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The following presentation has been prepared for
the sake of ICT exhibition, 2013-14, held in JNV
The presentation covers all the related data of the
exhibition theme, ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING at
middle, secondary and higher level.
All the things and themes are co-related with some
data, as to binds them up in ICT presentation.
To present the data, mathematical equations and
various diagrams,etc. has been used.
The presentation is on the theme ACTIVITY
BASED TEACHING which represents all
the data and details about activity based
teaching, and the problems which we are
facing in our daily life related to our
The presentation is all about activity based
learning, the topics are discussed here in
this presentation along with how to easily
explain computer related problems.
Activity-based teaching is an
approach to education focusing
on the idea that students should
be engaged through actions. In
educator serves the function of
facilitator, assisting students
through the learning process
and providing them with
guidance. Various actions and
tasks can be used in this type of
program, allowing students to
become directly involved in the
learning process, rather than
Ma. Anil Kumar Meena (JNV,Prabhat Pattan,Distt-Betul (M.P.)
A Computer is an electronic devices that can perform a variety of
operations. Computer can access and process data millions of times
faster than Human. A computer can store data and information in its
memory. Computers can do a lot of different tasks such as playing,
games, railway reservation, weather forecasting, error detection and
controlling the flight of a space aircraft etc. ENIAC ( Electronic
Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was the first electronic computer
developed in 1946 by a team lead by prof. Eckert and Mauchly at the
University of Pennsylvania in USA.
Que1. ENIAC stands for:a. Electronic Number
b. Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator
c. Electronic Number Integrator
d. Electronic Number Invention
Que2. Computer developed in:a. 1920
Types Of Computer
Vacuum Tubes (1st Generation)
Integrated Circuits (3rd Generation)
Transistors 2nd Generation
Microprocessor (4th Generation)
According To Size
• Micro Computer :- Micro computer is normally
standalone computers known PC (Personal Computer),
or Desktop Computers. Micro Computers are small and
expensive designed for individual use.
Mini Computer -Mini computers are midsized computers
capable of supporting from 4 – 200 users simultaneously. Mini PC
are mainly used as departmental computers for data processing in
large organization or governmental institutions like hospitals
• Main Frame - A main frame computer is a very
large expensive computer system capable of
supporting hundreds and thousands of users
simultaneously, most of these computers are found
in large organizations like universities, hospitals,
world governing body.
• Super Computer - Super Computers are the fastest
types of computers which were very expensive
and requires a lot of mathematical calculations.
The first generation of super computer was
developed by VON-Newman. The India’s first
super computer is PARAM 10000 was introduced in
1991( it is developed by Dr. Vijay Bhaskar). 1954.
Go to Images
QUE1. WHICH IS THE FASTEST COMPUTER:a. Desktop computer
c. Super computer
Que2. WHICH IS THE INDIA’S FIRST Computer:a. PARAM
d. The Earth simulator
According To Working Technology
• Analog -An analog computer uses one kind of physical
quantity to represent the behaviour of another physical
system, or mathematical function
• Digital –A computer that stores data in terms of digits
(numbers) and proceeds in discrete steps from one state to
• Hybrid - Hybrid computers are computers that comprise
features of analog computers and digital computers. ATM
(Automated Teller Machine) is an important example of
Que1. Computer that compromise features of analog and
Digital computers:a. Hybrid computer
c. Super computer
Que2. ATM stands for
a. Auto text machine
b. Automatic taller machine
c. Automated teller machine
d. Auto teller machine
INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES
• The mouse is a pointing device with a roller on its base. Its
size is about the size of the normal cake of bath soap. When
a mouse rolls on a flat surface, the cursor on the screen also
moves in the direction of the mouse’s movement. A movement
of the mouse across a flat surface causes the roller to move
and potentiometers coupled to the roller, sense the relative
movements. This motion is then converted to digital values
that determines the magnitude and direction of the mouse’s
movement. A mouse generally has two or three buttons can be
used to input commands or other information.
• A scanner is a device similar to a photocopy machine.
A photocopier prints the given printed image/page on
a paper. And a scanner creates an electronic form of
the printed image, which can later be manipulated,
changed and modified according to the requirements.
The scanners can convert any image into
electronic form by shining light on to the image and
sensing the intensity of the reflection at every point.
• A light pen is also a pointing device. The light pen consists of a photocell
mounted in a pen-shaped tube. When the pen is brought in front of a picture
element of the screen, it senses light coming from a limited field of view. The light
coming from the screen causes the photocell to respond by generating a pulse. This
electric response is transmitted to a processor that identifies the pixel the light
pen is pointing to. Thus, to indentify a specific location, the light pen is very
useful. But the light pen provides no information when held over a blank part of
the screen because it is a passive device with a sensor only. The light pen is also
used to draw images on the screen. With the movement of the light pen over the
screen, the lines are drawn.
Que1. The lighten consists of:a. Photocell
Que2. How many function keys present in keyboard
• An output device is any piece of computer hardware
equipment used to communicate the results of data
processing carried out by an information processing
• Speakers are one of the most common output device used with
computer systems. Some speakers are designed to work specifically
with computers, while others can be hooked up to any type of
sound system. Regardless of their design, the purpose of speakers is
to produce audio output that can be heard by the listener.
• Speakers are transducers that convert electromagnetic waves into
sound waves. The speakers receive audio input from a device such
as a computer or an audio receiver. This input may be either
in analog or digital form. Analog speakers simply amplify the
analog electromagnetic waves into sound waves. Since sound waves
are produced in analog form, digital speakers must first convert the
digital input to an analog signal, then generate the sound waves.
is an output device:-
a. Key board
Que2. which output device used for hearing sound:-
A monitor is a box consisting primarily of a CRT ( Cathode Ray
Tube) and its power supply. The CRTs operate much like those
in television sets. A single electron gun in a monochrome CRT
sends a beam of electrons to trace a regular pattern of
horizontal lines on the phosphor that coats the screen’s
surface screen images are produced by varying the intensity of
the beam. A colour monitor uses three electron guns to scan
or stripes of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) phosphor that coat
the screen’s surface.
Types of Monitor :LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
LED ( Light Emitting Display)
3D (three Dimensional)
Printer is a hard copy output device. Which is provide printing facility. There are
two types of printer :1. Impact Printer
2. Non impact Printer
Impact Printer :- in these printer, there is mechanical contact between the print
head and paper. Such that
2.dot matrix printer
Non impact printer :- In these printers, there is no mechanical contact between the
print head and paper. Such that
• The word modem is actually short for
Modulator/Demodulator. (There's something you
can really impress your friends with). A modem is
a communications device that can be either
internal or external to your computer. It allows
one computer to connect another computer and
transfer data over telephone lines. The original
dial-up modems are becoming obsolete because
of their slow speeds and are being replaced by the
much faster cable and DSL modems.
Many applications require a graphical output apart from
printed output. For example, pie charts, bar charts and
graph with annotations are useful representation of
information. Plotters are the output devices that produce
good quality drawings and graphs. Plotter is used by
engineers who is makes graphs and maps. There are two
types of plotter:
1. Drum plotter
2. flat bad plotter
Que1. which device is used to connect computer with
Que2. In the monitor CRT stands for:-
a. Carbon ray tube
b. Cathode ray tube
c. Cathode range tube
d. Caron range tube
Contents of Class
Two way data communication
Disadvantages of Computer Network :• Security Issues: One of the major drawbacks of computer networks is
the security issues involved. if a computer is on a network, a computer
hacker can get unauthorized access by using different tools. In case of
big organizations, various network security software are used to
prevent the theft of any confidential and classified data.
• Rapid Spread of Computer Viruses: If any computer system in a
network gets affected by computer virus, there is a possible threat of
other systems getting affected too. Viruses get spread on a network
easily because of the interconnectivity of workstations.
• Expensive Set Up: The initial set up cost of a computer network can
be high depending on the number of computers to be connected.
Costly devices like routers, switches, hubs, etc.
INTERNET IN EDUCATION
• Education these days has been the top priority for any family or individual
person, and no doubt amongst the latest technologies to encourage and
maintain the education standards the internet comes first.
• Internet is not only an access to websites, these days there is knowledge and
information on every aspect of the educational world over the internet. The
only requirement is the research over the internet for a specific educational
topic. Therefore, these are true internet resources which deal with every
individual's educational needs.
• Internet has also provided the opportunity to study online. There are virtual
universities set up, in which the students can take classes sitting on the
computer seat opening the university's website video section according the
topic, and then study at home.
1Computer Your computer should preferably have software that support
high quality text, image and voice because the internet provides us
with lot of sound and video files that you may not want to miss!
Telephone Connection This is your means to enter the world of
internet. Only the telephone line is required not the instrument.
Modem A modem is a device that takes information stored in the
computer and converts into sound waves suitable for transmission
on the telephone network. This is called modulation.
Internet Account This account is provided by organization called
‘‘Internet Service Providers ’’. The ISP creates an account number
for your computer on the internet so that your computer is identified
on the internet.
Web Browser A web browser contains the basic software you need in
order to find, retrieve, view and send information over the internet.
Some popular web browser are internet Explorer and Netscape
Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Google Chrome etc.
ISP :- ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. Which is provided
permission to access the internet. The ISP is a company ( Idea,
Airtel, Vodafone, BSNL, Videocon etc) . The speed of internet
depends on ISP .
• World Wide Web:
This is the most user friendly
application of the internet which is responsible for its rapid
growth. The WWW is a notice board. The notices, articles and
pictures etc. displayed on the notice board can be seen, read by
anybody. Everyone is not authorized to put up the information
on the notice board. Only authorized can do it. Such that
website is a notice board, whereas any user can view the
contents of this area. The available information may be in the
form of text, pictures, photographs, images. It can be on any
subject or topic. Each document on the “website” is called as
“webpage” . www has become the most popular application on
the internet and the large amount of data that it contain is
growing continuously. One can find information on just about
any subject- from news, to sport, to music or films etc.
Que1. who invented WWW :a. Alan turing
b. Charles Babbage
c. Tim bener lee
d. Marc jukarbar
Que2. which output device used for hearing sound:a. Printer
• Some special websites that help you locate
the websites where the information you
want is located. These websites are called
• Ex. - Google, Alta vista , Bing ,Khoj etc.
• Electronic mail, commonly called email or e-mail, is a
method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one
or more recipients. Modern email operates across the
Internet or other computer networks.
Que1. which is not an search engine :a. Bing
Que2. BCC stands for in Email :a. Big carbon copy
b. Blank cartoon copy
c. Blind carbon copy
d. Blank carbon copy
Contents of Class 8th
• A Program is a sequence of instruction written in a language
that the computer understand and thereby process.
• A group of instruction is called program.
• Ex :- If you work on a computer than you perform some
• 1. On button to switch board
• 2. On C.P.U. power switch
• 3. Check monitor on/off
• 4. wait for some time performs booting process
• 5. Open appropriate software and work
• 6. Type matter or text
• 7. Save file (Give a particular name)
A computer requires a program to do any useful work. Computer
programming involves writing a list of instruction , in other
words, programming is a problem solving activity. Computer
programmers usually follow some common steps, called the
program development cycle, to build a computer program.
Types of Programming Language according to its evolution :1. Machine Language
2. Assembly Language
3. High-Level Language (HLL)
4. Fourth Generation Language (4GL)
Machine Level Language
When the human being started programming the computer, the instruction were
given to it in a language that it could easily understand. And that language was
machine language. The binary language, a language of 1s and 0s is known as
Machine Language. Any instruction in this language is given in the form of string
of 1s and 0s. Where 1 stands for the presence of electric pulse and 0 stands for the
absence of electric pulse. A set of 1s and 0s as 111001 has a specific meaning which
is indicated a symbol (alphabet, digit and special character).
The writing of program in machine level language is very difficult and
complicated and this was accomplished by expert only. All the data and
instructions are to be fed to the computer in binary form (1s and 0s).
ASSEMBLY LEVEL LANGUAGE
• The first language similar to English was developed in 1950 which was
known as Assembly Language or Symbolic Programming Language. In
assembly language, understandable symbols and words are commonly
used to denote the operations and addresses of operands. For example,
the following instructions can be written for adding two number A and
The meaning of LDA A is to load accumulator with A and the meaning
of ADD B is to add B to the content of accumulator .
• The assembly level language was easier with machine level language as
it relieved the programmer from a burden of remembering the operationcodes. The development of High Level Language in 1960. The different
HLL which can be used by the common user are FORTRAN, BASIC,
PASCAL, COBOL and many others. Each high level language was
developed to fulfill some basic requirement for particular type of
problems. HLL is called human language because in this language used
to English language for programming. This language very easier and
helpful for programmer the HLL provides an environment where easily
performed to programming task.
List of High level languages
1. LOGO (Logic Oriented Graphics
2. FORTRAN (Formula
3. COBOL (Common Business
DEVELOPMENT AND USE
This was meant to be a translator and
was mainly developed for children. It
helps them learn basic mathematical
and geometric skills easily.
This is a first high level language which was
developed by IBM (International Business
Machine) Company in 1957 basically used
for scientific problems and its recent
versions are fortran-77 and fortran-90.
This language was first designed by
CODASYL (Conference of Data System
Language) in the year 1960. the first
version was COBOL-60. This language is
commonly used for large data handling
purposes in commercial and business
application. This language was designed
by Grace Hopper.
4. BASIC (Beginner’s
This language was developed by John Kemeny
and Thomas Kurtz at Dormouth college in the
year 1960. This was basically developed for
the use of beginners as it is easy to learn and
apply for solving problems compared with
other languages. Presently many advanced
versions of Basic are available and used in
variety of fields as business, science and
engineering. This language is mainly used to
learn other languages like that Visual Basic
It is named in the honor of French Physicist
Braise Pascal. This language was developed
by Nicklaus Wirth at University of Zurich.
Presently it is used as general purpose
language and best suited for small computers.
This Language was developed by Denis Richie.
This Language was developed by Bjarne
Stroustrup in early 1980s. It is the superset
of C language that supports Object
Oriented features. This language is used
effectively in developing system software as
well as application soft wares.
Originally called Oak. This general purpose
was developed by sun Microsystems and
James Gosling of USA in 1991. JAVA was
designed for the development of software
for consumer electronic devices. As a
result, java came out to be a simple,
portable and a powerful language.
Que1. who invented C language :a. James gosling
b. Blase Pascal
c. Arin Turic
d. Denis Richie
Que2. which is the first high level language :a. BASIC
b. C language
Interpreter :- An interpreter is also a type of translator
which is used for translation of HLL program into MLL. It
takes one statement of a HLL and translates it into machine
code which is then executed, Interpreters are easy to write
and require less storage space in memory, but the time
taken to execute a program is more than the time taken by a
Assembler :- A program which is used for the translation
of an assembly language program into a machine level
language is called as assembler. The assembler is a system
program written by system programmer. It is supplied by
the companies which manufacture the computer.
Que1. who invented JAVA language :a. James gosling
b. Blasé Pascal
c. Arin turic
d. Denis Richie
Que2. what is the full form of LOGO :a. Logic oriented Game operation
c. Logic Oriented Graphics Oriented
b. Logic Original Game operation
d. Logical Original graphic oriented
• Hardware is basically anything that you can touch
with your fingers. Hardware represents the
physical and tangible components of the computer.
• Ex. - SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply)
• RAM (Random Access Memory)
• CD/DVD/BR (Blue Ray) Drive
• A Switched-Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is an
supply that incorporates a switching regulator to
power efficiently, an SMPS transfers power from a
power, to a load, such as a personal
converting voltage and current which minimizes
switched-mode power supply dissipates no power.
source, like mains
wasted energy, a
• Random Access Memory (RAM) is the form of memory contained
in most computers. When an application is running it stores its
information in the RAM. When you close the application the
information is deleted from the RAM. This is why you need
certain amounts of RAM to run applications. The more RAM you
have the faster your computer will be, and the more applications
you'll be able to run without loosing speed.
• The motherboard is a large circuit board designed to connect a
computer's components to one another. A motherboard has an
appropriately named "controller" or "bridge" Since the
motherboard is such a large and important part of a computer,
The motherboard contains various circuit cards performing
various functions all plug into many similar sockets on a
common circuit board. Each circuit card performs a unique
function in the computer and gets its power from the socket.
The Central Processing Unit's name says it all. Even though
it is usually the smallest part in a computer, it is typically
the most expensive. This is the brain of your computer.
It executes complex calculations and instructions. A
processor these days can have several "cores," each of
which is similar to an independent processor. The most
common number of cores are 2 (dual-core) and 4 (quadcore).
A Digital Versatile Disc - Read/Write, is a media storage disk that
closely resemble a CD or compact disc. The major difference is that
the DVD is formatted to hold far more data. A CD commonly has a
capacity of 650 megabytes, while the smallest capacity DVD can store
about seven times more data, or 4.38 gigabytes (GB).
There are various kinds of DVDs, but the DVD-ROM refers to a readonly disc, or a disc that cannot be written over. A DVD movie bought
from the local video store is a good example. Blank DVDs with
designations like "DVD-R" and "DVD+R" are formatted, recordable
DVDs. The —R and +R refer to competing format standards, but both
will record movies, audio, or other data.
1. USB – (Universal Serial Bus)
2. PS/2 – Play Station (two means Mouse+Keyboard)
3. VGA – (Video Graphics Adaptor)
4. DVI – (Digital Video Interface)
5. BIOS- (Basic Input Output System)
6. SMPS- Switched-Mode Power Supply
7. DVD – Digital Video Disc/ Digital Versatile Disc
8. CD- Compact Disc
9. LAN – Local Area Networking.
10. HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface.
11. RAM – (Random Access Memory)
12. ROM- Read Only Memory.
Que1. which is not an hardware :a. window7
d. Hard disk
Que2. what is the full form of VGA:-
a. Video Graphics Adaptor
b. Virtual Graphics Adaptor
c. Visual Graph Application
d. Video Graph Application
Que1. USB stands fora. Universal System Board
b. Unique System Bus
c. Universal Serial Bus
d. Union System Board
Que2. which is called brain of computer :-
A computer is mere a machine that knows nothing of itself. Rather it requires
instructions for each and everything it performs. These instructions are
provided to it through software. The software that controls internal computer
operations (reading data from input devices, transmitting processed
information to the output devices, checking system components, converting
data/instructions to computer understandable form etc.) is known as system
Computer software is divided into two basic type
• SYSTEM SOFTWARE
• APPLICATION SOFTWARE
• The operating system (OS), also called the software platform, it is a
collection of program that control other hardware and software
components & communication between hardware, software and
users. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating
system to run other programs. An operating system is very large
and complex it must be created piece by piece and each piece of
these must be well defined such that input, output and other
function. Each application program is written to run on top of a
particular operating system. When we switch on the computer,
operating system or a part of it is loaded into the main memory of
the computer system. The operating system is an important part of
computer system, without an operating system does not perform
any task in computer. Operating system is also called the soul of
• Example of Operating System :• Windows 98, Windows XP Windows, Vista,Windows7,Windows8.
WORK OF OPRATING SYSTEM
Que1. which is the latest version of operating system :a. Windows XP
b. Windows 7
c. Windows 8
d. Windows 98
Que2. Which is not an example of Application software:a. Adobe Reader
c. Operating system
d. Microsoft office
TYPES OF INPUT DEVICES
MICR (Magnetic Inc Character Reader)
MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Reader ,in this method, human readable
characters are printed on documents (such as cheques) using a special magnetic
ink. Special font has been set for these character by American Banking Association
(ABA). A magnetic ink character reader (MICR) reads these characters by
examining their shapes, using a 7 X 10 matrix; it determines, from the response of
the segments of the matrix to the magnetic head. This information is thus
transmitted to the system. The determination of the character which is read is greatly
facilitated by the careful design of the characters and the use of the magnetic ink.
MICR is mostly used in banks. In a cheque, the branch code, account number and
cheque number are preprinted at the bottom using magnetic ink. The amount of the
cheque itself can now be read using MICR. This method, besides saving time, also
ensures accuracy of data entry.
• In this method, special preprinted forms are designed with boxes
which can be marked with a dark pencil or black ball pen. Each box
is annotated distinctly so that the user clearly understands what
response he is marking. Such a document is read by a document
reader, called optical mark reader (OMR) which transcribes the
marks into electrical pulses which are transmitted to the computer.
The main advantage of OMR is that the information is entered
at its source and no further transcription is required. This minimizes
unreliability of data . The main disadvantage is the need for accurate
alignment of printing on forms and the need for good quality
expensive paper. The form cannot be redesigned frequently because
any changes will require reprinting of the form, which is expensive.
A Bar code reader is also one of the
most widely used input devices. As you
must be aware that a bar code is a
pattern of printed bars on various types
of products. A bar code reader emits a
beam of light which reflects off the bar
code image. A light sensitive detector in
the bar code reader then identifies the
bar code image by recognizing special
bars at the both ends of the image. Once
the bar code is identified, the bar
Que1. The device used in bank :a. MICR
c. Bar code reader
Que2. What is the full form of OMR
a. Optical Memory reader
b. Optical Mark Reader
c. Office Memory reader
d. Optical Master Reader
• The joystick is a device that lets user an object on the screen. Children
can play with computers in a way by the use of a joystick ( or a
tracker ball). While playing certain games, the user needs to move
object quickly across the screen. Joystick makes it much easier for
them and provides a better control.
A joystick is a stick set in two crossed grooves and can be
moved left or right, forward or backward. The movements of the
stick are sensed by a potentiometer. As the stick is moved around, the
movements are translated into binary instructions with the help of
electrical contracts in its base. A joystick is generally used to control
the velocity of the screen cursors movement rather than its absolute
positions. The tracker ball also does the same thing but is round in
shape. Both joystick and the tracker ball allow you to move objects
around the screen easily.
• A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on
film is called digital camera. Once a picture has been taken, it can be
downloaded to a computer system, and then manipulated with a
graphics program and printed. The big advantage of digital cameras
is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is
no film processing, one of the biggest boosters of digital
photography is Kodak, the largest producer of film. Kodak
developed the Kodak photo CD format, which has become the do
facto standard for storing digital photographs.
You can also work with another type of camera called Web
camera also works in the same way as that of the digital camera with
digitized image . They differ from digital camera in the way that a
digital camera can be operated upon without a computer system
whereas a web camera works with a computer system.
• A type of display screen that has a touch sensitive
transparent panel covering the screen is known as touch
screen. Instead of using a pointing device such a mouse
as a or light pen, you can use your finger to point to
object directly to objects on the screen.
Although touch screens provide a natural interface
for computer novices, they are unsatisfactory for most
applications because the finger is a relatively large object.
It is impossible to point accurately to small areas of the
• A graphic tablet or simply a tablet or digitizing tablet is an input
device that enables you to enter drawing and sketches into a
computer. A digitizing tablet consists of an electronic surface and a
cursor or pen. A cursor is similar to a mouse, except that it has a
window with cross hairs for pinpoint placement, and it can have as
many as 16 buttons. A pen (also called a stylus) looks like a simple
ballpoint pen but uses an electronic head instead of ink. The tablet
contains electronic circuitry that enable it to detect movement of
the cursor or pen and translate the movement into digital signals
that it sent to the computer. Digitizing tablets are also called
graphic tablets, touch tablets. Digitizing tablets are high tech
drawing tools which allow computer users , with the use of a
pressure sensitive pen stylus and a thin, lightweight
• These cards store data through magnetic stripes on the back of
these cards. Magnetic strips contain much more data per unit of
space than do printed characters or barcodes. They are ideal for
storing confidential data. The special reader machines that can read
information on smart cards are called smart card reader. The smart
cards can hold more information have some processing capability
and are almost impossible to duplicate. They can serve as multi
purpose card. An ATM ( Automated Tailor Machine) card, credit
card, ID card, electronic- cash card etc. Because of these
characteristics, smart cards are becoming more and popular with
each coming day.
Smart cards have a variety of application. Including banking,
medical records, security and many more. Some smart cards allow
access to crucial information if they are given correct password.
• With more and more acceptability of computers
in our lives, sound capabilities are becoming a
standard part of computers. You can speak your
words or input a sound through MIC and the
sound card translates the electrical signal from
microphone into a digitized from that the
computer can store and process.
• Biometric sensors are the input devices used for identifying a
person’s identity. Biometrics is a technology that verifies a
person’s identity by measuring a unique to the individual
biological trait. Biometric technologies include dynamic
signature verification, scanning, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
identification, face-shape recognition, voice recognition and
fingerprint identification. Biometrics is the measuring of an
attribute or behavior that is unique to an individual person,
biometrics includes measuring attributes of the human body –
such as DNA , retina patterns, face shape, and finger points –
or measuring unique behavioral actions, such as voice patterns
and dynamic signature verification.
Que1. The device used to identify DNA :a. Biometric sensor
b. Touch screen
c. Graphic tablet
d. Digital camera
Que2. The device used or read ATM or any ID card:a. Graphic tablet
b. Smart card reader
d. Biometric sensor
Contents of 11th
Introduction of C++
Basic Concept of OOPS
4. Dynamic Binding
1. Arithmetic Operator
2. Logical Operator
3. Assignment Operator
4. Bitwise Operator
5. Relational Operator
7. Conditional Operator
8. Operator Precedence
9. Scope resolution Operator
10. Pointer to member opera.
11. Memory Allocation Op.
Structure of C++
Jawahar Navodya Vidyalaya Prabhat Pattan.
• C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup of
AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980's, and
is based on the C language. The name is a pun
- "++" is a syntactic construct used in C (to
increment a variable), and C++ is intended as
an incremental improvement of C. Most of C is
a subset of C++, so that most C programs can
be compiled (i.e. converted into a series of
low-level instructions that the computer can
execute directly) using a C++ compiler.
Objects are the basic run time entities in an Object
Oriented system. They may represent a person, a
place, a bank account, a table of data, time and lists.
Objects take up space in the memory and have an
associated address like a record in Pascal or a
structure in C.
When a program is executed, the object interact
by sending messages to one another.
Declaration of a Object :class_name object_name;
Example :school s;
• A class is a mechanism for creating user-defined
data types. It is similar to the C language structure
data type. A class is composed of a set of data
members and a set of operations that can be
performed on the class.
• In C++, a class type can be declared with the
keywords class. Each class type represents a unique
set of class members including data members,
member functions, and other type names.
• Once you create a class type, you can declare one
or more objects of that class type.
Declaration of a Class :class keyword class name;
Example :- class school
Que1. When C++ invented :a. 1982
Que2. Who invented C++
a. James gosling
b. Blasé Pascal
c. Bjarne Stroustrup
d. Denis Richie
In object-oriented programming, polymorphism (from the Greek
meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able
to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different
contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a
function, or an object to have more than one form. There are
several different kinds of polymorphism.
• Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to the code to be
executed in response to the call. Dynamic Binding (also known as
late binding) means that the code associated with a given
procedure call is not known until the time of the call at runtime. It is
associated with polymorphism and inheritance. A function call
associated with a polymorphism reference depends on the dynamic
type of that reference.
• Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class
acquire the properties of objects of another class. It
supports the concept of hierarchical classification. The
concept of inheritance provides the idea of reusability.
This means that we can add additional features to an
existing class without modifying it. Inheritance have many
classes main class (base class), sub class(derived class.)
Declaring a variable to be of type int signals to the compiler that it must associate
enough memory with the variable's identifier to store an integer value or integer values as the
For example, the declaration
int var1, var2, var3;
Floating Point (Real Number)
:- Variables of type "float" are used to
store real numbers. Plus and minus signs for data of type "float" are treated exactly as
with integers, and trailing zeros to the right of the decimal point are ignored.
Declaration:float var1, var2, var3,--------- varn;
Variables of type "char" are used to store character data. In
standard C++, data of type "char" can only be a single character (which could be a
blank space). These characters come from an available character set which can differ
from computer to computer.
Declaration :char var1,var2,var3-----------varn;
The smallest individual unit in a program are known as tokens.
C++ have following tokens :-
2. Constants & Identifiers
A keywords implement specific C++ language features. They
are explicitly reserved identifiers and cannot be used as
names for the programs variables or other user defined
program elements. C++ has 48 keywords.
Identifiers and Constants
• Identifiers refer to the names of variables, function, arrays,
classes etc. created by the programmer. They are the
fundamental requirement of any language has its own rules
for naming these identifiers. The following rules are common
to both C and C++ .
1. Only alphabetic characters, digits and underscores are
2. The name cannot start with a digit.
3. Uppercase and lowercase letters are distinct.
4. A declared keyword cannot be used as a variable name.
Constants:- Constants refers to fixed values that do not change
during the execution of a program.
Que1. Which is not a keyword in C++ :a. bool
Que2. Which concept of inheritance provide :a. Second law of motion
c. Dynamic binding
• There are five type of operators are shown in the
following table. Arithmetic operators are used to
perform arithmetic operations in C++ programming.
Whenever we use if statement then we can use
relational operator which tells us the result of the
comparison, so it we want to compare more than one
conditions then we need to use logical operators.
• The basic assignment operator is equal (=), which
assigns the value of its right operand to its left
operand. That is, x = y assigns the value of y to x. The
other assignment operators are usually shorthand for
• Bitwise operators modify variables considering the bit
patterns that represent the values they store.
Increment/Decrement (++, --)
• Shortening even more some expressions, the increase operator
(++) and the decrease operator (--) increase or reduce by one the
value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to +=1 and to -=1,
respectively. A characteristic of this operator is that it can be used
both as a prefix and as a suffix. That means that it can be written
either before the variable identifier (++a) or after it (a++).
The conditional operator evaluates an expression returning a
value if that expression is true and a different one if the
expression is evaluated as false. Its format is:
condition ? result1 : result2
When writing complex expressions with several
operands, we may have some doubts about which
operand is evaluated first and which later. For example,
in this expression
Scope resolution Operator
• The scope resolution operator is used to qualify hidden
names so that you can still use them. You can use the unary
scope operator if a namespace scope or global scope name is
hidden by an explicit declaration of the same name in a
block or class. The declaration of count declared in
the main() function hides the integer named count declared
in global namespace scope.
The statement :: count = 1 accesses the variable
named count declared in global namespace scope.
Structure of C++ program
Que1. (::) this symbol is indicate which operator:a. Relational operator
b. Scope resolution operator
C. Arithmetic operator
d. Sizeof operator
Que2. Conditional operator (?:) also called :a. Optional Operation
b. Member access Operator
c. Ternary Operator
d. Scope Resolution