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Introduction to Agile software testing

  1. 1. An Introduction toAgile Software Testing 1
  2. 2. Course Objectives After this seminar, you will:  Understand what an Agile project  Know the differences between Kanban and Scrum  Understand what and how a tester performs the testing in Scrum process  Understand what testing techniques required for a tester in Agile  Know what challenges of Agile Software Testing 2
  3. 3. Course Content  What is an Agile Project?  What are Scrum and Kanban?  What are Scrum & Kanban Processes?  What are testing Activities in Scrum?  What are Agile Testing Techniques? 3
  4. 4. What is an Agile Project? All projects are “agile”, but some agile projects are more agile than others In practice, “Agile” labeledHow to “agile” a project to projects that its delivery ofAn Agile purist would point to agile manifesto and each increment taking noits principles longer 4 weeksIndividuals and interactions over process and tools Is it met level of agility? Working SW over comprehensive documents Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan 4
  5. 5. Agile Project Anintroductionof Scrum and Kanban 5
  6. 6. What is Scrum? Scrum in 100 words • Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time. • It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month). • The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features. • Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint. 6
  7. 7. What is Scrum? - Principles 9 Scrum principles Scrum contains sets of principles (some of them required while others are optional) and predefined roles (1)Demo (2)Sit together (3)Daily Scrum (4)Retrospective (5)Sprint backlog (6)Product Backlog (7)Sprint planning meetings (8)Time-boxed iterations (9)Definition of Done 7
  8. 8. What is Kanban? Kanban in 100 wordsVisualize the workflowSplit the work into pieces, write each item on a card and put onthe wall.Use named columns to illustrate where each item is in theworkflow..Limit Work In Progress (WIP) – assign explicit limits to how manyitems may be in progress at each workflow stateMeasure the lead time (average time to complete one item,sometimes called “cycle time”), optimize the process to makelead time as small and predictable as possible 8
  9. 9. Kanban vs Scrum Board Kanban and Scrum Board V.S. Scrum and Kanban over time V.S.Scrum resists change within V.S. Kanban limits number of itemsan Iteration in workflow state 9
  10. 10. Anintroduction of Scrum Process 10
  11. 11. What is Scrum process?Scrum Roles Key Artifacts Ceremonies Process Sprint planning Product Backlog • Hosted by Scrum Master Product • Requirements – user stories • Pick highest priority items in Backlog • Desired work Product backlog and the team turns • Prioritized by Product Owner the items into Sprint Backlog • Anybody can add to itProduct Owner • Estimate sprint backlog in hours Sprint – 2-4 weeks • Work breakdown Sprint Goal Sprint Planning Sprint Goal • Summary of focused work in • Declare Sprint Goal sprint Daily Scrum Sprint • Declared by Product Owner • Accepted by team • Hosted by Scrum Master Daily Scrum Backlog • 15 minutes - same time every dayScrum Master Blocks Sprint Backlog • Not for problem solving • Team signs up for work of • 3 questions in meeting: (1) What Daily Work their own – work never Product did you do? (2) What will you do? assigned (3) What’s in your way? • Owned/managed by the team • Estimated work remaining is • Team updates sprint backlog updated daily Sprint Review/ Sprint Review Blocks List • Hosted by Scrum Master – 2-4 hours RetrospectiveScrum Team • List of blocks & unmade • Accomplishments decisions • Whole team participants (max – 9) • Owned by Scrum Master • Updated daily • Take form of demo for features Product Sprint Retrospective Burndown chart Backlog • Hosted by SM – 15-30 minutes • Effort spent over period • Stories/ features completed • Discuss on “Start doing”, “Continue 11 doing” and “Stop doing”
  12. 12. What are roles in Scrum? Product Owner (PO) is a Scrum Master represents The Team client’s representation Management 5-9 members Define features of product Enacting Scrum values Including: developers, Decide Release Date and testers, designers,… Ensure team’s productivity content Full time Prioritize features according Prioritize features to market value Work Self-organizing according to market value  Membership should be Corporate across all roles Be responsible for the and functions changed each sprint profitability of product  Shield team from external  Accept or reject work interferences item result A practice for prioritizing features (or User Story) Priority = Max (5 (or 6) x priority that assigned by PO, sum (priority that assigned by team members) 12
  13. 13. What are roles of tester in Scrum? There is NO tester in formal Scrum Process Testing is carried out by developer with Unit Test •Test Driven Development means testing executed before development and refactoring performed to optimize development •Testing coverage  Testing is carried out by Product Owner/ Client •Frequently testing by Product Owner – each sprint •Testing Acceptance CriteriaIsn’t it really necessary tester position in Scrum? What happens without tester? No future for tester? 13
  14. 14. What are roles of tester in Scrum ? (cont.)Are testers obsolete?Questions:• Will developers do acceptancetesting well?•Will developers test their workproduct well?•Is that enough with only onekind of testing – Unit Test?• How to test non-functionalrequirements?Benefits when havededicated test team:•Focus on customer usage overtechnical implementation•Focus on uncovering flaws overconfirming completeness 14
  15. 15. What are roles of tester in Scrum? (cont.) • Participant in Release/ Sprint Planning • Support developers in Unit Testing – say them about testing view instead of development view • Test User Story when completed, last gate to confirm testing completeness • Collaborate with customer and Product Owner to define acceptance criteria • Provide positive feedback to customer • Develop automation testing 15
  16. 16. Testing Activity in Scrum &Kaban Process 16
  17. 17. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? Process Tester must know what model of cadence usedProduct cadenceBacklog single Sprint – 2-4 weeks cadence Three Sprint Planning Sprint Goal Sprint Daily Scrum Backlog Blocks Driven Daily Work Product event In Sprint Planning: Sprint Review/ Retrospective • As a tester, he/she says what should be picked from Product Backlog for this Sprint to bring value to customer & to create high performance Product •As a tester, he/she says how many hours should have Backlog to complete testing for each of selected User Stories •As a tester, he/she must understand what sprint goals • As a tester, involves into the prioritizing process17
  18. 18. What are Testing Activities …? – estimate effortEffort Estimate techniques:Heuristic (expert judgment based) Parametric (calculation based)Comparison to similar systems  Function Points Expert Judgment  Use Case Points Activity Based (top down)  User Story Points Task Based (bottom up) Three-point estimate 50/90 estimateIn Agile, testers are empowered to make decision. It means theyare given authority to estimate effort for each work item thatstated in Story Card for Product Owner reviewsAs a result, testers are responsible for all testing activities thatthey estimated. 18
  19. 19. What are Testing Activities …? – 50/90 estimate 50/90 Estimation Worst case: number of hours (cost) in the worse-case scenario  Most -likely: number of hours (cost) in the Most -likely scenario Total Hours = Most Likely Task variance = (Worst Case (W) – Most Likely (A)) Deviation = sqrt (sum((Wi-Ai)^2)) 19
  20. 20. What are Testing Activities …? – 3-point estimate 3 Points Estimate (PERT) Opt: indicates number of hours (cost) in the best-case scenario Pess: indicates number of hours (cost) in the worse-case scenario  Most -likely: indicates number of hours (cost) in the Most -likely scenario PERT = (Opt + 4 x Most-Likely + Pess) / 6 Variance = (Pess – Opt) / 6 20
  21. 21. What are Testing Activities …? – User Story Points User Story points (USP)  Story points are a unit of measure for expressing the overall size of a user story, feature, or other piece of work  The raw values assigned are unimportant  Image a story with 2 USP(s) will 2 times bigger than 1-USP one  Two estimation scales or or Velocity is a measure of a team’s rate of progress – Ideal Time The beauty of this is that estimating in story points completely separates the estimation of effort from the estimation of duration If we find that a particular work unit is twice the size we thought. The estimate remains the same, but rate of progress through it will be slower 21
  22. 22. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? ProcessProductBacklog Sprint – 2-4 weeks Sprint Planning Sprint Goal Sprint Daily Scrum Backlog In Daily Scrum: Daily Work Blocks • As a tester, he/she joins all daily meeting (standup) Product to speak up 1. what was tested and did yesterday/ progress; Sprint Review/ 2. What will test and do today? Retrospective 3. Any in testing progress •As a tester, he/she can bring any backlog item that cannot be completed in current sprint and put to next Product sprint – EX: I don’t have enough time to execute Backlog testing for item #4. it will be tested in next sprint. 22
  23. 23. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? ProcessProductBacklog Sprint – 2-4 weeks In Daily Work: Sprint Planning Sprint Goal • As a tester, he/she is responsible for develop Sprint automation scripts (for automation testing Daily Scrum Backlog •As a tester, he/she schedules automation testing Blocks with Continuous Integration (CI) System. Daily Work Product •As a tester, he/she reviews & reports test results to stakeholders via CI System or by himself/herself. •As a tester, he/she executes non-functional testing Sprint Review/ with approved user stories Retrospective Some organizations, Product Owner does not have enough energy to do acceptance testing each sprint. Tester is hired for this case Product Backlog •As a tester, in end of Sprint, he/she executes UAT and confirms testing completeness for current sprint. 23
  24. 24. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? In Scrum, Software is integrated daily, build and test each day. Therefore, CI System is deployed to most of Agile Project. A CI System & test components can be identified as below • Hudson / CruiseControl – CI Framework • Junit (for Java)/ Nunit (.Net) – Unit Test • Cobertura (Java)/ NCoverage – Testing Coverage • Ant (for Java)/ Nant (.Net) – Automation Build • SVN – Version Control •Selenium integrated with Hudson - Functional testing In Daily Work, tester will responsible for develop automation scripts, integrate testing automation testing tools/scripts with CI for regression test and UAT As a part of duty, tester is playing role supporter in helping developers create Unit Tests effectively and efficient 24
  25. 25. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? In Daily Work: As a practice, “Done” of sprint can be considered when Code checked in.  Builds ready  Unit Test complete successfully Tester’s supports  80% code branch coverage on UT  Non-functional testing completed (confirmed by testers)  Finish deploying to Production 25
  26. 26. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? ProcessProductBacklog Sprint – 2-4 weeks In Review & Retrospective: Sprint Planning Sprint Goal • As a tester, he/she identifies what went right and Sprint what went wrong in current sprint Daily Scrum Backlog •As a tester, he/she identifies lesson learned and Blocks best practices. Daily Work Product •As a tester, he/she is encouraged to write user stories that support testing. EX: As a tester, I need interface with inputs – A, B, C Sprint Review/ to execute testing of feature X. Retrospective •As a tester, he/she is encouraged to write user stories that bring value to customer. Product EX: As a user, I need to be able to sort items. Backlog All these user stories are put to Product Backlog for review and Approved 26
  27. 27. What are Testing Activities in Scrum Process? In Review & Retrospective: • Any items remaining will be •Review why tester could NOT complete in current sprint Problem may be identified by lacking of experience in estimate or any roadblock prevented it completed. Whatever reason identified will be noted as lesson learned •Put to next sprint for continuing testing • Any roadblock comes from lacking of support of Product Owner, should be pointed out for Scrum Master’s follow-up To bring effectiveness and efficiency to review sessions, Scrum Master should request participants to prepare list of items/ issues at least 1 day prior to meeting date 27
  28. 28. What are Testing Activities in Kanban Process? Kanban is less prescriptive than Scrum All testing activities are similar with Scrum No required time-boxed iteration •Testing is not limited by time duration •Accept changes at anytime – Scrum protects changing backlog items in sprint while Kanban still accepts removing and adding new items • Testing item in workflow state can be added or removed to get the most effectiveness and efficiency.Kanban limits number of items for each workflow state•Testing items should be picked logically to put to workflow stated 28
  29. 29. What are Testing Activities in Kanban Process?An Example of Managing Tasks/ Work Item 1. Backlog: state all work items/ user stories translated into tasks - As a characteristic of Backlog may be limited number of items 2. Ready: List of work items that ready for executing 3. Specifics: Identify what criteria to confirm work item completeness 4. Execute: Work Item in executingTuan completed work item - Next, he moves another work He also moves another worktesting for “Sorting Items”. He item – testing for “Filter Items” item from Backlog as areviews and confirms that it from ready to “execute” to pipeline item.satisfied criteria state. He moves start new work 29this item to “Done”
  30. 30. What are Testing Activities in Product Development? Testing against Testing in live user story environment - UAT Non-functional Unit Testing testing/ confirms Integration Test story is metIn Agile, testing is focused on Tester is also responsible for1. Unit Test that developers need support of testers to testing user story that cannot be create effective set of tests and verified by UT to confirm testing2. Acceptance Test that the responsibility is belonged to tester completed before demo and release to production.Integration & regression test are executed daily byautomation. 30
  31. 31. What are Testing Activities in Product Development? Testing against Testing in live user story environment - UAT Non-functional Unit Testing testing/ confirms Integration Test story is met Story Exploration Communication within an agile team to explore story understanding Estimation  Consider flows of between Product Owner and team on story Story Planning  Testers also speak up with questions to clarify any vagueness Story Progression in the story Story Acceptance
  32. 32. What are Testing Activities in Product Development?EX: For User story: “As a user, I canreset my account password if I forgotmy password”Test may have questions relate to thisstory as follows1. What does it mean for an emailaddress to be ‘unknown’?2. What does it mean to ‘requireconfirmation’ of the password?And then s/he temporarily states theirunderstanding as next picture Story Exploration Estimation is a part of iteration where tester is using appropriate techniques Estimation Story Planning occurs after a story has been estimated and be Story Planning placed in iteration. Details of test tasks defined as Story Progression 1. Prepare test data 2. Extend acceptance test Story Acceptance 3. Execute manual 4. Automate CI tests
  33. 33. What are Testing Activities in Product Development? If acceptance criteria are not inplace, agile teams may collaborateon writing acceptance tests duringstory planning Tester can select acceptancetests for automation. Not allacceptance tests will be automatedEx: for Forgot Password story, team mayhave scenario as next picture for acceptancetest Story Exploration Story Progression: uncover additional tests that reply on Estimation exploratory testing and communication. Conducting testing while monitor results from CI system Story Planning Story Progression Story acceptance: “done” in test may be understood as all tests pass or level of test automation is met Story Acceptance
  34. 34. What are documents of testing in Agile Project?Agile in common, or Scrum/ Kanban inparticular, is focused on how to deliver As a part of process, testing in Agile hasvalue to customer by involving customer lightweight documentation with:(that presented by Product Owner) inwhole process; transferring product tolive (production) environment to bring Use reusable checklists tobenefits to business soon as possible suggest testsand expect changes to maximize Focus on essential of testcustomer business value. While Agilereduces documentation overhead bysimplifying process and number ofartifacts created rather than the incidental details  Capture test ideas for Exploratory Testing In case test-cases required, they should be created at high level If any, leverage one artifact for Manual and Automation Tests 34
  35. 35. How to track bugs in Agile Process?  Do or Do Not need Bug Tracking. No bug Tracking is still working well when testers perform their tests in Dev environment However, in Test environment, testers need to track bugs because they don’t see fixes for a while With Bug Tracking, any bugs which are identified (opened) by developers also will be regress tested by testers. Then test scripts will be updated to cover the case Ultimately, bugs can be prioritized with stories Keep in mind, in Agile, testing is not concrete phase. It is a part of development Development Development & Testing Testing 35
  36. 36. Agile Testing Techniques 36
  37. 37. What are Agile Testing Techniques? Quadrants Automation & Business Facing Manual Manual Test Test Exploratory Testing Functional Testing Scenario Test Story Test Usability Test Prototypes TestSupport the team Critique Product User Acceptance Test Unit Testing Performance & Load Testing Unit tests combined with Performance Test Test coverage Load Test Security Test Special Tool & Automation Automation Test Technology Facing Test 37
  38. 38. What are Agile Testing Techniques?  As typical testing, black box testing is used.  Agile testing is focus on using Automation testing techniques Test driven development, auto builds and continuous regression test daily all reply on automation and will not work without it. And acceptance test is carried out each Sprint that automation also has benefits Exploratory testing technique This technique simultaneous learning, test design and test execution. While the software is being tested, the tester learns things that together with experience and creativity generates new good tests to run. Scenario testing technique Use real-world scenarios that exercise multiple stories Don’t think of Exploratory is Agile Testing – it is only one of Agile testing approaches 38
  39. 39. What are Agile Testing Techniques? Exploratory  An example of Exploratory testing technique. User Story As an online shopper, I want to be able to delete items from my shopping cart Exploratory is kind of creativity techniques We start with thinking of some personas or characters and devise exploratory scenarios which role may get into. Ex: 1. Senior citizen who never shopped on web 2. Hacker looking for troubles 3. Internet-savvy teen For each role, behaviors will be different to have cases of testing generated and tested 39
  40. 40. References Scrum and Kaban at InfoQ http://www.infoq.com/ Testing Experience http://www.testingexperience.com/ Mountain Goat Software http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/  Agile Estimating and Planning – Mike Cohn  User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development 40
  41. 41. Recommended useful tool for Agile Team - the ultimate screenshot capture software designed specifically for testers that: - Snap a single screenshot or record a sequence of screens - Automatically generate intelligent step-by-step narration (defect report) - Auto submit tickets to defect tracking and ALM systems - calling for BETA user - Full featured Test Management System to give testers a simple yet productive working environment. Some of the qTest features and modules include: - Test Planning - Requirement Management - Test Case Management - Test Execution - Defect Tracking - Dashboards and Reports - Built in workflows and collaboration Get the tools as free download at http://www.qasymphony.com/ 41
  42. 42. Thank You Welcome your questions Agile Project 1 Scrum & 2 Kanban Agile 3 Testing Others 4 42

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Introduction to Agile software testing - The 5th seminar in public seminar series from KMS Technology which have been delivering from 2011 in every two months


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