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Notes 9 22

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Psych Research Methods

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Notes 9 22

  1. 1. The Hawthorne Effect • Referred to as the observer effect • Individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed
  2. 2. Hawthorne Effect • But even the control group may experience changes. • Just the fact that you know you are in an experiment can cause change. Whether the lights were brighter or dimmer, production went up in the Hawthorne electric plant.
  3. 3. Experimenter Bias • Another confounding variable. • Not a conscious act. • Double-Blind Procedure.
  4. 4. Other Confounding Variables • Placebo effect • Order Effects
  5. 5. Correlational Method • Correlation expresses a relationship between two variable. • Does not show causation. As more ice cream is eaten, more people are murdered. Does ice cream cause murder, or murder cause people to eat ice cream?
  6. 6. Types of Correlation Positive Correlation • The variables go in the SAME direction. Negative Correlation • The variables go in opposite directions. Studying and grades hopefully has a positive correlation. Heroin use and grades probably has a negative correlation.
  7. 7. Survey Method •Most common type of study in psychology •Measures correlation •Cheap and fast •Need a good random sample •Low-response rate
  8. 8. Naturalistic Observation • Watch subjects in their natural environment. • Do not manipulate the environment. • The good is that there is Hawthorne effect. • The bad is that we can never really show cause and effect.
  9. 9. Case Studies • A detailed picture of one or a few subjects. • Tells us a great story…but is just descriptive research. • Does not even give us correlation data. The ideal case study is John and Kate. Really interesting, but what does it tell us about families in general?