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Social differentiation 2014

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Section B, WJEC, A2 Physical Education

Publicada em: Educação, Esportes, Tecnologia
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Social differentiation 2014

  1. 1. Social Differentiation
  2. 2. Social Differentiation • Differentiation – way in which groups separate themselves from each other - through appearance or behaviour • Can be used to measure ways different social groups access and consume sport. • Many sport sociologists have argued recently that the opportunity to participate actively in sport is stratified according to socio-cultural characteristics such as race, gender or class • E.g. Golf for white, surburban middle classes whilst boxing multiracial – urban working class males Chandler et al (2002) – Sport and Physical Education: The Key Concepts
  3. 3. Sport is a reflection of society…. • Sport often described as a microcosm of society – It reflects in miniature facts of society (Thompson et al, 2008) • And may magnify issues as sport is played out in front of global TV audiences
  4. 4. Sport and society…… • Society is stratified – sport reflects this • Dominant groups in society can exercise power and control over minority groups • Discrimination can occur when opportunities available to the dominant group are not available to all social groups (Thompson et all 2008) • Discrimination occurs when prejudice is acted upon. It can be overt – restricted membership to sports club or covert – relating to deep seated belief’s
  5. 5. Barriers to Participation • Split in to two areas: – Discrimination/disadvantaged minority groups • Class, Gender, Race, Age, Disability – Socio-cultural and economic factors
  6. 6. Socio-Cultural and economic factors that affect opportunity, participation, provision, attitudes and values • Finance/Income • Leisure Time • Time Management • Education • Physical Education • Resources • Family (+ve & -ve) • Peer Pressure • Role Models • Facilities/Location • Transport • Stereotyping Why are these reasons barriers? Discuss with a partner and present to the class your reasoning……….
  7. 7. Socio-cultural factors affecting talent individual‟s progression to elite level • Do they have the support of their family? More than just financial – need emotional support and encouragement • Status of elite sport within their family or community (not a proper job???) • Experience at school – did the school have policies and procedures to identify and encourage talented sports people?
  8. 8. Socio-cultural factors affecting talent individual‟s progression to elite level • Financial resources available for equipment, training facilities, travel expenses, medical support, coaching costs – not all sports can provide support – not all get funded! • Funding status of the sport - does it get funded by UK Sport? • Does the country or sport have infrastructure to develop talent? – Andy Murray moved to Spain!
  9. 9. Socio-cultural factors affecting talent individual‟s progression to elite level • Media exposure of sport – is there plenty of role models to motive aspiring elite athletes? • Anti-discrimination policies to prevent barriers
  10. 10. Studies show……. • The Performance Environment – A study of the personal, lifestyle and environment factors that affect sporting performance (UK Sport, 2006) • Family involvement with sport, having and gaining friends through sport – two most important factors in the early stages of becoming an elite athlete.
  11. 11. What a performer needs to be successful………………. • An attitude of resilience and determination • Strong friendships within sport/training group (Support structure) • Balance between training – performing – other elements of life (e.g. education, family) • Continuing education (for post sport career and personal satisfaction) • Ownership – some control over training and competitions • A balance between creativity/individuality and use sport science to plan and devise training and tactics/strategies • Not being required to specialise in their sport too early! UK Sport, 2006
  12. 12. Social Differentiation • Refers specifically to disadvantaged Groups – Class/Socio-economic group – Gender – women’s sport – Race – Age – Disability • With any disadvantaged minority there are three main constraints: OPPORTUNITY, PROVISION AND ESTEEM
  13. 13. Opportunities, Provision, Esteem • What opportunities are there to participate in sport? – choice of activity? Time to play? Money to play? Suitable standard? Acceptable company? • What provision is there? Varied types? Accessible? Reasonable cost? Sufficient space? Equipment? Social Amenities? Coaches available? Transport? • Is there enough esteem? Self Confidence? Body Image of that sport? Media influence? Stereotypes – Expectations – girls do dance/boys do rugby? Self-fulfilling prophecy?
  14. 14. Royal and Ancient to vote on women members at St Andrews The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is urging its 2,500 members to vote in favour of abolishing its men-only policy, the BBC has learned. The club, which was formed more than two centuries ago, has only ever allowed men to join. A vote on proposals to change that rule is scheduled for September. In advance of that meeting, the Royal and Ancient has written to its members urging them to support a change in policy which would allow women members. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club has been the guardian of the rules of the game since 1754, although in 2004 it devolved responsibility for the administration of the game and the Open to the newly-formed R&A. "It's a big day for the club," R&A chief executive Peter Dawson told BBC Sport. "We've done this really because of our governance role in the game. "We think it's very good for the governance of golf that we make this move. Sport has been changing, society has been changing and golf is part of that. "We think it's time this change is made." If the vote goes against women members, Dawson said that would be an "undesirable" result. He added: "The early indication is that there is great support. We will have to see what happens." Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond boycotted last year's Open at all-male club Muirfield, while Open venues Royal St George's and Troon also bar women members. However, in 2012 the Augusta National Club, which hosts the Masters in the United States every year, allowed women to join for the first time in its 80-year history. March 2014 – bbc.co.uk
  15. 15. “There are a variety of barriers affecting equal access for all in sport at all levels.” • Write a minimum two page report discussing this statement with particular reference to either gender, race, class, disability or age (you will be allocated one area) • You have 30 minutes to read/research and 30 minutes to write your report – to be handed in at end of lesson • Make sure you give examples of the barriers • Give examples where NGBs have done something to overcome a barrier • Use the available textbooks, moodle mark schemes and googlebooks • Needs to be of a high standard – you will be sharing you findings
  16. 16. “There are a variety of barriers affecting equal access for all in sport at all levels.” • Gender • Alex • Sam • Ben • Sameed • Brad • Jessica •Race/Ethnicity • Marcus • Dom • Daniel • Mac • Charlotte • Disability • Declan • Joshua • James • Conal • Katherine
  17. 17. Gender – key points • Sex or gender discrimination…. • Sex – whether biologically male or female • Gender - culturally determined roles that men and women play in a particular society • Sexism – discrimination based on sex – especially the oppression of women by men • Women’s progression to elite level is affected by issues of sexism – usually stereotypical views of the strengths and qualities of women in a sport and the gender role that women are expected to fulfil in society
  18. 18. Gender - key point • Women’s role in society is often seen as conforming to a set image – that of femininity and linked to the stereotypical roles of housewife and mother. • Therefore the amount of time and type of sport pursued must adhere to this trait! • Sex discrimination not just a sport thing but a society issue (sport is microcosm of society) • Accepted assumption that women have inferior abilities and physical weaknesses! • Sport is aggressive and you show domination – not very feminine traits!
  19. 19. Evidence of discrimination • Olympics – more men’s events than women’s • Team GB (Athens) – More men than women (31% women) • More likely to be in debt if a female athlete (funding issues?) • BOA and IOA – approx 14% of members are female • Women’s elite football – semi-pro
  20. 20. Evidence of discrimination • 2007 – Wimbledon finally gave equal prize money (last of all Grand Slams to do so) • Golf – European toours massive differences in prize money (£82 million v £10 million)
  21. 21. Why is this the case? • Women’s elite sport less social status than men (De- motivates and sport still seen as male dominated) • Sport traditionally viewed as a male preserve (Holt, 1989) – long history of discrimination. Rules and administration male dominated. • Sport has been defined as “an institution created by and for men” (Messner and Sabo, 1990) • Battle to be allowed to legally participate in some sports e.g. – Marathon – 1973 (1984 for Olympic Marathon) – Wrestling – 1987 – Triple jump – 1994 – Boxing – 1996 – Weight lifting - 200
  22. 22. Why is this the case? • Sport remains mainly a masculine world at all levels • Men play and watch more than women – ask yourself why? • Sport visibly reproduces the ideology of male supremacy
  23. 23. Why is this the case? • Less socially acceptable for women to spend time needed to train to become an elite athlete (disincentive) • Media portrayal – Jessica Ennis focus on pregnancy or what wearing. Men don’t get same treatment • Female athletes who develop physically have their sexuality questioned by media – creates fear of homophobia among young athletes whatever their sexual orientation may be
  24. 24. Why is this the case? • Women in rugby and football often seen as unfeminine and had their sexuality questioned!
  25. 25. Why is this the case? • Some times face both sex discrimination and racial discrimination – In 2004, Groups in Bangladesh forced the cancellation of the Women’s National Wrestling Championship • Women’s sport is less well reported – harder to get sponsorship/funding issues – also same for tournament organisers
  26. 26. What being done to combat? • UK – legislation to outlaw sex discrimination • Sport England and UK Sport set equity targets for all NGBs • Women’s Sport and Fitness Foundation – pressure group – improve participation and opportunities for progression to elite level – tries to influence sport policy (for example) • There is a gradual acceptance of women in sport – athletes such as Paula Radcliffe – running faster than many of her male equivalents – and more positive media coverage
  27. 27. Positives…. • Women’s football is fastest growing sport in this country…most popular in USA • Football has overtaken netball as most popular team sport in UK (for females) • Things are changing slowly
  28. 28. Still issues to address: • Lack of role models • Restricted opportunities in certain sports • Trivialisation of women’s sport e.g. how they look rather than achievements • Certain religious restrictions • Lack of crèche facilities • Lower pay and prize money • Poor self-image • Poor media coverage
  29. 29. Chrissie Wellington , who won her fourth Ironman world championship title in October, not nominated Not 1 female athlete from any sport made the final list
  30. 30. Launched in 2008 with a strong focus on living an active, healthy lifestyle, merged with the penchant for the latest fashion trends, the 52-page monthly magazine Sportsister has managed to capture an audience of 50,000 in just 48 months.
  31. 31. Gender Tagging • Netball is for women and Rugby is for boys!
  32. 32. Sexploitation • Applies to forms of marketing, promotion or attempts to gain media coverage which focus attention on the sexual attributes of female athletes, especially the visibility of their bodies. • In a context of sexploitation, the value of the female athlete is judged primarily in terms of her body type and attractiveness, rather than for the qualities that define her as an athlete. • This creates an ironic situation for elite athletes. In order to attract media and sponsor interest, many female athletes resort to marketing themselves or their sport for their ‘voyeuristic potential’. • However, if this approach is successful, the increased interest is not on their performances and successes, but on their sex appeal. (AIS, 2014)
  33. 33. Race • Refers to the Physical characteristics of an individual.
  34. 34. Ethnicity • „The cultural heritage of a particular group‟ (such as language, religion, interests and family structure) and not merely biological features. • Race still tends to be used by the media when discussing such issues
  35. 35. Racism • Is a set of beliefs and ideas based on the assumption that races have distinctive cultural characteristics determined by heredity factors, and that this endows some races with intrinsic superiority (Thompson, Wiggins-James and James, 2008)
  36. 36. Racial Discrimination • Any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, UH-OCHR, 1966
  37. 37. Prejudice • An extreme attitude • “…an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual based solely on the individual‟s membership of a social group.”(SimplyPsychology.org, 2011)
  38. 38. Stereotype • “...a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996). • E.g. stereo type that those of Asian ethnicity are often perceived as weak and fragile, lacking in stamina and poorly coordinated. There is also a perception that they are constrained by their religious beliefs and parental attitudes. Opposite for African-Caribbean – Asian young people have been traditionally channelled away from sports with A-C’s in.
  39. 39. Participation in sport
  40. 40. Participation in sport • Asian participation in sport is much lower than for other minority groups especially for women. • There is an under-representation in a vast majority of sports expect hockey, cricket and badminton.
  41. 41. Equal numbers of all backgrounds? • Significant differences in the numbers representing ethnic minority groups at elite level. • 25% of English footballers are from UK Caribbean or African origins • Almost none are from UK Asian (Can we name any?) • http://www.asianfootballawards.co.uk/afa- awards/#.U2QLx4FdXUg
  42. 42. • In April 2004 Rehman made his debut for Fulham, becoming the first British-Asian footballer to play in the Premier League, but that is not all Rehman has managed to do. - See more at: http://thepositive.com/the-first-british-asian-footballer-in-the-premier- league/#sthash.QUya0YuM.dpuf
  43. 43. In UK Sport.. • Athletics few Asian sprinters and jumpers • In Tennis - UK top 10 – 20% (Badminton similar) • In general, members of the UK Asian community are under represented in top level sport
  44. 44. Why should there be this variation in representation? • The role model effect – existence of appropriate role models encourages others to take part – A lack of role models therefore deters people from participation • Pushed in to the wrong sports (Channelling) – Preconceived mistaken ideas of what certain ethnic groups are better at – have a ‘genetic advantage’ so young people pushed in to only certain sports (no scientific evidence to back up these claims/stereotyping)
  45. 45. Why the variation…. • In sports where achievement is based on objective measurements e.g. athletics (height, speed, distance) harder to discriminate/select based on prejudice • Socioeconomic groups from which the largest proportion of elite footballers and athletes comes have a higher than average percentage of members of the UK’s Caribbean and African communities. • Conversely our elite tennis squads have no members from those socio-economic or ethnic minority groups.
  46. 46. Issues of centrality and racial stacking • Centrality – Grusky (1963) • Seen to designate how ‘close a member is to the centre of the group’s interaction, how fequently that member interacts to a greater or lesser range with other team mates, and the degree to which other team members must co-ordinate tasks and other activities with other members.” • Key element of centrality is leadership and degree of responsibility for game outcome (Foy and McElvogue (1970)
  47. 47. Issue of centrality and racial stacking • Central positions – those with greatest amount of interaction with team mates e.g. quarter-back in American Football, Guard and centre in Basketball, Baseball – pitcher and catcher • No central positions – little interaction with team mates – few decisions regarding nature of the game
  48. 48. Issue of centrality and racial stacking • In North American Sport – there has been a tradition of over-representation in non-central positions – reverse for white players • Sport scientists initially thought certain races had physical advantages in certain sports (incorrectly) • Due to racial discrimination and racial stereotyping - black players are more commonly found in non-central positions • This is known as Racial Stacking The Sociology of Sport and Physical Education: An Introductory Reader edited by Anthony Laker
  49. 49. Racial Stacking • This racial folklore has helped frame participation in certain sports leading to – a self-fulfilling prophecy
  50. 50. Rooney Rule • Lack of opportunities* in coaching and management • Intro of Rooney Rule in American Football • “Before the Rooney Rule there were six black NFL head coaches in more than 80 years. • In the decade since 12 have been hired. • They are succeeding, too: at least one minority head coach or general manager has made the Super Bowl every year since 2006.” Guardian 29th September 2013 – Sean Ingle
  51. 51. Rooney Rule • The Rooney Rule requires National Football League teams to interview minority candidates for head coaching and senior football operation jobs. • No quota or preference given to minorities in the hiring of candidates
  52. 52. Social mobility • Sport always seen as a route to social mobility • Traditionally, black families in working class areas of Britain participated in sports that required minimal equipment and facilities (rags to riches concept). • African-Caribbean’s have been very successful in British sport especially in Athletics, boxing rugby and football. • Success has led to many role models being created and barriers being broken down.
  53. 53. Age • Too old…………. • Too young…………….
  54. 54. Disability • A person with a disability has some form of impairment which affects their ability to engage in an activity • An impairment is a loss or deficiency of the body or mind that affects the functioning of the body • Disability or differently abled AS/A2 AQA Physical Education – Bevis & Murray - 2009
  55. 55. Disability Types • Mobility impairments (skeletal and disfiguring impairments) • Sensory impairments (hearing and sight) • Mental impairments (learning difficulties and other psychological impairments) • Other impairments (language, cognitive or perceptual impairments)
  56. 56. Disability – profile system • Complex scoring system that develops a performer profile score based on impairment • In each sport – different profiles are grouped together to allow fair competition • Five broad categories: – Amputees (at least one major joint missing) – Cerebral Palsy – Wheelchair – Vision impaired – Les autres (e.g. dwarfism or others that don’t fit the categories)
  57. 57. Participation • Active People Survey 2006 – showed approx. 9% of people with a longstanding illness or disability regularly participated in sport compared to 23% who do not have any disability/illness • Weekly participation in sport among people with a long-term limiting illness, disability or infirmity is at 18.5%. That’s around half of the general population level at 39.2%
  58. 58. Barriers to Participation • Safety concerns (is sport too dangerous?), • Stereotyping/social attitudes, • Lack of specialist knowledge/coaching • Reduced access to facilities • Lack of media coverage and role models.
  59. 59. Why is there such a difference? • Some disabilities too severe • Disabled access in sports facilities has improved but may limit (DDA Act – changing this) • Stereotyping and inaccurate assumptions • Despite DDA often the ‘invisible’ minority that are ignored or less high profile • Lack of status and public recognition – lack of TV/media coverage – coverage focuses on disability and not on the quality of sport • Lack of role models
  60. 60. Elite sport • Funded in same way as all athletes: – World Class Performance Pathways – TASS – age extended to 35 (Why? Discuss) – SportsAid – supports 25 disabled sports (50 non-disabled sports) • Agencies supporting disabled athletes – British Paralympic Association – UK Sport – Sport England • Talent Id – A Vision for Rio: Para-Swimming – Chasing The Rio Dream: Para-Archery
  61. 61. Steps to overcome inequalities • Campaigns (such as ‘Kick It Out’, ‘Show Racism and Red Card’, ‘Nike Girls in Sport’, ‘Changing the Game for Girls’ and ‘Every Body Active’) and education programmes in schools and communities. • Increased media coverage and creation of role models (for example, David Weir and Ellie Simmonds in relation to disability sport).
  62. 62. Steps to overcome inequalities • Development of Equality and Equity Policies and dissemination of examples of best practice through National Governing Bodies. • Inclusion of disabled athletes in the Olympic Games (London 2012). • Tougher penalties and punishment (e.g. Luis Suarez – eight match ban and fine). • Encouraging more minority groups to take on coaching and managerial roles (Rooney Rule in American Football). • New technology has allowed more disabled athletes to compete especially at the elite level. • Implementation of Discrimination Acts.