
climbing plants and provide shade or privacy.
Fences & Gates give a sense of privacy and security. They can add visual interest and separate various parts of your landscape
for specific purposes. Fences & gates can be made simply with wooden or metal posts and railing, or elegantly with stone, brick or
other natural or man-made materials.
Built forms – to sit and enjoy the scenery all around.
Formal landscaping is best described as
structured, orderly, balanced ,perfect or
Hedges are often used in formal landscaping.
Some hedges are straight, some have curves,
but they tend to have a great sense of
symmetry and balance.
Formal gardening attempts to fight with
nature to make it stay growing and stay
• STRICT GEOMETRY
• NEED MORE MAINTENANCE
This image of a Formal
Landscape Example is a Garden
Design that fits a formal colonial
home- the hedges are equally
spaced on both sides of the
walk. The planting design is
symmetrical and both sides of
the walk match.
GARDEN OF FIVE
Informal landscaping is more relaxed than
If hedges are used at all, they are not
sheared flat, but instead they are left fluffy
Informal landscaping is more in-step with
nature, it looks more natural.
Informal Landscaping include the organic
• FREE FLOWING
• FULL OF
Evolution of Gardens -
earliest gardens were grown for
practical reasons (for herbs and
gardens were used for leisure
purposes by upper class
gardens were created purely for
PERSONAL LEISURE ELEMENT
PUBLIC PURPOSES – ELEMENT OF
TYPES OF GARDENS -
EGYPTIAN GARDENS Firstly developed as orchards or fruit gardens , vegetable
Later they developed as pleasure gardens with flowers, ponds
and alleys of fruit and shade trees.
They grew trees like sycamores, date palms, fig trees, nut
trees and pomegranate trees. They also grew willows. The
Egyptians also liked to grow fragrant trees and shrubs.
The Egyptians also grew a wide variety of flowers including
roses, poppies, irises, daisies and cornflowers.
• ENCLOSED BY WALLS
• USED SHADY TREES
• RECTANGULAR PONDS
• FORMAL STYLE
• ATTACHED BY CORRIDOR
Roman gardens were influenced by
Egyptian, Persian, and Greek gardening
The garden was a place of peace and
tranquillity – a refuge from urban life
The Romans were masters of the art of
Porticos were developed to connect the home
with the outdoors and created outdoor living
Roman gardens were adorned with statues
Roman gardens were laid out with hedges
and vines. They also contained a wide
variety of flowers including acanthus,
cornflowers and crocus, cyclamen,
hyacinth, iris and ivy, lavender, lilies,
myrtle, narcissus, poppy, rosemary and
• ENCLOSED BY WALLS
• WATER ELEMENT AT
• FORMAL STYLE
• This style was influenced by Persian
gardens and Timurid gardens.
• Built in Islamic Style of architecture.
• Significant use of rectilinear layouts are
made within the walled enclosures.
• Some of the typical features include
pools, fountains and canals inside the
• The famous gardens are the Char Bagh
gardens at Taj Mahal, Shalimar Gardens
of Lahore, Delhi and Kashmir as well as
Pinjore Garden in Haryana.
• The Muslim rulers tried to create
manmade reflections of the Koranic
images of Paradise on earth. Cool
pavilions, flowing springs, rivers,
gushing fountains, shady and fruit
trees, are essential features of Mughal
PERSIAN GARDENS ISLAMIC GARDEN MUGHAL GARDEN
• AXIAL PLANNING
• WALLED ENCLOSURE
• FORMAL STYLE
• WATER ELEMENT –
• CONCEPT - REFLECTION
OF PARADISE ON EARTH.
•Site and Style of Design
•Cannals of running water,
•Baradari or pavillion
•Tree, flowers and birds
Complete, ideal Chahar Bagh with four channels of
water flowing out from fountain in the centre to
channels round edge of garden. The garden is
into four parts, linked by bridges over the water
Only one arm of this Chahar Bagh is
a water channel. The other three
arms are tree-lined paths, plus little
pools on the edge of the central
pool. But the garden is still divided
into four parts.
Another Chahar Bagh plan which does not
the full four water channels. This plan is from a
famous medresse in Isfahan, Iran.
This garden is divided into four
parts entirely by paths, not by water
channels. There is a fountain pool in
Chinese garden Chinese recreates natural
landscapes in miniature.
In garden, all components
complement each other without
losing individuality of each element
such as rocks, water, plants,
A Chinese garden was not meant to
be seen all at once; the plan of a
classical Chinese garden presented
the visitor with a series of perfectly
composed and framed glimpses of
scenery; a view of a pond, or of a
rock, or a grove of bamboo, a
blossoming tree, or a view of a
distant mountain peak or a pagoda.
PRINCIPLES OF CHINESE GARDENS
ELEMENT OF SURPRISE
WATER PLANTATION BUILT FORM
ELEMENTS OF CHINESE
ROCKS SYMBOLIZES MOUNTAIN
SYMBOL OF VIRTUE ,STABILITY AND ENDURANCE
WATER A pond or lake with lotus flower and gold fishes is the
central element of a Chinese garden.
Represents lightness and communication
Usually have a view of a pavilion
Plants contrast with the immobility and hardness of rocks.
Trees like pine ,plum ,cypress ,bamboo , banana are used
Flowery plants like lotus ,crezanthemum ,orchids are used.
BUILT FORM Garden structures comprises of walkways, pavilions and
Japanese gardens largely followed the Chinese
model, but later developed their own principles
Created in miniature forms.
Nature is the ideal in Japanese gardens.
Living in harmony with nature is the principal
of these gardens.
These gardens have irregular-shaped pond, or,
in larger gardens, two or more ponds connected
by a channel or stream, and a cascade, a
miniature version of Japan's famous mountain
PRINCIPLES OF JAPANESE GARDENS
ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE GARDENS
ROCKS & SAND WATER
BORROWED SCENARY ASYMMETRY
ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE GARDENS
ROCKS & SAND
• Rock, sand and gravel are an essential
feature of the Japanese garden.
• Rocks are traditionally classified as tall
vertical, low vertical, arching, reclining, or
• Rocks are arranged in careful compositions
of two, three, five or seven rocks, with three
being the most common.
• Japanese gardens always have water,
either a pond or stream, or, in the dry rock
garden, represented by white sand.
• In Buddhist symbolism, water and stone
are the ying-yang, two opposites which
complement and complete each other
• Bridges can be of wood or stone. These
can be arched or flat.
• walkways or pathways were usually
winding and in stone/wood.
•Fences and gates were in wood.
Differences between Japanese and Chinese gardens
JAPANESE GARDENS CHINESE GARDENS
• The architecture in a Japanese garden is
largely or partly concealed.
• The buildings are well apart from the
body of water.
• the buildings are simple, with very little
Emphasis is being given to buildings
These are in the center of the garden,
occupying a large part of the garden
They are very elaborate, with much
Later Japanese gardens are designed to be
seen from the outside.
These are designed to be seen from the
inside, from the buildings in the center of the
Use of Rocks –
Rocks were smaller and placed in more
natural arrangements. Integrated into the
Use of Rocks –
Rocks were selected for their extraordinary
shapes or resemblance to animals or
mountains, and used for dramatic effect.
They were often the stars and centerpieces of
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