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The following presentation has been prepared for
the sake of ICT exhibition, 2013-14, held in JNV
Sehore.
The presentation...
About Presentation
The presentation is on the theme ACTIVITY
BASED TEACHING which represents all
the data and details abou...
Activity-based teaching is an
approach to education focusing
on the idea that students should
be engaged through actions. ...
Ma. Anil Kumar Meena (JNV,Prabhat Pattan,Distt-Betul (M.P.)


A Computer is an electronic devices that can perform a variety of
operations. Computer can access and process data mill...
Que1. ENIAC stands for:a. Electronic Number
Invention Code

b. Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator

c. Electron...
Types Of Computer
Vacuum Tubes (1st Generation)

Integrated Circuits (3rd Generation)

Transistors 2nd Generation

Microprocessor (4th Gener...
According To Size

• Micro Computer :- Micro computer is normally
standalone computers known PC (Personal Computer),
or De...
• Main Frame - A main frame computer is a very
large expensive computer system capable of
supporting hundreds and thousand...
LAPTOP

MAIN FRAME

MICRO COMPUTER

SUPER COMPUTER
ACTIVITY
QUE1. WHICH IS THE FASTEST COMPUTER:a. Desktop computer

b. Laptop

c. Super computer

d. Tablet

Que2. WHICH IS ...
According To Working Technology
• Analog -An analog computer uses one kind of physical
quantity to represent the behaviour...
ACTIVITY
Que1. Computer that compromise features of analog and
Digital computers:a. Hybrid computer

b. Laptop

c. Super c...
INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES
KEYBOARD
Mouse
• The mouse is a pointing device with a roller on its base. Its
size is about the size of the normal cake of bath so...
• A scanner is a device similar to a photocopy machine.
A photocopier prints the given printed image/page on
a paper. And ...
Light Pen
• A light pen is also a pointing device. The light pen consists of a photocell
mounted in a pen-shaped tube. Whe...
ACTIVITY
Que1. The lighten consists of:a. Photocell

b. Chloroplast

c. Light

d. Pen

Que2. How many function keys presen...
OUTPUT DEVICES
• An output device is any piece of computer hardware
equipment used to communicate the results of data
proc...
• Speakers are one of the most common output device used with
computer systems. Some speakers are designed to work specifi...
ACTIVITY
Que1. which

is an output device:-

a. Key board

b. Mouse

c. Scanner

d. Monitor

Que2. which output device use...
A monitor is a box consisting primarily of a CRT ( Cathode Ray
Tube) and its power supply. The CRTs operate much like thos...
Printer is a hard copy output device. Which is provide printing facility. There are
two types of printer :1. Impact Printe...
• The word modem is actually short for
Modulator/Demodulator. (There's something you
can really impress your friends with)...
Many applications require a graphical output apart from
printed output. For example, pie charts, bar charts and
graph with...
ACTIVITY
Que1. which device is used to connect computer with

internet:a. Modem

b. Speaker

c. Plotter

d. Printer

Que2....
Contents of Class

th
7
Def.
Two way data communication
PRINTER

NODE-1

NODE-II

NODE-III
Disadvantages of Computer Network :• Security Issues: One of the major drawbacks of computer networks is
the security issu...
INTERNET IN EDUCATION
• Education these days has been the top priority for any family or individual
person, and no doubt a...
1Computer Your computer should preferably have software that support
high quality text, image and voice because the intern...
• World Wide Web:

This is the most user friendly
application of the internet which is responsible for its rapid
growth. T...
ACTIVITY
Que1. who invented WWW :a. Alan turing

b. Charles Babbage

c. Tim bener lee

d. Marc jukarbar

Que2. which outpu...
• Some special websites that help you locate
the websites where the information you
want is located. These websites are ca...
• Electronic mail, commonly called email or e-mail, is a
method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one
or mo...
ACTIVITY
Que1. which is not an search engine :a. Bing

b. Google

C. 123khoj

d. Wikipedia

Que2. BCC stands for in Email ...
Contents of Class 8th
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Program
Programming Languages
Language Translators
Programming Statements
Flow Chart
...
• A Program is a sequence of instruction written in a language
that the computer understand and thereby process.
• A group...
A computer requires a program to do any useful work. Computer
programming involves writing a list of instruction , in othe...
Machine Level Language
•

When the human being started programming the computer, the instruction were
given to it in a lan...
ASSEMBLY LEVEL LANGUAGE
• The first language similar to English was developed in 1950 which was
known as Assembly Language...
• The assembly level language was easier with machine level language as
it relieved the programmer from a burden of rememb...
List of High level languages
LANGUAGE
1. LOGO (Logic Oriented Graphics
Oriented)

2. FORTRAN (Formula
Translation)
3. COBO...
4. BASIC (Beginner’s
All Purpose
Symbolic
Instruction
Code)

5. PASCAL

6. C

This language was developed by John Kemeny
a...
7. C++

8. JAVA

This Language was developed by Bjarne
Stroustrup in early 1980s. It is the superset
of C language that su...
ACTIVITY
Que1. who invented C language :a. James gosling

b. Blase Pascal

c. Arin Turic

d. Denis Richie

Que2. which is ...
 Interpreter :- An interpreter is also a type of translator
which is used for translation of HLL program into MLL. It
tak...
HLL Program
(Source
Program)

Output

Input
Compiler

MLL Program
(Object Program)
ACTIVITY
Que1. who invented JAVA language :a. James gosling

b. Blasé Pascal

c. Arin turic

d. Denis Richie

Que2. what i...
• Hardware is basically anything that you can touch
with your fingers. Hardware represents the
physical and tangible compo...
• A Switched-Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is an
supply that incorporates a switching regulator to
power efficiently, an SMPS t...
• Random Access Memory (RAM) is the form of memory contained
in most computers. When an application is running it stores i...
• The motherboard is a large circuit board designed to connect a
computer's components to one another. A motherboard has a...
PROCESSOR
The Central Processing Unit's name says it all. Even though
it is usually the smallest part in a computer, it is...
DVD-R/W
•

•

A Digital Versatile Disc - Read/Write, is a media storage disk that
closely resemble a CD or compact disc. T...
CONNECTORS
1. USB – (Universal Serial Bus)
2. PS/2 – Play Station (two means Mouse+Keyboard)

3. VGA – (Video Graphics Adaptor)
4. DV...
ACTIVITY
Que1. which is not an hardware :a. window7

b. RAM

c. Motherboard

d. Hard disk

Que2. what is the full form of ...
ACTIVITY
Que1. USB stands fora. Universal System Board

b. Unique System Bus

c. Universal Serial Bus

d. Union System Boa...
SOFTWARE
A computer is mere a machine that knows nothing of itself. Rather it requires
instructions for each and everythin...
• The operating system (OS), also called the software platform, it is a
collection of program that control other hardware ...
EDIT

UTILITIES

COMPILE

FILE MANAGEMENT

RUN (EXECUTE)

ACCOUNTING
LOG IN
Bare Machine

Machine language
Compilers

MEMO...
ACTIVITY
Que1. which is the latest version of operating system :a. Windows XP

b. Windows 7

c. Windows 8

d. Windows 98

...
TYPES OF INPUT DEVICES
MICR (Magnetic Inc Character Reader)
•

MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Reader ,in this method, human readable
char...
• In this method, special preprinted forms are designed with boxes
which can be marked with a dark pencil or black ball pe...
A Bar code reader is also one of the
most widely used input devices. As you
must be aware that a bar code is a
pattern of ...
ACTIVITY
Que1. The device used in bank :a. MICR

b. OMR

c. Bar code reader

d. Joystick

Que2. What is the full form of O...
• The joystick is a device that lets user an object on the screen. Children
can play with computers in a way by the use of...
• A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on
film is called digital camera. Once a picture has be...
Touch Screens
• A type of display screen that has a touch sensitive
transparent panel covering the screen is known as touc...
Graphic Tablet
• A graphic tablet or simply a tablet or digitizing tablet is an input
device that enables you to enter dra...
• These cards store data through magnetic stripes on the back of
these cards. Magnetic strips contain much more data per u...
Microphone (MIC)
• With more and more acceptability of computers
in our lives, sound capabilities are becoming a
standard ...
Biometric Sensors
• Biometric sensors are the input devices used for identifying a
person’s identity. Biometrics is a tech...
ACTIVITY
Que1. The device used to identify DNA :a. Biometric sensor

b. Touch screen

c. Graphic tablet

d. Digital camera...
Contents of 11th



Introduction of C++
Basic Concept of OOPS



1. Class
2. Object
3. Polymorphism
4. Dynamic Binding
...
• C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup of
AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980's, and
is based on the C language. Th...
Objects are the basic run time entities in an Object
Oriented system. They may represent a person, a
place, a bank account...
Class
• A class is a mechanism for creating user-defined
data types. It is similar to the C language structure
data type. ...
ACTIVITY
Que1. When C++ invented :a. 1982

b. 1980

C. 1947

d. 1960

Que2. Who invented C++
a. James gosling

b. Blasé Pa...
In object-oriented programming, polymorphism (from the Greek
meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of bei...
• Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to the code to be
executed in response to the call. Dynamic Binding (a...
• Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class
acquire the properties of objects of another class. It
supports...
DATA TYPES

•

Declaring a variable to be of type int signals to the compiler that it must associate
enough memory with th...
The smallest individual unit in a program are known as tokens.
C++ have following tokens :-

1. Keywords

2. Constants & I...
KEYWORDS
A keywords implement specific C++ language features. They
are explicitly reserved identifiers and cannot be used ...
Identifiers and Constants
• Identifiers refer to the names of variables, function, arrays,
classes etc. created by the pro...
ACTIVITY
Que1. Which is not a keyword in C++ :a. bool

b. asm

C. auto

d. data

Que2. Which concept of inheritance provid...
ARITHMETIC OPRETOR
• There are five type of operators are shown in the
following table. Arithmetic operators are used to
p...
Whenever we use if statement then we can use
relational operator which tells us the result of the
comparison, so it we wan...
• The basic assignment operator is equal (=), which
assigns the value of its right operand to its left
operand. That is, x...
• Bitwise operators modify variables considering the bit
patterns that represent the values they store.
Increment/Decrement (++, --)
• Shortening even more some expressions, the increase operator
(++) and the decrease operator...
Operator Precedence
When writing complex expressions with several
operands, we may have some doubts about which
operand is...
Scope resolution Operator
• The scope resolution operator is used to qualify hidden
names so that you can still use them. ...
Structure of C++ program
ACTIVITY
Que1. (::) this symbol is indicate which operator:a. Relational operator

b. Scope resolution operator

C. Arithm...
Activity based Teaching learning
Activity based Teaching learning
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Activity based Teaching learning
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Activity based Teaching learning

  1. 1. The following presentation has been prepared for the sake of ICT exhibition, 2013-14, held in JNV Sehore. The presentation covers all the related data of the exhibition theme, ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING at middle, secondary and higher level. All the things and themes are co-related with some data, as to binds them up in ICT presentation. To present the data, mathematical equations and various diagrams,etc. has been used.
  2. 2. About Presentation The presentation is on the theme ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING which represents all the data and details about activity based teaching, and the problems which we are facing in our daily life related to our learning computer. The presentation is all about activity based learning, the topics are discussed here in this presentation along with how to easily explain computer related problems.
  3. 3. Activity-based teaching is an approach to education focusing on the idea that students should be engaged through actions. In activity-based teaching, an educator serves the function of facilitator, assisting students through the learning process and providing them with guidance. Various actions and tasks can be used in this type of program, allowing students to become directly involved in the learning process, rather than remaining passive.
  4. 4. Ma. Anil Kumar Meena (JNV,Prabhat Pattan,Distt-Betul (M.P.)
  5. 5.  A Computer is an electronic devices that can perform a variety of operations. Computer can access and process data millions of times faster than Human. A computer can store data and information in its memory. Computers can do a lot of different tasks such as playing, games, railway reservation, weather forecasting, error detection and controlling the flight of a space aircraft etc. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was the first electronic computer developed in 1946 by a team lead by prof. Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in USA.
  6. 6. Que1. ENIAC stands for:a. Electronic Number Invention Code b. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator c. Electronic Number Integrator and Calculator d. Electronic Number Invention Code Que2. Computer developed in:a. 1920 b. 1940 c. 1946 d. 1936
  7. 7. Types Of Computer
  8. 8. Vacuum Tubes (1st Generation) Integrated Circuits (3rd Generation) Transistors 2nd Generation Microprocessor (4th Generation)
  9. 9. According To Size • Micro Computer :- Micro computer is normally standalone computers known PC (Personal Computer), or Desktop Computers. Micro Computers are small and expensive designed for individual use. Mini Computer -Mini computers are midsized computers capable of supporting from 4 – 200 users simultaneously. Mini PC are mainly used as departmental computers for data processing in large organization or governmental institutions like hospitals
  10. 10. • Main Frame - A main frame computer is a very large expensive computer system capable of supporting hundreds and thousands of users simultaneously, most of these computers are found in large organizations like universities, hospitals, world governing body. • Super Computer - Super Computers are the fastest types of computers which were very expensive and requires a lot of mathematical calculations. The first generation of super computer was developed by VON-Newman. The India’s first super computer is PARAM 10000 was introduced in 1991( it is developed by Dr. Vijay Bhaskar). 1954. Go to Images
  11. 11. LAPTOP MAIN FRAME MICRO COMPUTER SUPER COMPUTER
  12. 12. ACTIVITY QUE1. WHICH IS THE FASTEST COMPUTER:a. Desktop computer b. Laptop c. Super computer d. Tablet Que2. WHICH IS THE INDIA’S FIRST Computer:a. PARAM b.Cray-1 c. Cray-2 d. The Earth simulator
  13. 13. According To Working Technology • Analog -An analog computer uses one kind of physical quantity to represent the behaviour of another physical system, or mathematical function • Digital –A computer that stores data in terms of digits (numbers) and proceeds in discrete steps from one state to the next. • Hybrid - Hybrid computers are computers that comprise features of analog computers and digital computers. ATM (Automated Teller Machine) is an important example of hybrid computer.
  14. 14. ACTIVITY Que1. Computer that compromise features of analog and Digital computers:a. Hybrid computer b. Laptop c. Super computer d. tablet Que2. ATM stands for :- a. Auto text machine b. Automatic taller machine c. Automated teller machine d. Auto teller machine
  15. 15. INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES
  16. 16. KEYBOARD
  17. 17. Mouse • The mouse is a pointing device with a roller on its base. Its size is about the size of the normal cake of bath soap. When a mouse rolls on a flat surface, the cursor on the screen also moves in the direction of the mouse’s movement. A movement of the mouse across a flat surface causes the roller to move and potentiometers coupled to the roller, sense the relative movements. This motion is then converted to digital values that determines the magnitude and direction of the mouse’s movement. A mouse generally has two or three buttons can be used to input commands or other information. Mouse
  18. 18. • A scanner is a device similar to a photocopy machine. A photocopier prints the given printed image/page on a paper. And a scanner creates an electronic form of the printed image, which can later be manipulated, changed and modified according to the requirements. The scanners can convert any image into electronic form by shining light on to the image and sensing the intensity of the reflection at every point.
  19. 19. Light Pen • A light pen is also a pointing device. The light pen consists of a photocell mounted in a pen-shaped tube. When the pen is brought in front of a picture element of the screen, it senses light coming from a limited field of view. The light coming from the screen causes the photocell to respond by generating a pulse. This electric response is transmitted to a processor that identifies the pixel the light pen is pointing to. Thus, to indentify a specific location, the light pen is very useful. But the light pen provides no information when held over a blank part of the screen because it is a passive device with a sensor only. The light pen is also used to draw images on the screen. With the movement of the light pen over the screen, the lines are drawn.
  20. 20. ACTIVITY Que1. The lighten consists of:a. Photocell b. Chloroplast c. Light d. Pen Que2. How many function keys present in keyboard a. 14 b. 10 c. 11 d. 12 :-
  21. 21. OUTPUT DEVICES • An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing SPEAKERS PROJECTOR MONITOR PRINTER HEADPHONE
  22. 22. • Speakers are one of the most common output device used with computer systems. Some speakers are designed to work specifically with computers, while others can be hooked up to any type of sound system. Regardless of their design, the purpose of speakers is to produce audio output that can be heard by the listener. • Speakers are transducers that convert electromagnetic waves into sound waves. The speakers receive audio input from a device such as a computer or an audio receiver. This input may be either in analog or digital form. Analog speakers simply amplify the analog electromagnetic waves into sound waves. Since sound waves are produced in analog form, digital speakers must first convert the digital input to an analog signal, then generate the sound waves.
  23. 23. ACTIVITY Que1. which is an output device:- a. Key board b. Mouse c. Scanner d. Monitor Que2. which output device used for hearing sound:- a. Printer b. Projector c. Speaker d. Modem
  24. 24. A monitor is a box consisting primarily of a CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube) and its power supply. The CRTs operate much like those in television sets. A single electron gun in a monochrome CRT sends a beam of electrons to trace a regular pattern of horizontal lines on the phosphor that coats the screen’s surface screen images are produced by varying the intensity of the beam. A colour monitor uses three electron guns to scan or stripes of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) phosphor that coat the screen’s surface. • • • • • Types of Monitor :LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Plasma LED ( Light Emitting Display) 3D (three Dimensional)
  25. 25. Printer is a hard copy output device. Which is provide printing facility. There are two types of printer :1. Impact Printer 2. Non impact Printer Impact Printer :- in these printer, there is mechanical contact between the print head and paper. Such that 1.Drum printer 2.dot matrix printer 3.Chain Printer Non impact printer :- In these printers, there is no mechanical contact between the print head and paper. Such that 1.Electromagnetic printer 2.Thermal printer 3.Electrostatic printer 4.Inkjet Printer 5.Laser Printer
  26. 26. • The word modem is actually short for Modulator/Demodulator. (There's something you can really impress your friends with). A modem is a communications device that can be either internal or external to your computer. It allows one computer to connect another computer and transfer data over telephone lines. The original dial-up modems are becoming obsolete because of their slow speeds and are being replaced by the much faster cable and DSL modems.
  27. 27. Many applications require a graphical output apart from printed output. For example, pie charts, bar charts and graph with annotations are useful representation of information. Plotters are the output devices that produce good quality drawings and graphs. Plotter is used by engineers who is makes graphs and maps. There are two types of plotter: 1. Drum plotter 2. flat bad plotter
  28. 28. ACTIVITY Que1. which device is used to connect computer with internet:a. Modem b. Speaker c. Plotter d. Printer Que2. In the monitor CRT stands for:- a. Carbon ray tube b. Cathode ray tube c. Cathode range tube d. Caron range tube
  29. 29. Contents of Class th 7
  30. 30. Def.
  31. 31. Two way data communication
  32. 32. PRINTER NODE-1 NODE-II NODE-III
  33. 33. Disadvantages of Computer Network :• Security Issues: One of the major drawbacks of computer networks is the security issues involved. if a computer is on a network, a computer hacker can get unauthorized access by using different tools. In case of big organizations, various network security software are used to prevent the theft of any confidential and classified data. • Rapid Spread of Computer Viruses: If any computer system in a network gets affected by computer virus, there is a possible threat of other systems getting affected too. Viruses get spread on a network easily because of the interconnectivity of workstations. • Expensive Set Up: The initial set up cost of a computer network can be high depending on the number of computers to be connected. Costly devices like routers, switches, hubs, etc.
  34. 34. INTERNET IN EDUCATION • Education these days has been the top priority for any family or individual person, and no doubt amongst the latest technologies to encourage and maintain the education standards the internet comes first. • Internet is not only an access to websites, these days there is knowledge and information on every aspect of the educational world over the internet. The only requirement is the research over the internet for a specific educational topic. Therefore, these are true internet resources which deal with every individual's educational needs. • Internet has also provided the opportunity to study online. There are virtual universities set up, in which the students can take classes sitting on the computer seat opening the university's website video section according the topic, and then study at home.
  35. 35. 1Computer Your computer should preferably have software that support high quality text, image and voice because the internet provides us with lot of sound and video files that you may not want to miss! Telephone Connection This is your means to enter the world of internet. Only the telephone line is required not the instrument. Modem A modem is a device that takes information stored in the computer and converts into sound waves suitable for transmission on the telephone network. This is called modulation. Internet Account This account is provided by organization called ‘‘Internet Service Providers ’’. The ISP creates an account number for your computer on the internet so that your computer is identified on the internet. Web Browser A web browser contains the basic software you need in order to find, retrieve, view and send information over the internet. Some popular web browser are internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Google Chrome etc. ISP :- ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. Which is provided permission to access the internet. The ISP is a company ( Idea, Airtel, Vodafone, BSNL, Videocon etc) . The speed of internet depends on ISP .
  36. 36. • World Wide Web: This is the most user friendly application of the internet which is responsible for its rapid growth. The WWW is a notice board. The notices, articles and pictures etc. displayed on the notice board can be seen, read by anybody. Everyone is not authorized to put up the information on the notice board. Only authorized can do it. Such that website is a notice board, whereas any user can view the contents of this area. The available information may be in the form of text, pictures, photographs, images. It can be on any subject or topic. Each document on the “website” is called as “webpage” . www has become the most popular application on the internet and the large amount of data that it contain is growing continuously. One can find information on just about any subject- from news, to sport, to music or films etc.
  37. 37. ACTIVITY Que1. who invented WWW :a. Alan turing b. Charles Babbage c. Tim bener lee d. Marc jukarbar Que2. which output device used for hearing sound:a. Printer b. Projector c. Speaker d. Modem
  38. 38. • Some special websites that help you locate the websites where the information you want is located. These websites are called Search Engines. • Ex. - Google, Alta vista , Bing ,Khoj etc.
  39. 39. • Electronic mail, commonly called email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks.
  40. 40. ACTIVITY Que1. which is not an search engine :a. Bing b. Google C. 123khoj d. Wikipedia Que2. BCC stands for in Email :a. Big carbon copy b. Blank cartoon copy c. Blind carbon copy d. Blank carbon copy
  41. 41. Contents of Class 8th • • • • • • • Program Programming Languages Language Translators Programming Statements Flow Chart HTML Internet
  42. 42. • A Program is a sequence of instruction written in a language that the computer understand and thereby process. • A group of instruction is called program. • Ex :- If you work on a computer than you perform some processes • 1. On button to switch board • 2. On C.P.U. power switch • 3. Check monitor on/off • 4. wait for some time performs booting process • 5. Open appropriate software and work • 6. Type matter or text • 7. Save file (Give a particular name)
  43. 43. A computer requires a program to do any useful work. Computer programming involves writing a list of instruction , in other words, programming is a problem solving activity. Computer programmers usually follow some common steps, called the program development cycle, to build a computer program. Types of Programming Language according to its evolution :1. Machine Language 2. Assembly Language 3. High-Level Language (HLL) 4. Fourth Generation Language (4GL)
  44. 44. Machine Level Language • When the human being started programming the computer, the instruction were given to it in a language that it could easily understand. And that language was machine language. The binary language, a language of 1s and 0s is known as Machine Language. Any instruction in this language is given in the form of string of 1s and 0s. Where 1 stands for the presence of electric pulse and 0 stands for the absence of electric pulse. A set of 1s and 0s as 111001 has a specific meaning which is indicated a symbol (alphabet, digit and special character). The writing of program in machine level language is very difficult and complicated and this was accomplished by expert only. All the data and instructions are to be fed to the computer in binary form (1s and 0s).
  45. 45. ASSEMBLY LEVEL LANGUAGE • The first language similar to English was developed in 1950 which was known as Assembly Language or Symbolic Programming Language. In assembly language, understandable symbols and words are commonly used to denote the operations and addresses of operands. For example, the following instructions can be written for adding two number A and B. LDA A ADD B The meaning of LDA A is to load accumulator with A and the meaning of ADD B is to add B to the content of accumulator .
  46. 46. • The assembly level language was easier with machine level language as it relieved the programmer from a burden of remembering the operationcodes. The development of High Level Language in 1960. The different HLL which can be used by the common user are FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, COBOL and many others. Each high level language was developed to fulfill some basic requirement for particular type of problems. HLL is called human language because in this language used to English language for programming. This language very easier and helpful for programmer the HLL provides an environment where easily performed to programming task.
  47. 47. List of High level languages LANGUAGE 1. LOGO (Logic Oriented Graphics Oriented) 2. FORTRAN (Formula Translation) 3. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) DEVELOPMENT AND USE This was meant to be a translator and was mainly developed for children. It helps them learn basic mathematical and geometric skills easily. This is a first high level language which was developed by IBM (International Business Machine) Company in 1957 basically used for scientific problems and its recent versions are fortran-77 and fortran-90. This language was first designed by CODASYL (Conference of Data System Language) in the year 1960. the first version was COBOL-60. This language is commonly used for large data handling purposes in commercial and business application. This language was designed by Grace Hopper.
  48. 48. 4. BASIC (Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) 5. PASCAL 6. C This language was developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dormouth college in the year 1960. This was basically developed for the use of beginners as it is easy to learn and apply for solving problems compared with other languages. Presently many advanced versions of Basic are available and used in variety of fields as business, science and engineering. This language is mainly used to learn other languages like that Visual Basic (VB). It is named in the honor of French Physicist Braise Pascal. This language was developed by Nicklaus Wirth at University of Zurich. Presently it is used as general purpose language and best suited for small computers. This Language was developed by Denis Richie.
  49. 49. 7. C++ 8. JAVA This Language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in early 1980s. It is the superset of C language that supports Object Oriented features. This language is used effectively in developing system software as well as application soft wares. Originally called Oak. This general purpose was developed by sun Microsystems and James Gosling of USA in 1991. JAVA was designed for the development of software for consumer electronic devices. As a result, java came out to be a simple, portable and a powerful language.
  50. 50. ACTIVITY Que1. who invented C language :a. James gosling b. Blase Pascal c. Arin Turic d. Denis Richie Que2. which is the first high level language :a. BASIC b. C language c. FORTRAN d. FoxPro
  51. 51.  Interpreter :- An interpreter is also a type of translator which is used for translation of HLL program into MLL. It takes one statement of a HLL and translates it into machine code which is then executed, Interpreters are easy to write and require less storage space in memory, but the time taken to execute a program is more than the time taken by a compiled program.  Assembler :- A program which is used for the translation of an assembly language program into a machine level language is called as assembler. The assembler is a system program written by system programmer. It is supplied by the companies which manufacture the computer.
  52. 52. HLL Program (Source Program) Output Input Compiler MLL Program (Object Program)
  53. 53. ACTIVITY Que1. who invented JAVA language :a. James gosling b. Blasé Pascal c. Arin turic d. Denis Richie Que2. what is the full form of LOGO :a. Logic oriented Game operation c. Logic Oriented Graphics Oriented b. Logic Original Game operation d. Logical Original graphic oriented
  54. 54. • Hardware is basically anything that you can touch with your fingers. Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer. • Ex. - SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply) • Motherboard • PROCESSOR • RAM (Random Access Memory) • Connectors • CD/DVD/BR (Blue Ray) Drive
  55. 55. • A Switched-Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is an supply that incorporates a switching regulator to power efficiently, an SMPS transfers power from a power, to a load, such as a personal converting voltage and current which minimizes switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. electronic power convert electrical source, like mains computer, while wasted energy, a
  56. 56. • Random Access Memory (RAM) is the form of memory contained in most computers. When an application is running it stores its information in the RAM. When you close the application the information is deleted from the RAM. This is why you need certain amounts of RAM to run applications. The more RAM you have the faster your computer will be, and the more applications you'll be able to run without loosing speed.
  57. 57. • The motherboard is a large circuit board designed to connect a computer's components to one another. A motherboard has an appropriately named "controller" or "bridge" Since the motherboard is such a large and important part of a computer, The motherboard contains various circuit cards performing various functions all plug into many similar sockets on a common circuit board. Each circuit card performs a unique function in the computer and gets its power from the socket.
  58. 58. PROCESSOR The Central Processing Unit's name says it all. Even though it is usually the smallest part in a computer, it is typically the most expensive. This is the brain of your computer. It executes complex calculations and instructions. A processor these days can have several "cores," each of which is similar to an independent processor. The most common number of cores are 2 (dual-core) and 4 (quadcore).
  59. 59. DVD-R/W • • A Digital Versatile Disc - Read/Write, is a media storage disk that closely resemble a CD or compact disc. The major difference is that the DVD is formatted to hold far more data. A CD commonly has a capacity of 650 megabytes, while the smallest capacity DVD can store about seven times more data, or 4.38 gigabytes (GB). There are various kinds of DVDs, but the DVD-ROM refers to a readonly disc, or a disc that cannot be written over. A DVD movie bought from the local video store is a good example. Blank DVDs with designations like "DVD-R" and "DVD+R" are formatted, recordable DVDs. The —R and +R refer to competing format standards, but both will record movies, audio, or other data.
  60. 60. CONNECTORS
  61. 61. 1. USB – (Universal Serial Bus) 2. PS/2 – Play Station (two means Mouse+Keyboard) 3. VGA – (Video Graphics Adaptor) 4. DVI – (Digital Video Interface) 5. BIOS- (Basic Input Output System) 6. SMPS- Switched-Mode Power Supply 7. DVD – Digital Video Disc/ Digital Versatile Disc 8. CD- Compact Disc 9. LAN – Local Area Networking. 10. HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface. 11. RAM – (Random Access Memory) 12. ROM- Read Only Memory.
  62. 62. ACTIVITY Que1. which is not an hardware :a. window7 b. RAM c. Motherboard d. Hard disk Que2. what is the full form of VGA:- a. Video Graphics Adaptor b. Virtual Graphics Adaptor c. Visual Graph Application d. Video Graph Application
  63. 63. ACTIVITY Que1. USB stands fora. Universal System Board b. Unique System Bus c. Universal Serial Bus d. Union System Board Que2. which is called brain of computer :- a. Motherboard b. RAM c. Bios d. Processor
  64. 64. SOFTWARE A computer is mere a machine that knows nothing of itself. Rather it requires instructions for each and everything it performs. These instructions are provided to it through software. The software that controls internal computer operations (reading data from input devices, transmitting processed information to the output devices, checking system components, converting data/instructions to computer understandable form etc.) is known as system software. Computer software is divided into two basic type • SYSTEM SOFTWARE • APPLICATION SOFTWARE
  65. 65. • The operating system (OS), also called the software platform, it is a collection of program that control other hardware and software components & communication between hardware, software and users. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. An operating system is very large and complex it must be created piece by piece and each piece of these must be well defined such that input, output and other function. Each application program is written to run on top of a particular operating system. When we switch on the computer, operating system or a part of it is loaded into the main memory of the computer system. The operating system is an important part of computer system, without an operating system does not perform any task in computer. Operating system is also called the soul of computer. • Example of Operating System :• Windows 98, Windows XP Windows, Vista,Windows7,Windows8.
  66. 66. EDIT UTILITIES COMPILE FILE MANAGEMENT RUN (EXECUTE) ACCOUNTING LOG IN Bare Machine Machine language Compilers MEMORY MANAGEMENT Operating System WORK OF OPRATING SYSTEM DEVICE MANAGEMENT
  67. 67. ACTIVITY Que1. which is the latest version of operating system :a. Windows XP b. Windows 7 c. Windows 8 d. Windows 98 Que2. Which is not an example of Application software:a. Adobe Reader b. Tally c. Operating system d. Microsoft office
  68. 68. TYPES OF INPUT DEVICES
  69. 69. MICR (Magnetic Inc Character Reader) • MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Reader ,in this method, human readable characters are printed on documents (such as cheques) using a special magnetic ink. Special font has been set for these character by American Banking Association (ABA). A magnetic ink character reader (MICR) reads these characters by examining their shapes, using a 7 X 10 matrix; it determines, from the response of the segments of the matrix to the magnetic head. This information is thus transmitted to the system. The determination of the character which is read is greatly facilitated by the careful design of the characters and the use of the magnetic ink. MICR is mostly used in banks. In a cheque, the branch code, account number and cheque number are preprinted at the bottom using magnetic ink. The amount of the cheque itself can now be read using MICR. This method, besides saving time, also ensures accuracy of data entry.
  70. 70. • In this method, special preprinted forms are designed with boxes which can be marked with a dark pencil or black ball pen. Each box is annotated distinctly so that the user clearly understands what response he is marking. Such a document is read by a document reader, called optical mark reader (OMR) which transcribes the marks into electrical pulses which are transmitted to the computer. The main advantage of OMR is that the information is entered at its source and no further transcription is required. This minimizes unreliability of data . The main disadvantage is the need for accurate alignment of printing on forms and the need for good quality expensive paper. The form cannot be redesigned frequently because any changes will require reprinting of the form, which is expensive.
  71. 71. A Bar code reader is also one of the most widely used input devices. As you must be aware that a bar code is a pattern of printed bars on various types of products. A bar code reader emits a beam of light which reflects off the bar code image. A light sensitive detector in the bar code reader then identifies the bar code image by recognizing special bars at the both ends of the image. Once the bar code is identified, the bar
  72. 72. ACTIVITY Que1. The device used in bank :a. MICR b. OMR c. Bar code reader d. Joystick Que2. What is the full form of OMR :- a. Optical Memory reader b. Optical Mark Reader c. Office Memory reader d. Optical Master Reader
  73. 73. • The joystick is a device that lets user an object on the screen. Children can play with computers in a way by the use of a joystick ( or a tracker ball). While playing certain games, the user needs to move object quickly across the screen. Joystick makes it much easier for them and provides a better control. A joystick is a stick set in two crossed grooves and can be moved left or right, forward or backward. The movements of the stick are sensed by a potentiometer. As the stick is moved around, the movements are translated into binary instructions with the help of electrical contracts in its base. A joystick is generally used to control the velocity of the screen cursors movement rather than its absolute positions. The tracker ball also does the same thing but is round in shape. Both joystick and the tracker ball allow you to move objects around the screen easily.
  74. 74. • A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on film is called digital camera. Once a picture has been taken, it can be downloaded to a computer system, and then manipulated with a graphics program and printed. The big advantage of digital cameras is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is no film processing, one of the biggest boosters of digital photography is Kodak, the largest producer of film. Kodak developed the Kodak photo CD format, which has become the do facto standard for storing digital photographs. You can also work with another type of camera called Web camera also works in the same way as that of the digital camera with digitized image . They differ from digital camera in the way that a digital camera can be operated upon without a computer system whereas a web camera works with a computer system.
  75. 75. Touch Screens • A type of display screen that has a touch sensitive transparent panel covering the screen is known as touch screen. Instead of using a pointing device such a mouse as a or light pen, you can use your finger to point to object directly to objects on the screen. Although touch screens provide a natural interface for computer novices, they are unsatisfactory for most applications because the finger is a relatively large object. It is impossible to point accurately to small areas of the screen.
  76. 76. Graphic Tablet • A graphic tablet or simply a tablet or digitizing tablet is an input device that enables you to enter drawing and sketches into a computer. A digitizing tablet consists of an electronic surface and a cursor or pen. A cursor is similar to a mouse, except that it has a window with cross hairs for pinpoint placement, and it can have as many as 16 buttons. A pen (also called a stylus) looks like a simple ballpoint pen but uses an electronic head instead of ink. The tablet contains electronic circuitry that enable it to detect movement of the cursor or pen and translate the movement into digital signals that it sent to the computer. Digitizing tablets are also called graphic tablets, touch tablets. Digitizing tablets are high tech drawing tools which allow computer users , with the use of a pressure sensitive pen stylus and a thin, lightweight electromagnetic tablet.
  77. 77. • These cards store data through magnetic stripes on the back of these cards. Magnetic strips contain much more data per unit of space than do printed characters or barcodes. They are ideal for storing confidential data. The special reader machines that can read information on smart cards are called smart card reader. The smart cards can hold more information have some processing capability and are almost impossible to duplicate. They can serve as multi purpose card. An ATM ( Automated Tailor Machine) card, credit card, ID card, electronic- cash card etc. Because of these characteristics, smart cards are becoming more and popular with each coming day. Smart cards have a variety of application. Including banking, medical records, security and many more. Some smart cards allow access to crucial information if they are given correct password.
  78. 78. Microphone (MIC) • With more and more acceptability of computers in our lives, sound capabilities are becoming a standard part of computers. You can speak your words or input a sound through MIC and the sound card translates the electrical signal from microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process.
  79. 79. Biometric Sensors • Biometric sensors are the input devices used for identifying a person’s identity. Biometrics is a technology that verifies a person’s identity by measuring a unique to the individual biological trait. Biometric technologies include dynamic signature verification, scanning, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) identification, face-shape recognition, voice recognition and fingerprint identification. Biometrics is the measuring of an attribute or behavior that is unique to an individual person, biometrics includes measuring attributes of the human body – such as DNA , retina patterns, face shape, and finger points – or measuring unique behavioral actions, such as voice patterns and dynamic signature verification.
  80. 80. ACTIVITY Que1. The device used to identify DNA :a. Biometric sensor b. Touch screen c. Graphic tablet d. Digital camera Que2. The device used or read ATM or any ID card:a. Graphic tablet b. Smart card reader c. Microphone d. Biometric sensor
  81. 81. Contents of 11th   Introduction of C++ Basic Concept of OOPS  1. Class 2. Object 3. Polymorphism 4. Dynamic Binding 5. Inheritance TOKENS Data Types             Operators 1. Arithmetic Operator 2. Logical Operator 3. Assignment Operator 4. Bitwise Operator 5. Relational Operator 6. Increment/Decrement 7. Conditional Operator 8. Operator Precedence 9. Scope resolution Operator 10. Pointer to member opera. 11. Memory Allocation Op.  Structure of C++ Jawahar Navodya Vidyalaya Prabhat Pattan. Slide 115
  82. 82. • C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980's, and is based on the C language. The name is a pun - "++" is a syntactic construct used in C (to increment a variable), and C++ is intended as an incremental improvement of C. Most of C is a subset of C++, so that most C programs can be compiled (i.e. converted into a series of low-level instructions that the computer can execute directly) using a C++ compiler.
  83. 83. Objects are the basic run time entities in an Object Oriented system. They may represent a person, a place, a bank account, a table of data, time and lists. Objects take up space in the memory and have an associated address like a record in Pascal or a structure in C. When a program is executed, the object interact by sending messages to one another. Declaration of a Object :class_name object_name; Example :school s;
  84. 84. Class • A class is a mechanism for creating user-defined data types. It is similar to the C language structure data type. A class is composed of a set of data members and a set of operations that can be performed on the class. • In C++, a class type can be declared with the keywords class. Each class type represents a unique set of class members including data members, member functions, and other type names. • Once you create a class type, you can declare one or more objects of that class type. Declaration of a Class :class keyword class name; Example :- class school
  85. 85. ACTIVITY Que1. When C++ invented :a. 1982 b. 1980 C. 1947 d. 1960 Que2. Who invented C++ a. James gosling b. Blasé Pascal c. Bjarne Stroustrup d. Denis Richie
  86. 86. In object-oriented programming, polymorphism (from the Greek meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form. There are several different kinds of polymorphism.
  87. 87. • Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to the code to be executed in response to the call. Dynamic Binding (also known as late binding) means that the code associated with a given procedure call is not known until the time of the call at runtime. It is associated with polymorphism and inheritance. A function call associated with a polymorphism reference depends on the dynamic type of that reference.
  88. 88. • Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class acquire the properties of objects of another class. It supports the concept of hierarchical classification. The concept of inheritance provides the idea of reusability. This means that we can add additional features to an existing class without modifying it. Inheritance have many classes main class (base class), sub class(derived class.) Base Class Derived Class Sub Class
  89. 89. DATA TYPES • Declaring a variable to be of type int signals to the compiler that it must associate enough memory with the variable's identifier to store an integer value or integer values as the program executes. For example, the declaration int var1, var2, var3; Floating Point (Real Number) :- Variables of type "float" are used to store real numbers. Plus and minus signs for data of type "float" are treated exactly as with integers, and trailing zeros to the right of the decimal point are ignored. Declaration:float var1, var2, var3,--------- varn; Variables of type "char" are used to store character data. In standard C++, data of type "char" can only be a single character (which could be a blank space). These characters come from an available character set which can differ from computer to computer. Declaration :char var1,var2,var3-----------varn;
  90. 90. The smallest individual unit in a program are known as tokens. C++ have following tokens :- 1. Keywords 2. Constants & Identifiers 3. Strings 4. Operators
  91. 91. KEYWORDS A keywords implement specific C++ language features. They are explicitly reserved identifiers and cannot be used as names for the programs variables or other user defined program elements. C++ has 48 keywords.
  92. 92. Identifiers and Constants • Identifiers refer to the names of variables, function, arrays, classes etc. created by the programmer. They are the fundamental requirement of any language has its own rules for naming these identifiers. The following rules are common to both C and C++ . 1. Only alphabetic characters, digits and underscores are permitted. 2. The name cannot start with a digit. 3. Uppercase and lowercase letters are distinct. 4. A declared keyword cannot be used as a variable name. Constants:- Constants refers to fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program.
  93. 93. ACTIVITY Que1. Which is not a keyword in C++ :a. bool b. asm C. auto d. data Que2. Which concept of inheritance provide :a. Second law of motion b. Reusability c. Dynamic binding d. Resolution
  94. 94. ARITHMETIC OPRETOR • There are five type of operators are shown in the following table. Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic operations in C++ programming.
  95. 95. Whenever we use if statement then we can use relational operator which tells us the result of the comparison, so it we want to compare more than one conditions then we need to use logical operators.
  96. 96. • The basic assignment operator is equal (=), which assigns the value of its right operand to its left operand. That is, x = y assigns the value of y to x. The other assignment operators are usually shorthand for standard operations.
  97. 97. • Bitwise operators modify variables considering the bit patterns that represent the values they store.
  98. 98. Increment/Decrement (++, --) • Shortening even more some expressions, the increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (--) increase or reduce by one the value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to +=1 and to -=1, respectively. A characteristic of this operator is that it can be used both as a prefix and as a suffix. That means that it can be written either before the variable identifier (++a) or after it (a++). The conditional operator evaluates an expression returning a value if that expression is true and a different one if the expression is evaluated as false. Its format is: condition ? result1 : result2
  99. 99. Operator Precedence When writing complex expressions with several operands, we may have some doubts about which operand is evaluated first and which later. For example, in this expression
  100. 100. Scope resolution Operator • The scope resolution operator is used to qualify hidden names so that you can still use them. You can use the unary scope operator if a namespace scope or global scope name is hidden by an explicit declaration of the same name in a block or class. The declaration of count declared in the main() function hides the integer named count declared in global namespace scope. The statement :: count = 1 accesses the variable named count declared in global namespace scope.
  101. 101. Structure of C++ program
  102. 102. ACTIVITY Que1. (::) this symbol is indicate which operator:a. Relational operator b. Scope resolution operator C. Arithmetic operator d. Sizeof operator Que2. Conditional operator (?:) also called :a. Optional Operation b. Member access Operator c. Ternary Operator d. Scope Resolution

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