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Dr. Klaus Leopold
web: www.LEANability.com
blog: www.klausleopold.com
mail: klaus.leopold@LEANability.com

twitter: @klaus...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
What’s the problem?
Why is agility at scale difficult?
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Common Misconceptions
• “In an agile organization, all teams use agile methods.”
- Optimi...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Team
Dynamic Systems
Development Method
ScrumKanban
Extreme
Programming
Adaptive Software...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
customer wish: write a love letter
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
The performance of a system is not
the sum of its parts.
It’S the product of its interact...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Common Misconceptions
• “In an agile organization, all teams use agile
methods.”
- Optimi...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Common Misconceptions
• “In an agile organization, all teams use agile
methods.”
- Optimi...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Common Misconceptions
• “In an agile organization, all teams use agile
methods.”
- Optimi...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Common Misconceptions
• “In an agile organization, all teams use agile
methods.”
- Optimi...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
What could be a solution?
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
We need a working environment,
which is created by active leaders
instead of lazy adminis...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Principles
1. Start with what you do now
2. Agree to pursue evolutionary change
3. Initia...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Scalability in Kanban simply
means doing real Kanban at any
scale in your organization!
I...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Example: Kanban at Scale
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
SW Development Program
• SW development program, ~200 people
- program management
- 1 PRM...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
1. FOCUS ON VALUE CREATION
—> How are you creating value?
—-> What are your services?
2. ...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Build a hierarchy-bridging and
cross-functional change team.
program manager,
project man...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
concretize
idea
define B-epics
split epics,
develop & test
integrate &
test
run user acc....
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
define B-epics
split epics,
develop & test
integrate &
test
business &
marketing
2 ops te...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
idea
doing approved doing done
(32)
concretize
idea
(24)
define
B-epics
in
development
(8...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
idea
doing approved doing done
(32)
concretize
idea
(24)
define
B-epics
in
development
(8...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
It’s not “mandatory” that
(all) teams do KANBAN!!
LET TEAMS PULL
CHANGE!
We only started
...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
user
story
< 1d
(10)
develop
(∞)
int. test
(∞)
UAT
(1)
waiting
4 EPIC
epic
program
versio...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Coordination
• Program stand-up, twice per week
- 2 program management delegates
- 3 dele...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Kanban is scale-free:
Simply apply Kanban
principles & practices
at any scale in your
org...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
When to Scale?
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
you might discover a
problem where scaling
is a solution
We wouldn’t call it scaling.
It ...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Aggregate
Aggregate multiple systems into a single systems.
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
(3)
READY 4 DEV
(4)
FRONTEND Process
(2)
READY 2
INTEGRATE
(3)
WAITING 4 Backend
FRONTEND...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
AND
FRONTEND Development
BACKEND Development
(5)
READY 4 DEV
(8)
DEVELOPMENT Process
(2)
...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
Connect Services
Join disconnected systems by limiting unlimited
queues/buffers between s...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
develop integrate
(3)
READY 2
DEVELOP
(10)
DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS
(∞)
READY 2
INTEGRATE
(4)
...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
develop integratebiz analyze roll outmarketing
(3)
READY 2
DEVELOP
(10)
DEVELOPMENT
PROCE...
www.LEANability.com@klausleopold
TAKE AWAYS
*KANBAN is a scale-free approach.
It does not not scale.
*Scaling KANBAN means...
www.kanbaninit.com
LEANability GmbH | Grundlgasse 5/11 | A-1090 Wien
o f f i c e @ L E A N a b i l i t y. c o m | + 4 3 1 ...
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LKCE14 Kanban at Scale, Scaling Kanban

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Scalability is currently a big topic in the agile world. Most agile methods and practices often reach their limits when one wants to “agilize" more than a few teams, let alone one wants to achieve real agile collaboration of several hundert people.

The main problem is that many agile methods focus on the team. Kanban follows a completely different path - Kanban is not a team method! Kanban is a management method which focuses on generating value. "Manage work and not workers" is one of the key messages of the Lean Kanban management philosophy. Therefore, scalability is not a real topic within Kanban: if you focus on value generation of work, scaling Kanban simple means doing more Kanban - it’s inherent scalable.

In this session I show how one could use Kanban at scale. Besides the general schematic explanation I will also show a case study where Kanban is used to coordinate work of more than 200 people.

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LKCE14 Kanban at Scale, Scaling Kanban

  1. 1. Dr. Klaus Leopold web: www.LEANability.com blog: www.klausleopold.com mail: klaus.leopold@LEANability.com
 twitter: @klausleopold Kanban at Scale Lean Kanban Central Europe Conference, November 2014, Hamburg, DE
  2. 2. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold What’s the problem? Why is agility at scale difficult?
  3. 3. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Common Misconceptions • “In an agile organization, all teams use agile methods.” - Optimize value generation and not team performance - Focus on interactions • “You just need to strictly follow the method.” - World is too complex to not adapt to your specific situation. - You need an individual working system which adapts to your specific situation. • “Teams just need a strong vision and empowerment.” - Lean/Agile is a cultural change and you cannot “install” a culture - It’s a process which requires leadership skills
  4. 4. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Team Dynamic Systems Development Method ScrumKanban Extreme Programming Adaptive Software Development Agile Unified Process Crystal Feature Driven Development Lean Software Development Scrum-ban
  5. 5. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team
  6. 6. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team An organization is not a container of independent teams!! Organizations are living social systems!
  7. 7. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold customer wish: write a love letter
  8. 8. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold The performance of a system is not the sum of its parts. It’S the product of its interactions. — Russell Ackoff
  9. 9. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Common Misconceptions • “In an agile organization, all teams use agile methods.” - Optimize value creation and not team performance - Focus on interactions and not individual parts • “You just need to strictly follow the method.” - World is too complex to not adapt to your specific situation. - You need an individual working system which adapts to your specific situation.
  10. 10. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Common Misconceptions • “In an agile organization, all teams use agile methods.” - Optimize value creation and not team performance - Focus on interactions and not individual parts • “You just need to follow the method.” - World is too complex to not adapt to your specific situation. - You need an individual working system which adapts to your specific situation.
  11. 11. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Common Misconceptions • “In an agile organization, all teams use agile methods.” - Optimize value creation and not team performance - Focus on interactions and not individual parts • “You just need to follow the method.” - If you apply another one’s solution to your problem don’t be surprised if the solution does not solve your problem! - You need an individual working system which adapts to your specific situation.
  12. 12. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Common Misconceptions • “In an agile organization, all teams use agile methods.” - Optimize value creation and not team performance - Focus on interactions and not individual parts • “You just need to follow the method.” - If you apply another one’s solution to your problem don’t be surprised if the solution does not solve your problem! - You need an individual working system which adapts to your specific situation.
  13. 13. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold What could be a solution?
  14. 14. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold We need a working environment, which is created by active leaders instead of lazy administrators who only ask for best practices. We need a working environment, which continuously adapts to reality instead of trying to fit a blueprint. We need a working environment, which optimizes for value creation instead of optimizing organizational structures (like e.g. teams).
  15. 15. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Principles 1. Start with what you do now 2. Agree to pursue evolutionary change 3. Initially, respect existing roles, responsibilities 
and job titles 4. Encourage leadership on all levels in the organization Practices 1. Visualize 2. Limit work in progress (WIP) 3. Manage flow 4. Make policies explicit 5. Implement feedback loops 6. Improve collaboratively, evolve experimentally
  16. 16. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Scalability in Kanban simply means doing real Kanban at any scale in your organization! I don’t know how each and every company on this planet works most effectively! But we can figure it out!
  17. 17. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Example: Kanban at Scale
  18. 18. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold SW Development Program • SW development program, ~200 people - program management - 1 PRM, 5 PMs - 1 solution team - 8 business and marketing representatives - 5 business analysts, 3 architects - 10 dev teams, ~110 people - 4 Web teams, 2 iPhone teams, 1 Android team, 
 1 Shop team, 2 backend teams - 3 QA teams, ~35 people - 2 OPS teams, ~25 people • Main dissatisfactions: - Bad coordination of the whole program WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  19. 19. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold 1. FOCUS ON VALUE CREATION —> How are you creating value? —-> What are your services? 2. FIGURE OUT WHOM YOU NEED —> teams, departments, etc. —-> it’s not about local optima START AS BROAD AS YOU CAN —> Use the leverage if you can! —-> PROGRAM in this example
  20. 20. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Build a hierarchy-bridging and cross-functional change team. program manager, project manager(s), team delegates build a Kanban system together
  21. 21. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold concretize idea define B-epics split epics, develop & test integrate & test run user acc. tests roll-out rough idea prog. version
  22. 22. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold define B-epics split epics, develop & test integrate & test business & marketing 2 ops team 10 dev teams run user acc. tests roll-out 5 BAs & 3 Arch prog. version concretize idea rough idea 3 QA teams
  23. 23. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold idea doing approved doing done (32) concretize idea (24) define B-epics in development (8) review B-epics (16) ready for dev rejected Shop (2) Web (8) Android (2) iPhone (4) (∞) ready for int (4) int & test (2) UAT (2) ready to roll (1) roll out DONE (4) NEXT epic program version integration train Monday release train Wednesday Backend (2) Kanban on program level doing done doing done
  24. 24. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold idea doing approved doing done (32) concretize idea (24) define B-epics in development (8) review B-epics (16) ready for dev rejected Shop (2) Web (8) Android (2) iPhone (4) (∞) ready for int (4) int & test (2) UAT (2) ready to roll (1) roll out DONE (4) NEXT epic program version integration train Monday release train Wednesday Backend (2) Kanban on program level doing done doing done There are no recipes and blueprints in KANBAN. UNDERSTAND what you’re doing and IMPROVE! This is just an EXAMPLE and NOT the KANBAN blueprint!!
  25. 25. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold It’s not “mandatory” that (all) teams do KANBAN!! LET TEAMS PULL CHANGE! We only started KANBAN on program level That’s also a perfect way to organize work for multiple SCRUM teams
  26. 26. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold user story < 1d (10) develop (∞) int. test (∞) UAT (1) waiting 4 EPIC epic program version (2) define User Stories (16) Pool of User Stories < 2d < 5d (4) NEXT (1) review epic READY 2 ROLL Kanban on team level 1 analyst, 8 developers, 3 test specialists This part of the board is POTENTIAL DEMAND for the team! Epic 1 + User Stories Epic 2 + User Stories
  27. 27. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Coordination • Program stand-up, twice per week - 2 program management delegates - 3 delegates from the solution team - 5 delegates from the dev teams - 3 delegates from the QA teams - 1 delegate from the OPS teams • Team stand-ups - Dev teams, daily - QA teams, twice per week - OPS teams, twice per week • Improvement meetings - each Dev, QA, and OPS team, 2-weekly to 4-weekly cadence - Program retro, monthly cadence - cross-team retro, 3-monthly cadence
  28. 28. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Kanban is scale-free: Simply apply Kanban principles & practices at any scale in your organization.
  29. 29. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold When to Scale?
  30. 30. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold you might discover a problem where scaling is a solution We wouldn’t call it scaling. It just means that you’re doing proper Kanban!
  31. 31. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Aggregate Aggregate multiple systems into a single systems.
  32. 32. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold (3) READY 4 DEV (4) FRONTEND Process (2) READY 2 INTEGRATE (3) WAITING 4 Backend FRONTEND Development BACKEND Development (3) READY 4 DEV (4) BACKEND Process (2) READY 2 INTEGRATE
  33. 33. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold AND FRONTEND Development BACKEND Development (5) READY 4 DEV (8) DEVELOPMENT Process (2) READY 2 INTEGRATE Aggregated services improve liquidity of flow
  34. 34. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold Connect Services Join disconnected systems by limiting unlimited queues/buffers between systems.
  35. 35. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold develop integrate (3) READY 2 DEVELOP (10) DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (∞) READY 2 INTEGRATE (4) INTEGRATION PROCESS (∞) READY 2 ROLL OUT (2) READY 2 INTEGRATE
  36. 36. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold develop integratebiz analyze roll outmarketing (3) READY 2 DEVELOP (10) DEVELOPMENT PROCESS READY 2 INTEGRATE (3) Scale out in a service-oriented fashion!! READY 2 INTEGRATE (4) INTEGRATION PROCESS (∞) READY 2 ROLL OUT READY 2 INTEGRATE
  37. 37. www.LEANability.com@klausleopold TAKE AWAYS *KANBAN is a scale-free approach. It does not not scale. *Scaling KANBAN means doing more “real” KANBAN - improving! *Scale/improve in a service- oriented fashion: -aggregate services to improve liquidity of flow -connect unlimited buffers to larger services
  38. 38. www.kanbaninit.com LEANability GmbH | Grundlgasse 5/11 | A-1090 Wien o f f i c e @ L E A N a b i l i t y. c o m | + 4 3 1 4 0 5 8 4 8 0 www.LEANability.com | facebook.LEANability.com
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Scalability is currently a big topic in the agile world. Most agile methods and practices often reach their limits when one wants to “agilize" more than a few teams, let alone one wants to achieve real agile collaboration of several hundert people. The main problem is that many agile methods focus on the team. Kanban follows a completely different path - Kanban is not a team method! Kanban is a management method which focuses on generating value. "Manage work and not workers" is one of the key messages of the Lean Kanban management philosophy. Therefore, scalability is not a real topic within Kanban: if you focus on value generation of work, scaling Kanban simple means doing more Kanban - it’s inherent scalable. In this session I show how one could use Kanban at scale. Besides the general schematic explanation I will also show a case study where Kanban is used to coordinate work of more than 200 people.

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