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Lecture 7 research methodology in counselling

  1. Research Methodology (Theory of research) & Research Design (The action of Research): Method & Techniques Dissertation Module Kevin Standish
  2. Learning outcomes • Distinguish Research Methodology from Research methods • Compare Qualitative and Quantitative Methods • Describe Variables and hypothesis • Identify sampling methods
  3. The Research Process 1. Identification of general problem/question 2. Literature review 3. Specify questions/hypotheses 4. Determination of research design/methodology 5. Data collection 6. Data analysis/presentation 7. Interpretation of findings 8. Discussion of findings
  4. Research Methodology The Theory of Research
  5. Research methodology The way/science
  6. Structure of Research begin with broad questions narrow down, focus in operationalize OBSERVE analyze data reach conclusions generalize back to questions The "hourglass" notion of research
  7. Deduction and Induction Deduction Induction
  8. Research Methodology • Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. • It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. • In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them
  9. Research methodology.. • Research Methodology says the how to do/conduct research systematically & scientifically. • Research methodology not only provides the knowledge of various types of methods & techniques for Sampling , data collection, data analysis & report writing etc. but also guides that which particular method or technique for sampling/data collection/data analysis should be used or not & why should /shouldn't do so.
  10. Research Methodology
  11. Research Methodology • There are different ways of “knowing” and the epistemological standpoint will determine the nature of that knowing • One may explore their reality using statistical data as evidence while another may have first-hand accounts of how the person has been effected, which is their reality. • Each represents a particular Paradigm of knowledge. Neither is right or wrong it is just a different view.
  12. Research Method The Action of Research: Design; Sample; Method; Collection; How Data will be analysed
  13. Observational Research Gathering data by observing people, actions and situations (Exploratory) Experimental Research Using groups of people to determine cause and effect relationships (Causal) Survey Research Asking individuals about attitudes, preferences or behaviors (Descriptive) Three Research Approaches
  14. Types of Research Designs Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research Test hypotheses about cause and effect relationships X causes Y Gathers preliminary information to define the problem and suggest hypotheses Literature search, expert interviews, focus groups, case studies, company audits, qualitative research Describes things as the market potential of a product, consumer demographics and attitudes Secondary data analysis, surveys, observations, panels, simulations
  15. Research Methods  Descriptive research Analytical research  Applied research Basic research
  16. Research Methods  Quantitative research Qualitative research  Conceptual research Empirical research
  17. The Right and the Left • Quantitative research - numbers, numbers, numbers • Qualitative research - words, words, words
  18. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Assumptions about the World • Based upon the idea of “logical positivism”, that is, there is a singular reality with stable, social facts that are separate from the feelings and beliefs of individuals. • Based on the notion of “constructivism”, which assumes multiple realities that are socially constructed through individual and collective perceptions or views of the same situation.
  19. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Research Purpose • Seeks to establish relationships and explain causes of changes in measured variables. That is, the goal of science is to explain and predict. • Concern is with the understanding of the social phenomenon from the participants’ perspectives. This requires, to some degree, researcher participation.
  20. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Methods and Process • The scientific method, also known as a priori or pre- established design. • Use of emergent design utilizing constant comparison and revision.
  21. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Prototypical Studies • Experimental or correlational designs are used to reduce error, bias and the influence of extraneous variables--control of bias is through design. • Use of ethnography, which helps readers understand the multiple perspectives of the situation by the persons studied. Subjectivity in data analysis and interpretation is acknowledged.
  22. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Researcher Role • Detachment from study in order to avoid bias. • Immersion in situation and the phenomenon being studied.
  23. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Context • Context-free generalizations • Generalizations are contextually- bound.
  24. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Precision • Obtained through the use of measurement and statistics • Provided by detailed description of phenomenon
  25. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Verification • Results replicated by others. • Extension of understandings by others.
  26. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Explanation • Traditionally, parsimonious explanations were sought, but this may be changing due to technology. • Summary through narrative-- importance is placed on reducing complex realities to simple explanations.
  27. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Logical Reasoning • DEDUCTIVE--What’s the classic example? • INDUCTIVE--anyone have an example?
  28. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Conditional Conclusions • Statements of statistical probability. • Tentative summary interpretations.
  29. Types of Quantitative Studies • Descriptive • True experimental • Quasi-experimental • Correlational • Predictive
  30. Types of Qualtitative Studies • Qualitative research gathers information that is not in numerical form: • diary accounts, • open-ended questionnaires, • unstructured interviews • unstructured observations. • Qualitative data is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than quantitative data. • Qualitative research is useful for studies at the individual level, and to find out, in depth, the ways in which people think or feel (e.g. case studies).
  31. Types of Qualtitative Studies • Qualitative paradigms offer the researcher an opportunity to develop an idiographic understanding of participants’ experiences and what it means to them, within their social reality, to be in a particular situation (Bryman, 1992). • methods include: Content / thematic analysis (CA/ TA); Grounded Theory (GT); • Discursive psychology / Discourse analysis (DA); • Narrative psychology (NA); • Phenomenological psychology methods such as interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).
  32. Research Using Primary Data • Cross-sectional • Case Control • Cohort • Randomized controlled trial
  33. Cross-sectional Study • Data gathered at one point in time • Often used for surveys • Can not make inferences about causality
  34. Case Control Study • Start with the outcome- identify a sample with the condition of interest • Identify a similar control group • Look back to determine exposure • Calculate the risk in the cases and controls- odds ratio used • Can not use to establish prevalence
  35. Cohort Study • Start with an identified group • Determine exposure in everyone at the same time • Follow the group to determine who develops the outcome of interest • Can be used to determine prevalence • Association measured as relative risk (rate ratios)
  36. Randomized Controlled Trial • Gold standard for determining associations • Identify a group • Randomly assign individuals to exposure • Only reliable way to control for confounding
  37. Research Using Secondary Data •Literature review •Systematic review •Metanalysis •Analysis of existing data collected for another purpose
  38. Literature Review • Gather articles on a topic of interest • Summarize the findings
  39. Systematic Review • Gather articles using a pre-defined search strategy- may include unpublished studies • Develop a-priori objective criteria to evaluate the quality of the studies • Summarize the quality of the data and the results
  40. Metanalysis • Do a systematic review • Obtain the primary data if possible • Summarize the data quantitatively
  41. Research Method vs Methodology Comparison Research Methods Research Methodology • research methods are the methods by which you conduct research into a subject or a topic • Research methods involve conduct of experiments, tests, surveys and the like • research methods aim at finding solutions to research problems • research methodology explains the methods by which you may proceed with your research • research methodology involves the learning of the various techniques that can be used in the conduct of research and in the conduct of tests, experiments, surveys and critical studies search • research methodology aims at the employment of the correct procedures to find out solutions
  42. Research Method vs Methodology ComparisonExamples:- research methods Research methodology If the subject for Research is ‘employment of figures of speech in English literature’ then the research methods that are involved are study of various works of the different poets and the understanding of the employment of figures of speech in their works If the subject for Research is ‘employment of figures of speech in English literature’ then the research methodology pertaining to the topic mentioned above involves the study about the tools of research, collation of various manuscripts related to the topic, techniques involved in the critical edition of these manuscripts and the like
  43. Research Method vs Methodology Comparisonwith Examples cont… research methods Research methodology If the subject into which you conduct a research is a scientific subject or topic then the research methods include experiments, tests, study of various other results of different experiments performed earlier in relation to the topic or the subject and the like If the subject into which you conduct a research is a scientific subject or topic then research methodology pertaining to the scientific topic involves the techniques regarding how to go about conducting the research, the tools of research, advanced techniques that can be used in the conduct of the experiments and the like
  44. Research Method vs Methodology Conclusion We can say that Research Methodology has many dimensions and Research Methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods.
  45. Variables Meaning • Known as a property of proposition being studied • Also known as the constructs of a proposition • A symbol to which we assign numerals or values • Numerical value assigned to a variable is based on its properties • 3 types of Variables: Dichotomous; Discrete; Continuous
  46. 1. Dichotomous Variables • These variables are so called because they have TWO values, reflecting presence or absence of a property. • For example: pass or fail, exists or does not exist, employed - unemployed, male - female, yes - no. • The dichotomous variables can be assigned with a numerical value of ‘0’ or ‘1’ for analysis purpose.
  47. 2. Discrete Variables • These are categorical variables. • For example, the demographic variables race or religion are the examples of discrete variables. • Religion: Hindu, Islam, Buddhism, and Jain can be assigned numerical values of 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. • The numerical values assigned to these variables will be of absolute nature; not like 3.5, or 4.7.
  48. 3. Continuous Variables • These variables take on values with a given range or, in some cases, an infinite set. • For example, test scores may range from 0 - 100, age may be 2.5 years, present income of a person could be £. 15000, you may disclose your property worth more than £.500,000.
  49. Variables • variable… • any observation that can take on different values • attribute… • a specific value on a variable
  50. Examples Variable Attribute age
  51. Examples Variable Attribute age 18, 19, 20, etc...
  52. Examples Variable Attribute Gender or sex
  53. Examples Variable Attribute Gender or sex Male, female
  54. Examples Variable Attribute satisfaction
  55. Examples Variable Attribute satisfaction 1 = very satisfied 2 = satisfied 3= somewhat satisfied 4 = not satisfied 5 = not satisfied at all
  56. Types of Variables • independent variable (IV)… • what you (or nature) manipulates in some way • dependent variable (DV)… • what you presume to be influenced by the IV
  57. Examples: Sports participation IV DV exercise participation health status attitude social support intervention
  58. The purpose of the study was to… • test whether the “Fair Play for Sport” curriculum is effective in promoting moral development in youth • examine the relationship between age and VO2max. • test whether there are gender differences the value placed on sport participation • determine whether students’ perceptions of the amount of positive, negative, and informational feedback provided by their teachers is predictive of their self-esteem and level of achievement IV, DV?
  59. Types of Relationships • correlational vs. causal relationships correlation does not imply causation! (it’s necessary but not sufficient) variables perform in a synchronized manner one variable causes the other variable
  60. Types of Relationships • patterns of relationships… • no relationship • positive relationship • negative relationship • curvilinear relationship
  61. - + - + resting HR fitness - + - + vocabulary fitness- + - HR exerciseintensity - + - arousalperformance + +
  62. Hypotheses • hypothesis… • a specific statement of prediction • types of hypotheses • alternative vs. null • one-tailed vs. two-tailed
  63. Hypotheses • alternative hypothesis (HA)… • An effect (that you predict) • null hypothesis (HO) … • Null effect
  64. Hypotheses hypothesis there is a relationship between age and exercise participation HA there is a relationship HO there is not a relationship this is a two-tailed hypothesis as no direction is predicted
  65. Hypotheses hypothesis an incentive program will increase exercise participation HA participation will increase HO participation will not increase or will decrease this is a one-tailed hypothesis as a specific direction is predicted
  66. Sample vs. Population Population = collection of ALL possible observations Sample = subset of a population Random Sample representative of a population all observations have equal chance of being selected
  67. Why Do We Use Samples? Cost Time Inaccessibility of the population Accuracy Destruction of the observations
  68. Steps in Developing a Sample Plan Step 1: Define the Population of Interest Step 2: Choose Data Collection Method Step 3: Choose Sampling Frames Step 4: Select a Sampling Method Step 5: Determine Sample Size Step 6: Develop and Specify Operational Plan Step 7: Execute Operational Sampling Plan
  69. Sampling Methods •Probability vs. Nonprobability •Probability • members in the population have a known chance (probability) of being selected into the sample •Nonprobability • the probability of selecting members from the population is not known
  70. Sampling Design Process 73 Define Population Determine Sampling Frame Determine Sampling Procedure Probability Sampling Simple Random Sampling Systematic Random Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling Non-Probability Sampling Convenience Judgmental Quota Snow-ball Determine Appropriate Sample Size Execute Sampling Design
  71. Classification of Sampling Methods Sampling Methods Probability Samples Simple Random Cluster Systematic Stratified Non- probability QuotaJudgment Convenience Snowball
  72. Sampling • Once you are clear about your procedure, you need to locate participants will undergo the research procedure • Quantitative methodology is concerned with representativeness of the sample • The key question here is sample size as the bigger sample size the more precise the results • Qualitative research is less focused on sample and generalizability. Sampling tends to mean a relevant case, theory base case, a critical case, an interview et cetera
  73. Key questions to answer in your methodology • What kind of research methods are you going to use? Are they mostly: • Quantitative, or qualitative, or a mixture of both? • What do you think your methods will enable you to discover? • What might they prevent you from discovering? • What kinds of research methods would be best suited to the kind of research you are undertaking and the research questions you are pursuing? • What sort of problems do you envisage in setting up these methods? • What are their benefits? • What will you need to do to ensure they gather useful data?
  74. Summary • “Methodology” implies more than simply the methods you intend to use to collect data. • It is necessary to include a consideration of the concepts and theories which underlie the methods. • you have to show that you understand the underlying concepts of the methodology. • When you describe your methods it is necessary to state how you have addressed the research questions and/or hypotheses. • The methods should be described in enough detail for the study to be replicated, or at least repeated in a similar way in another situation. • Every stage should be explained and justified with clear reasons for the choice of your particular methods and materials.