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Hair Colour Basics

  1. hair colour BASICS Khushbu Singh
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  3. 1200BC • Ancient greeks and roman mixed Lead with calcium hydroxide which forms lead sulfite nanoparticles in contact with sulfur linkages on keration protein. • Natural dyes like henna were also used. 1863 •In an attempt to produce a remedy for malaria, William Henry Perkin created the first synthesized dye (mauve) later called mauvine. •Chemist Dr. August Wilhelm von Hofmann reports the dye properties of PPD. His discovery leads to the birth of the synthetic hair dye industry, and PPD still dominates the field today. 1867 • London chemist E.H Thiellay and Parisian hairdresser Leon Hugot demonstrate the advantages of hydrogen peroxide as a better chemical way to lighten hair than alkaline solutions.
  4. 1907 • Eugene Schueller creates the first hair dye technology using PPD , becoming the first commercially available oxidative/permanent hair color brand called as Aureole latter called as "L'Oréal." 1932 • The Clariol Company is established by Lawrence Gelb. • Gelb's brand appealed to the masses with Instant clairol oil tint and hair colour bath and was trending till 1950's. 1970 • Ad slogans like L'Oréal's "Because I'm worth it" showed a change in attitude toward hair colouring along with Hollywood as an influence. 1980 • Invention of Demi-permanents closely resemble permanent products, but the level of active ingredients are reduced. This prevents noticeable bleaching and slows down the penetration into the hair . PRESENT DAY • Today, hair dye products make up a large percentage of the beauty industry's revenue. "An estimated 70 percent of women in the U.S. use hair- coloring products," • Scientist are working on new and safer hair colouring mechanism .
  5. Source: P&G Hair Colour research update
  6.  1. Cuticle : Outermost layer of hair. Comprised of overlapping flat, colorless cells . Contains no pigment  2. Cortex : Cell layer between the cuticle and medulla. Contains varying amounts of two natural color pigments which determine the person’s natural hair colour.  Eumelanin for hair shades from Brown to Black.  Pheomelanin for hair shades from Yellowish, Golden and Red colours. Determines hair strength and texture. To permanently colour the hair , a coloring product must be able to penetrate the cuticle to deposit or remove color in the cortex.  3. Medulla The hollow center or pith of the hair shaft. Contains no pigment.
  7. Types of Hair Dyes Temporary Semi-permanent Demi-permanent Permanent Oxidative Non-oxidative (safer to use )
  8. Dye type Duration Temporary Until one wash Semi-Permanent 3 to 9 washes Demi-Permanent 24 to 26 washes Permanent Until hair is grown out
  9. Temporary Large pre-formed color molecules adhere to the outer cuticle layer Have high molecular weight and deposits on the hair surface without the capacity of penetrating the cortex. Can be removed easily by first wash. E.g : Acid Dyes: Anionic characteristics Acid Yellow 23, Acid Blue 9 . Semi-Permanent Contain Basic or cationic dyes with low molar mass, which has a high affinity for hair keratin and resists from three to six washes Cationic dyes exhibit excellent affinity for damaged hair, because positive sites of the dye molecule bind to negative sites on the hair fiber. Natural - Henna/Lawsone (2-hydroxy- 1,4-naphthoquinone ,BASIC RED 51, HC BLUE NO. 15 Superdrug, UK Centura Brands L'Oréal paris, USA
  10. Primary Intermediates Coupling agents Oxidising Agent Cuticle Lifter
  11. two components Swelling the hair fiber, lifting of cuticle A surfactant/polymer Formation of color Thickening system ,acts as solvent for dye components provides viscosity to hold the product on hair.
  12. • No ammonia • Uses only Ethanolamine. • Low volume of developer used. • Hair retains its original form after 12-24 washes . Demi-permanent • Ammonia or ethanolamine • High volume of developer . • Complete oxidation of natural hair melanin. • Colour lasts until the growth of new hair. Permanent
  13. OXIDIZATION : Breakdown of melanin to lighten hair colour. COLOURING : Small dye molecules penetrate into hair cuticles and polymerize to form large molecules.
  14. Chemistry Involved

Notas do Editor

  1. High ph causes the CMC layer Of the hair to dilate ,which in turn lifts up the cuticle, low ph on other hand helps in contraction of cmc layer and helps to maintain cuticle flat.