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Table tennis game

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Table tennis game

  1. 1.  also called ping pong)  it is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth using a table tennis racket. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, players must allow a ball played toward them only one bounce on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side. Points are scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. When doing so the hitter has a good chance of scoring if the spin is successful.
  2. 2. The game of table tennis probably descended from the game of “Royal Tennis” also known as Real Tennis or Court Tennis which was played in the medieval era. The game became popular in England and the United States in the late 19th century.
  3. 3. Some sources claim that the sport was once known as indoor tennis, and was played in the early 1880’s by British army officers stationed in India and South Africa. The game has its origin in England as an after-dinner amusement for upper-class Victorians in the 1880’s.
  4. 4. The popularity of the game led game manufacturers to sell the equipment commercially. Early bats were often pieces of parchment stretch upon a frame, and the sound generated in play gave the game its first nicknames of “whiff-whaff” and “ping-pong”. A number of sources indicate that the game was first brought to the attention of Hamley’s of Regent Street under the name “Gossima”. The name “ping-pong was wide in use before English manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked in 1901.
  5. 5.  1880’s – the game had become fashionable among the upper classes in England.  1887 – According to the ITTF website, the first use of the name “table tennis” appeared on a board and dice game made by J.H Singer of New York.  1890 – the earliest existing evidence of a table tennis game is a set made by David Foster, patented in England, which included table version of Lawn Tennis, Cricket and football.
  6. 6.  1891 – John Jacques of London introduced their “ Gossima” game, which used drum-type paddles, a 50mm web wrapped cork ball, and a 30cm high net.  1890’s – Parker Brother began making an indoor tennis kit which included a portable net, a small ball covered in netting, and paddles.  1900 – Englishman James Gibb is credited with bringing hollow celluloid balls back to England from USA, although some other sources claim they were plastic balls.
  7. 7.  1901 – Jhon Jacques registered ping-pong as a trade name in England. The American rights to the name are sold to Parker Brothers.  1901 – On the 12th December 1909, the table tennis Association was formed in England.  1902 – Englishman E.C Goode is credited with putt king pebbled rubber racket, which will dominate table tennis until 1952.
  8. 8.  1903 – on the first may 1903, the Table Tennis and the Ping-Pong Association” amalgamate, forming “The United Table Tennis and Ping-Pong Association”. This association will later revert its name to “The Table Tennis Association”, before becoming defunct in 1904.  1920’s – in the early 1920’s the game began to revive in England and Europe.  1926 – The International Table Tennis Federation is formed.
  9. 9.  1935 – the American Ping-pong Association, US Amateur Table Tennis Association and National Table Tennis Association merge to form the US Table Tennis Association ( which wasrenamed USA table tennis in 1994.  1938 – the ITTF lowered the net from six and three quarter inches to six inches, and band the fingerspin serves used with devasting effect by American players,  1940-1946 – no World Championship were held in World War.
  10. 10.  1950’s – there was the introduction of a new stroke. It was really an exaggerated to spin where there was a greater preparation, follow-through and wrist action.  1952 – Hiroji Satoch of Japan becames notorious for his use of a wooden racket and spin rather than the conventional pimpled rubber rackets. He wons the 1952 World Championships over Koczian of Hungary, and begins a period of Asian male domination in the sport which would last until Sweden rose to supremacy from 1989 into the early 1990’s.
  11. 11.  1959-1960 – the ITTF standardized the thickness of ordinary pimpled rubber and sponge rubber.  1960’s- in the early 1960’s, the loop drive was invented and became popular around the world.  1960’s- in the early 1960’s, Xiang Xi Lin of China used a “Yin-Yan” bat with normal rubber on one side, and long pimples on the other – the first recorded instance of successful combination bat play
  12. 12.  1971- china returned to International Competition at the 1971 World Championships.  1971- the US Table Tennis Team took a “Ping-pong Diplomacy” trip to china, in a world’s first effort to use sport to established and improved diplomatic relations.  1971- Jean-Paul Weber of France used the first anti-spin rubber in the World Championships in Nagoya, Japan, and enjoyed some success with its use.
  13. 13.  The table is 2.74 m (9.0 ft.) long, 1.525 m (5.0 ft.) wide, and 76 cm (2.5 ft.) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm (9.1 in) when a standard ball is dropped onto it from a height of 30 cm (11.8 in), or about 77%. The table or playing surface is uniformly dark colored and matte, divided into two halves by a net at 15.25 cm (6.0 in) in height. The ITTF approves only wooden tables or their derivate. Concrete tables with a steel net or a solid concrete partition are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.
  14. 14.  The international rules specify that the game is played with a sphere having a mass of 2.7 grams (0.095 oz.) and a diameter of 40 millimeters (1.57 in). The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm (9.4–10.2 in) when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm (12.0 in) onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the 2000 Summer Olympics.
  15. 15.  A 40 mm table tennis ball is slower and spins less than the original 38 mm one. The ball is made of a high-bouncing air-filled celluloid or similar plastics material, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. A white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a grey table.
  16. 16.  The net shall be suspended by a cord attached at each end to an upright post 15.25 cm high, the outside units of a post being 15.25cm outside the side line. The top of the net along its whole length shall be 15.25 cm above playing surface along its whole length and the end of the net shall be as close as possible to the supporting posts.
  17. 17. A table tennis racket (also called a "bat" or "paddle") is used by table tennis players. The "racket" is usually made from laminated wood covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the player's grip. The USA generally uses the term "paddle" while Europe uses the term "bat"
  18. 18.  Inverted Rubber This best suits for putting spin on a ball due to its breadth of contact surface with a ball.  Short Pips-Out Rubber This is not easily affected by the opponent’s spin due to its narrowness of contact surface with a ball. It will knock a ball away.
  19. 19.  Long Pimples Rubber (with Sponge) This will serve a ball with unexpected spin due to the various movements of pimples in hitting a ball  Long Pimples Rubber (without Sponge) This is light and easy to handle. It doesn’t have much elasticity, so you can shut the power of explosive Top-spin balls down.  Anti Rubber This is a kind of inverted rubber but has little friction. It is not easily affected by the opponent’s spin.
  20. 20.  In top-flight competition, service is decided by a coin toss. At lower levels it is common for one player (or the umpire/scorer) to hide the ball in one or the other hand ( usually hidden under the table), allowing the other player to guess which hand the ball is in. the correct or incorrect guess gives the “winner” the option to choose to serve or to choose which side of the table to use.
  21. 21.  In game play, the player serving the ball commences a play. The server first stands with the ball held on the open palm of the hand not carrying the paddle, called the freehand, and tosses the ball directly upward without spin, at least 16 cm (6.3 in) high. The server strikes the ball with the racket on the ball's descent so that it touches first his court and then touches directly the receiver's court without touching the net assembly. In casual games, many players do not toss the ball upward; however, this is technically illegal and can give the serving player an unfair advantage.
  22. 22.  The ball must remain behind the end line and above the upper surface of the table, known as the playing surface, at all times during the service. The server cannot use his body or clothing to obstruct sight of the ball; the opponent and the umpire must have a clear view of the ball at all times. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning to the server. If the serve is a clear failure or is doubted again by the umpire after the warning, the receiver scores a point.
  23. 23.  If the service is "good", then the receiver must make a "good" return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver's side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly. Thereafter, the server and receiver must alternately make a return until the rally is over. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server's first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous shot due to the numerous spin and speed choices at his or her disposal.
  24. 24.  Any hitting of the ball must be done such that the ball passes over or around the net. If the ball is struck such that it travels around the net, but still lands on the opponents side of the table, the bit is legal and play should be continued. If the opponent cannot return it over (or around) the net and make it bounce on your side, then you win the point.
  25. 25.  Allowing the ball to bounce on one’s own side twice.  Not hitting on g the ball after it has bounced on one’s own side.  Having the ball bounce on one’s own side after hitting it  Hitting the ball before it has bounced on one’s own side of the table
  26. 26.  Double hitting the ball. Note that the hand below the wrist is considered part of the bat and making a good return of one’s hand or finger is allowed, but hitting one’s hand or fingers is allowed, but hitting one’s hand or fingers and subsequently hitting the bat is a double strike and an error.  Allowing the ball to strike anything other than the bat.  Causing the ball not to bounce on the opponent’s half (i.e., not making a “good” return)
  27. 27.  Placing one’s free hand on the playing surface or moving the playing surface.  Offering and failing to make a good service ( i.e., making a service toss and failing to strike the ball into play)  Making an illegal serve: (e.g., one preceded by a player’s hiding the bail or his failing to toss the ball at least 16 cm(six inch.) in the air).  Hitting the net with bat or any body part, or moving the table.
  28. 28.  Service alternates between opponents every two points (regardless of winner of the rally) until the end of the game, unless both players score ten points or the expedite system is operated, when the sequences of serving and receiving stay the same but each player serves for only one point in turn. The player serving first in a game receives first in the next game of the match.  After each game, players switch sides of the table. In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. If the sequence of serving and receiving is out of turn or the ends is not changed, points scored in the wrong situation are still calculated and the game shall be resumed with the order at the score that has been reached.
  29. 29.  After each game, players switch sides of the table and in the fifth or seventh game “for the match”, players switch sides when the first player scores 5 points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. In competition play, matches are typically best of five or seven games.
  30. 30.  Some recreational players may choose to use a volleyball styles system of scoring and play. Such variation include, but are not limited to, allowing the let serve, not requiring the server to hit the ball on his half of the table first (but still allowing it),
  31. 31.  In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since 1988 and the Commonwealth Games since 2002.[40] In 2005, the ITTF announced that doubles table tennis only was featured as a part of team events in the 2008 Olympics.
  32. 32.  Service A line painted along the long axis of the table to create doubles courts bisects the table. This line's only purpose is to facilitate the doubles service rule, which is that service, must originate from the right hand "box" in such a way that the first bounce of the serve bounces once in said right hand box and then must bounce at least once in the opponent side's right hand box (far left box for server), or the receiving pair score a point.
  33. 33.  Players must hit the ball. For example, if A is paired with B, X is paired with Y, A is the server and X or Y is the receiver. The order of play shall be A→X or Y & B→X or Y & vice versa. The rally proceeds this way until one side fails to make a legal return and the other side scores.  At each change of service, the previous receiver shall become the server and the partner of the previous server shall become the receiver. For example, if the previous order of play is A→X or Y & B→X or Y, the order becomes X→B or A & Y→B or A or X→B or A & Y→A or B after the change of service.
  34. 34.  3. In the second or the latter games of a match, the game begins in reverse order of play. For example, if the order of play is A→X or Y & B→Y or X at beginning of the first game, the order begins with X→A or B & Y→A & B in the second game depending on either X or Y being chosen as the first server of the game. That means the first receiver of the game is the player who served to the first server of the game in the preceding game. In each game of a doubles match, the pair having the right to serve first shall choose which of them will do so. The receiving pair, however, can only choose in the first game of the match.
  35. 35.  If a game is unfinished after 10 minutes' play and fewer than 18 points have been scored, the expedite system is initiated. The umpire interrupts the game, and the game resumes with players serving for one point in turn. If the expedite system is introduced while the ball is not in play, the previous receiver shall serve first. Under the expedite system, the server must win the point before the opponent makes 13 consecutive returns or the point goes to the opponent. The system can also be initiated at any time at the request of both players or pairs. Once introduced, the expedite system remains in force until the end of the match. A rule to shorten the time of a match, it is mainly seen in defensive players' games.
  36. 36.  When a pair reaches 5 points in the final game, the pairs must switch ends of the table and change the receiver to reverse the order of play. For example, when the last order of play before a pair score 5 points in the final game is A→X→B→Y, the order after change shall be A→Y→B→X if A still has the second serve. Otherwise, X is the next server and the order becomes X→A→Y→B.
  37. 37.  Competitive table tennis players grip their rackets in a variety of ways. The manner in which competitive players grip their rackets can be classified into two major families of styles. One is described as penhold, and the other shakehand. The Laws of Table Tennis do not prescribe the manner in which one must grip the racket, and numerous variations on gripping styles exist.
  38. 38.  Penhold styles have suffered in recent years due to their inherent weakness on the backhand side. This weakness makes it much harder for penhold beginners to perform well against their shakehand counterparts. However, this has not stopped the top penhold players from winning the World Championships, the World Cup and the Olympic games regularly, as the backhand weakness can be covered adequately with excellent footwork, or supplemented with the recent reverse penhold backhand loop innovation.
  39. 39.  The Shakehand grip is so-named because one grips the bat way one performs a handshake. The grip is sometimes colloquially referred to as a “tennis grip” or a “western grip.” the shakehand grip is most popular among players originating in Western nations.
  40. 40.  An experimental style being developed in China, it is held by forming a "V for victory" sign and gripping the blade between the forefinger and middle finger while having the other fingers rest under and on top of the handle; it requires a modified blade to grip successfully. This grip produces a noticeable spin benefit due to the longer lever and mechanics utilized in the forehand
  41. 41.  A grip that was made by Danny Seemiller, an American champion. This grip is a variation of the shakehand grip. In this grip the forefinger and thumb are placed on the same side of the bat, which allows the backhand and forehoand shots to the same side of the rubber. This grip also has a nickname “windshield wiper” due to the motion of the backhand and forehand.
  42. 42.  In table tennis, the stroke break down into generally offensive (producing topspin) and defensive ( producing backspin). Spin exceptions are the smash, block, and lob. The types of strokes include backhand and forehand.
  43. 43.  Speed drive – the bat is primarily perpendicular to the direction of stroke, and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather than spin, creating a shot that does not are much, but is fast enough that it can be difficult to return. A speed drive is used mostly for keeping the ball in play, applying pressure on the opponent and potentially opening up an opportunity for more powerful attack.
  44. 44. Loop drive- it is essentially the reverse of the speed drive. That the bat is much more parallel to the direction of the stroke ( “closed” )and the bat thus grazes the ball, resulting in a large amount of topspin.
  45. 45.  The loop- called as ultra-topspin. Produces a more pronounced loopy are with a higher trajectory and extreme topspin, but is typically slower.  The rush- produced a flatter trajectory than a typical “loop” but carries much stronger topspin than a rectangular speed-drive.  The hook- similar to a regular loop, but carries a tilted topspin or is referred as the top-side.
  46. 46.  Usually, a counter attack against drives (normally high loop drives). You have to close the bat and stay close to the ball. Try to predict its path close. The bat is held closed and near to the ball which is hit with a short movement” off the bounce” (before reaching the highest point) so that the ball travels faster to the other side.
  47. 47.  When a player tries to attack a ball that has not bounced beyond the edge of the table, the player does not have the room to wind up in a backswing. The ball may still be attacked, however, and the resulting shot is called a flick because the backswing is compressed into a quick wrist action. A flick is not a single stroke and can resemble either a drive or a loop in its characteristics. What identifies the stroke is the backswing is compressed into a short wrist flick.
  48. 48.  The offensive trump card is the smash. A player will typically execute a smash when his or her opponent has returned a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net. Smashing is essentially self-explanatory— large backswing and rapid acceleration imparting as much speed on the ball as possible. The goal of a smash is to get the ball to move so quickly that the opponent simply cannot return it. Because the ball speed is the main aim of this shot, often the spin on the ball is something other than topspin. Sidespin can be used effectively with a smash to alter the ball's trajectory significantly, although most intermediate players will smash the ball with little or no spin. An offensive table tennis player will think of a rally as a build-up to a winning smash;
  49. 49. is usually used for keeping the point alive and creating offensive opportunities. A push resembles a tennis slice: the racket cuts underneath the ball, imparting backspin and causing the ball to float slowly to the other side of the table. While not obvious, a push can be difficult to attack because the backspin on the ball causes it to drop toward the table upon striking the opponent's racket. In order to attack a push, a player must usually loop the ball back over the net. Often, the best option for beginners is to simply push the ball back again, resulting in pushing rallies. Against good players, it may be the worst option because the opponent will counter with a loop, putting the first player in a defensive position. Another response to pushing is flipping the ball when it is close to the net. Pushing can have advantages in some circumstances, such as when the opponent makes easy mistakes.
  50. 50.  A chop is the defensive, backspin counterpart to the offensive loop drive. A chop is essentially a bigger, heavier push, taken well back from the table. The racket face points primarily horizontally, perhaps a little bit upward, and the direction of the stroke is straight down. The object of a defensive chop is to match the topspin of the opponent's shot with backspin. A good chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table, in some cases having so much backspin that the ball actually rises. Such a chop can be extremely difficult to return due to its enormous amount of backspin. Some defensive players can also impart no-spin or sidespin variations of the chop.
  51. 51.  The block is a simple shot, but nonetheless can be devastating against an attacking opponent. A block is executed by simply placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces; thus, the ball rebounds back toward the opponent with nearly as much energy as it came in with. This is not as easy as it sounds, because the ball's spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. It is very possible for an opponent to execute a perfect loop, drive, or smash, only to have the blocked shot come back at him just as fast. Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough, and will be unable to return the blocked shot. Blocks almost always produce the same spin as was received, many times topspin. Depending on the spin of the ball, the block may be returned to an unexpected side of the table. This may come to your advantage, as the opponent may not expect this.
  52. 52.  The defensive lob is possibly the most impressive shot, since it propels the ball about five metres in height, only to land on the opponent's side of the table with great amounts of spin. to execute, a defensive player first backs-off the table 4–6 meters; then, the stroke itself consists of lifting the ball to an enormous height before it falls back to the opponent's side of the table. A lob is inherently a creative shot, and can have nearly any kind of spin. Top-quality players use this to their advantage in order to control the spin of the ball. For instance, though the opponent may smash the ball hard and fast, a good defensive lob could be more difficult to return due to the unpredictability and heavy amounts of the spin on the ball. Thus, though backed off the table by tens of feet and running to reach the ball, a good defensive player can still win the point using good lobs. However, at the professional level, lobbers will lose the point most of the time, so the lob is not used unless it is really necessary.
  53. 53.  High level players may use what is called push block or active block, adding speed to the ball (with a small topspin movement). When playing in the Penhold Grip, many players use push block as they literally “push” their backhand forward, instead of simply blocking it.
  54. 54.  This spin is alternatively used as a defensive and offensive maneuver. The premise of this move is to put a spin on the ball either to the right or the left of the bat. The execution of this move is similar to a slice, but to the right or left instead of down.
  55. 55.  Is a high level stroke, used as another variation for close-to-table . You have to position the body close to the ball and just let the ball touch the bat ( without any hand movement) in a way that the ball stays close to the net with almost no speed and spin and touches the other side of the table more than twice if the opponent doesn’t reach it.

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