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Cultural Production In A Digital Age

Lecture. Describes how Web 2.0 technologies enable a form of cultural production that challenges the status quo, which is corporate and copyright-driven. Introduces the concept of Creative Commons licensing.

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Cultural Production In A Digital Age

  1. 1. Cultural Production In The Digital Age: Barriers and Incentives <ul><li>COM302 </li></ul><ul><li>21 May 2008 Kathy E. Gill </li></ul>
  2. 2. Framing Web 2.0 Technologies
  3. 4. <ul><li>These technologies change how we interact with (digital) cultural objects. </li></ul><ul><li>We are no longer merely a consumer; we can also be a producer. </li></ul>
  4. 5. This is a shift from the late 20th century model:
  5. 7. In Our Digital World, It Is Easier to Borrow, Copy, Manipulate
  6. 8. This means it is technically easier to express ourselves in new, creative ways.
  7. 9. Traditional Model <ul><li>Mediated Communication was a one-way Mass Communication Model </li></ul>
  8. 10. New Model <ul><ul><li>Mediated communication is transitioning to a circular (Osgood & Schramm) interpersonal model </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. What are the cultural industries? <ul><li>News media </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising industry </li></ul><ul><li>Television & movies </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  10. 12. Quotable <ul><li>“ [N]on-commercial cultural production and unconstrained expression within the Internet undermines capitalism’s production of meaning.” p135 - from Michael Strangelove, The Empire of Mind (University of Toronto Press, 2005) </li></ul>
  11. 13. The pejorative: The cult of the amateur <ul><li>SuperBowl Commercials </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube Democratic Presidential Debate </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Clash <ul><li>Culture as a freely flowing current of ideas and practices runs head first into culture as intellectual property </li></ul>
  13. 16. Ask permission each time Ask permission each use
  14. 17. Framing <ul><li>A 10-minute explanation of copyright … using words from one of the largest copyright owners in the world </li></ul>
  15. 18. The Barrier <ul><li>Copyright originated in a time when the view of authors was romantic: &quot;originality was elevated to being located in and belonging to the self of the author&quot; ... words created by these authors were considered &quot;original&quot; and thus distinguishable from mass-produced commodities. (Lessig, presentation, Copyright, Cultural Production and Open Content Licensing) </li></ul>
  16. 19. Important Terms <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Domain </li></ul>
  17. 20. Terms: Copyright <ul><li>Copyright law protects “creative and expressive works” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic (do not have to file, register) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope: http://copyright.gov/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not extend to ideas or facts </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. How Long Does It Last? <ul><li>A Long Time! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1709, copyright lasted 14 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to 1923, content public domain (probably) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1978, the life of the author + 70 years OR work-for-hire, 95 years from publication or 125 years from creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1923 and 1978 … talk to a lawyer! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Rights Happen On Creation <ul><li>Copyright is an exclusive right: you control reproduction, distribution, derivative works, public display, performance </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns? Biz or employee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On company time, the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract – specify if first sale or exclusive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Copyright Reach <ul><li>Originality was required in copyright law, historically </li></ul><ul><li>Today, only de minimis originality </li></ul><ul><li>Watch YouTube Clip of Canadian Student Project (offline copy) </li></ul>
  21. 24. Infringement <ul><li>&quot;Copyright infringement&quot; means exercising one of the copyright holder's exclusive rights without permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Should a copyright holder sue on grounds of infringement, the defendent may argue that the use was &quot;fair use&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fair use doctrine allows copyrighted works to be used in some circumstances, such as commentary, criticism, news reporting or educational use. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. The Enforcer <ul><li>Digital Rights Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to think of this with movies and songs, but also can be pay-to-view sections of any website like nyt select </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RIAA “cease and desist” letters </li></ul>
  23. 26. Fair Use Details <ul><li>See Section 107 of the Copyright Act; fair use determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose and character of the use; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount and substantiality of the portion used; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Terms: Public Domain <ul><ul><li>When the copyright term expires, works revert to public domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The copyright holder may dedicate works to the public domain; eg, works funded by the US Government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PD works are freely available for use by anyone for anything. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Controversy <ul><li>Copyright purpose is to “ promote the progress of science and the useful arts ” … and the duration for exclusivity is to be “ limited ” … - US Constitution </li></ul>
  26. 29. Incentives <ul><li>Change the licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. some rights reserved no rights reserved all rights reserved
  28. 31. attribution non-commercial no derivative works
  29. 32. share alike: remix-ready, derivatives licensed on same terms
  30. 33. General Characteristics <ul><li>Right to access or use </li></ul><ul><li>Right to make copies </li></ul><ul><li>Right to make modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Right to distribute </li></ul><ul><li>Right to create derivative works </li></ul>
  31. 34. Digital technologies enable a &quot;Tinkering culture&quot; -- a &quot;read write rip burn culture&quot;
  32. 35. Sources <ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use & The Evolution of Creative Commons: http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/copyright-the-evolution-of-creative-commonshttp:/www.slideshare.net/cliotech/copyright-the-evolution-of-creative-commons </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and Options for Creative Practitioners: http://www.slideshare.net/creativecommonsaustralia/creative-copyright-copyright-and-options-for-creative-practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>A Fair(y) Use Tale: http://youtube.com/watch?v=CJn_jC4FNDo </li></ul><ul><li>Image: Consume. Be silent. Die. (unknown) </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Image (1): http://joevans.pbwiki.com/Web+2+Point+O+Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Image (2): http://www.robmillard.com/archives/tools-for-strategists-web-20-confusion-hindering-firms.html </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Kathy E. Gill </li></ul><ul><li>http://wiredpen.com and http://faculty.washington.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Some Rights Reserved: </li></ul>