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Population and demography

  1. POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHY Prepared by: Restauro, Natasha Paula Mustapha, Nayrah Clavano, Katherene Joy
  2. POPULATION • refers to a collection of human beings. • A group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed.
  3. POPULATION GROWTH RATE • the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, PGR ordinarily refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period
  4. DEMOGRAPHY • the statistical study of human populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space. It encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging and death.
  5. MAIN SOURCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA • Population census (different administrative and political areas) and their social economic characteristics (age, sex, occupation, nationality, employment status and migration) • Vital registration statistics (births, deaths and marriage)
  6. • Sample or special surveys undertaken for a particular purpose e.g Philippine Statistical Surey of Household (PSSH) • Demographic data gathered and processed by government agencies (e.g. DECS, DOH)
  7. THOMAS MALTHUS’ THEORY • The increase in population is faster than the increase in food supply, thus pushing people to the verge of starvation
  8. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION • The condition of high birth rate and declining death rate in an accelerated growth of population
  9. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY • Holds that as socities become technologically modern and urbanized, they pass through three stages
  10. 3 STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION • FIRST- the traditional pattern of high birth rate and high death rate which results in a stable population • SECOND- a period of high birth rate but declining death rate where the society experiences a big natural increase of population • THIRD- a period of low birth rate and low death rate where the population is stabilized
  11. CAUSES OF THE DECLINE IN BIRTH RATE • Changed conditions of life caused by industrialization • Shifts in social values and attitude about children and family size • Conscious attempt to limit the number of children • Influence of secular education which reoriented attitudes and values • Urbanization
  12. CAUSES OF THE DECLINE IN MORTALITY RATE • Economic development • Rising standard of living • Improvements in medicine, agriculture, nutrition, health and sanitation, and personal hygiene • Formation of a more effective social organization • Improvement of national markets
  13. PROCESS IN POPULATION CHANGE • Population change occurs as growth or as a decline. Three variables, namely, fertility, mortality and migration are involved. The combination of these variables has resulted in changes in the demographic structure, influencing the social, economic, and political structure of the society
  14. FERTILITY • Refers to the actual number of children born to a woman or group of women WAYS TO MEASURE FERTILITY a. CRUDE BIRTH RATE - the number of registered births per 1000 of the population in a given area at a specified time
  15. b. AGE- SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATE - refers to the number of births to women at a given age group per 1000 women in the same age group c. TOTAL FERTILITY RATE - is the sum of the age- specific fertility rates for all women aged 15- 49
  16. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FERTILITY • Social and cultural values • Economy of the society • Family structure • Education • Labor force participation • Age of marriage • Proportion of people who get married • Fertility intentions • Knowledge and practice if birth control
  17. MORTALITY • Refers to the number of deaths per 1000 of the total mid- year population in a particular place at a specified time WAYS TO MEASURE MORTALITY a. CRUDE DEATH RATE - the number of registered deaths per 1000 of the population in a given area at a specified time
  18. b. AGE- SPECIFIC MORTALITY - refers to the number of death at a defined age span per 1000 of the total mid- year population in the same group
  19. LIFE EXPECTANCY • Refers to the average number of years a person can expect to live at the time of birth
  20. MIGRATION • The spatial movements of a person or group of persons from one place to another, more or less for permanent residency
  21. REASONS WHY PEOPLE MIGRATE • Economic • Political • Social • Psychological • Religious • Educational • medical
  22. FORCES OF MIGRATION • PUSH FACTORS – Come in the form of unfavorable or unattractive conditons which make one dissatisfied with one’s natural resources; natural disasters; political, religious, or racial discrimination or persecution; or internal disorders or war
  23. • PULL FACTORS – Refers to the corresponding conditions or attractions of a locally which lure one to go there e.g. favorable climate and good topography, employment opportunities, recreational and other cultural facilities and religious freedom and peace
  24. TYPES OF MIGRATION • INTERNAL MIGRATION – the spatial movement of a person or group of persons within the country • INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION – the movement of a person or group of persons from one country to another
  25. STRUCTURES AFFECTED BY FERTILITY, MORTALITY AND MIGRATION • AGE STRUCTURE - refers to the proportion of persons at the different age levels • SEX RATIO – refers to the number of males per one hundred females
  26. POPULATION POLICIES AND PROGRAMS • POPULATION COMMISSION (POPCOM) - was made the policy- making, coordinating, and monitoring agency of the country’s family planning program - its goal is to enhance national development by meeting the social and economic challenge of a high rate of population growth
  27. PHILIPPINE POPULATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM - based on population- resource- environment (PRE) framework which aimed to secure proper balance among population resources and environment and to achieve an improved quality of life for all Filipinos through the proper management of population growth and distribution