2. Consumer motivation is an internal state that
drives people to identify and buy products or
services that fulfill conscious and unconscious
needs or desires.
The fulfillment of those needs can then motivate
them to make a repeat purchase or to find
different goods and services to better fulfill those
3. Learning Objectives
Understand the types of human needs, and
motives, and the meaning of Goals.
Understand the dynamics of motivation, arousal
of needs, setting of goals, and Interrelationship
between Needs, and Goals.
To learn about several systems of needs
developed by Researchers.
To understand how human motives are studied
4. What is Motivation ?
to the driving force
that impels them to
•This driving force is
produced by a state
of tension, which
exist as the result of
an unfulfilled need.
5. Needs (1/2)
A need is something that is necessary for
organisms to live a healthy life.
Every individual has some needs.
o Innate Needs (primary) – physiological needs
which include needs for food water shelter, air,
o Acquired Needs (secondary) – that we learn in
response to our culture on environment, includes
needs for self-esteem, prestige, affection, power
6. Needs (2/2)
Needs can also be classified as Extrinsic, and
o Extrinsic Needs – It motivate an individual to
achieve the end result.
Ex- Buying a product that symbolizes status to
o Intrinsic Needs – Ex- If an individual buys a car for
his/her own comfort and enjoyment
A goal is a desired result an person or
a system plans and commits to achieve.
To have success in life, goals are essential.
o Generic Goals – If a student tell his parents that he
wants to become an entrepreneur, he has started a
o Product Specific goal – If a student says he wants
to get an MBA degree from the IIM, he has
expressed a Product-Specific goal.
8. The selection of Goals
Positive Goal : Goal towards which behavior is
directed (Approach object)
Negative Goal : Goal from which behavior is
directed away (Avoidance Object)
9. Rational v/s Emotional Motives
The term Rationality implies that consumer
select goals based on totally objective criteria
such as Size, weight, price, or miles per liter.
Emotional Motives imply the selection of goals
according to personal criteria such as pride, fear,
10. Dynamics of Motivation
Needs and Goals change and grow in response to
an individual’s physical condition, environment,
interaction with others, and experiences.
As individual attain their goals, they develop new
If they do not attain their goals they continue to
strive for old goals or they develop substitute goals.
Some of the reasons why need-driven human
activity never ceases include the following:
o Many of the needs are never fully satisfied.
o As needs become satisfied, new and higher order
needs emerge that cause tension.
o People who achieve their goals, set new and higher
goals for themselves.
11. Arousal of Motives
Physiological Arousal : Needs at any specific
moment in time are based on the individual’s
physiological condition at that moment.
Emotional Arousal: Sometimes day dreaming
results in the arousal or stimulation of latent needs .
Cognitive Arousal: Random thoughts can lead to a
cognitive awareness of needs .
The two opposing philosophies :
12. Motivational Theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
o Consumers respond to motivation according to levels
of needs in this order:
o If these needs are met, the person may then be
motivated by growth needs
14. Trio of Needs (1/2)
Some psychologies believe in the existence of trio
of (basic) needs:
o The needs for Power
o The needs for Affiliation
o The needs for Achievement
Power – It relates to an individual’s desire to control
his/her environment . It includes the need to control
other persons and various objects.
Affiliation – people with high affiliation needs tend to
be socially dependent on others. They often select
goods they feel will meet with the approval of friends.
15. Trio of Needs (2/2)
Achievement – people with high needs for
achievement tend to be more self confident, enjoy
taking calculated risk, actively research their
environments, and value feedback.
16. The Measurements of Motives
Qualitative Methods :
Self-reported measures of motives
Qualitative measures of motives
Subconscious meaning of Products
17. Self-Reported Measures of
Part-A : A scale measuring security, social, esteem,
autonomy, and self –actualization needs
The scale includes 13 job related statements subjects
responded on 7 point semantic differential scale ranging
from “least important” to “Most important”
Part-B : A scale measuring achievement , affiliation,
autonomy and dominance
The scale includes 20 behavioral statements subjects
responded on 7 point semantic differential scale ranging
from “Never” to “Always”
18. Qualitative Measures of Motives
Metaphor Analysis: ZMET(Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation
Word Association and Sentence Completion
Thematic Appreciation Test
Drawing Pictures and Photos Sorts
20. Evaluation of Motivational Research
Qualitative Research enables the marketers to
explore consumer reaction to ideas and
advertisements at an early stage and avoid the
costly errors resulting from placing ineffective
and untested ads.
It serves as a foundation of structured ,
quantitative marketing research studies
conducted on larger, more representative
samples of consumers
21. Culture and Need State
Cultural aspect matters in a number of
Example: Pepsodent ad showed a mother scolding
her child for eating snacks no the way to school
2 minutes Maggi
Brand needs to make use of Cultural
Example: Fairness creams for men
Notas do Editor
Consumer needs are the essence of the marketing concept. The key to company’s survival, profitability, & growth in a highly competitive market place is its ability to identify and satisfy unfulfilled consumer needs better and sooner then the competition.
An example:When the prices of 2 choc products – “A Swiss product known for its Superior taste” and “An American everyday chocolate item” were reduced by same amount, most consumers bought the high quality choc.However when the prices were further reduced by the same amount, but one that resulted in lower quality product being free, most consumers took the free, lower quality product, and gave up the chance to buy the superior choc. For a incredibly low price.it appears that, the word FREE triggered an emotional and irrational buying behaviour.
Needs are never fully satisfied – satisfaction is only temporary, clearly eating once wont satisfy our hunger forever. Also as soon as one need is satisfied, new needs emerge. After we have eaten a meal, we might next have the need to be with others (the need for affiliation). Thus needs are dynamic.
Behaviorist school : Considers motivation to be a mechanical process; behavior is seen as the response to a stimulus and the elements of conscious thought are ignored.Cognitive school : They believe that all the behavior is directed as goal achievement . Needs and past achievements are reasoned, categorized and transformed into attitudes and beliefs that helps an individual to satisfy needs; together these factors determine the action that a person takes to satisfy a particular need.
These needs can be subsumed within Maslow's need hierarchy; considered individually, however, each has a unique relevance to consumer motivation.