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Ap psychology nature_vs_nurture

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Ap psychology nature_vs_nurture

  1. 1. Nature v. Nurture Genetic Influences on Behavior
  2. 2. The Nature Argument (is sometimes compelling) This guy will never be…. This guy!!! Why does Brad Pitt look the way he does?
  3. 3. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
  4. 4. Genes: Their Location and Composition In the nucleus of every cell we have 46 chromosomes……
  5. 5. Chromosome Breakdown Chromosomes DNA Genes Nucleotides
  6. 6. Evolutionary psychology The science that seeks to explain why humans act the way they do Focused on how evolution has shaped the mind and behavior. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJdc9zGYVjU
  7. 7. Evolutionary Psychology: Explaining Universal Behaviors Evolutionary psychology seeks to reconstruct problems that our ancestors faced in their primitive environments, and the problem-solving mechanisms they created to meet those particular challenges. From these reconstructed problem-solving adaptations, the science then attempts to establish the common roots of our ancestral behavior, and how those common behavioral roots are manifested today in the widely scattered cultures of the planet. The goal is to understand human behavior that is universally aimed at the passing of one's genes into the next generation.
  8. 8. Natural Selection at Work •1959 Russian Fox story •40 Males, 100 Females- mated-then kept only tamest of bunch. •Mated the tames. •40 years later--new breed of fox •As a result of selective breeding, the new foxes became tamer and more dog-like.
  9. 9. Evolutionary Psychology at Work •If we wanted to create a whole population of brainy teachers, we could take some brainy teachers & have them mate •Then have the brainiest offspring mate amongst each other, and for countless generations keep doing the same thing. •After 200 years, what would the population be like or what are the chances that the 40th generation of offspring be brainy.
  10. 10. Look at our Behaviors… Can you answer these questions using evolutionary psychology? • Why do infants fear strangers when they become mobile? • Why are most parents devoted to their children? • Why do we divide people into categories? • Why do we have more phobias about spiders and snakes than electricity and nuclear weapons? Now, the big one?
  11. 11. How and why do men and women differ sexually?
  12. 12. Of course, there are other differences….
  13. 13. Sexuality and the Evolutionary Psychologist • Casual sex is more accepted by men. • When average men and women randomly ask strangers for sex tonight, 75% of men agreed, almost no women agreed. WHY?
  14. 14. Sperm is Cheap Eggs are not
  15. 15. What do men and women want? (According to Evolutionary Psychology) Men want: •Healthy •Young •Waist 1/3 narrower than hips. Women want: •Wealth •Power •Security
  16. 16. Can this change? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UB7ClUNL3Ak
  17. 17. Behavior Genetics The study of the power and limitations of genes on who we are.
  18. 18. Twin Studies
  19. 19. What are the different types of twins?
  20. 20. Twin Studies: The results • To summarize the countless amount of studies: twins (especially identical), whether or not they are raised in the same environment are very much alike in many ways.
  21. 21. Temperament Studies • A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. • They remain relatively stable over time.
  22. 22. Heritability • The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. • It is a mathematical formula.
  23. 23. Nature v. Nurture What do you think so far? Does Nature and Nurture interact and grow off of each other? Lets find out soon by examining Nurture in detail….
  24. 24. Nurture Environmental Influences on Behavior
  25. 25. Types of Environmental Influences Parents Prenatal Experience Peer Influence Culture Gender
  26. 26. How Much Credit ( or Blame ) Do Parents Deserve? Are children clay to be molded by their parents? •You and your siblings grow up in the same environment, are you all the same? •Parents effect your belief systems and values much more than your personality. •Parents take too much credit for success and too much blame for failures. •Extreme environmentalism can be VERY dangerous, why?
  27. 27. Lets look at perhaps our first environmental influence…. Prenatal Environment
  28. 28. Two Placental Arrangements in Identical Twins
  29. 29. Brain cells is an impoverished environment.
  30. 30. Brain cells in an enriched environment.
  31. 31. What does this mean for humans? • If children from impoverished environments given stimulating infant care, they score better on intelligence tests by age 12 than counterparts. Use it or lose it
  32. 32. A Trained Brain A well-learned finger-tapping task activates more motor cortex neurons (right) than were active in the same brain before training (left)
  33. 33. Peer Influence •“Selection effect” we seek out people with similar interests- that may explain why we seem to conform to our peers.
  34. 34. Culture • Behaviors, attitudes, traditions etc… of a large group that have been passed down from one generation to the next.
  35. 35. Cultural Variations • To understand how cultures effect who we are it is important to recognize our cultural norms: an understood rule for acceptable behavior. • Individual v. Collectivistic Cultures •Why is it so hard to identify our own cultural norms?
  36. 36. Variations over Time • Different generations of the same culture may also have differing norms.
  37. 37. Memes • Self-replicating ideas, fashions or innovations passed from person to person.
  38. 38. Gender • We already know the nature differences. • XX v XY • But that focuses on SEX: • We are going to discuss GENDER: What is the difference?
  39. 39. Gender Roles • A set of expected behaviors for males and females • List some of your gender roles. What gender role is she breaking?
  40. 40. Changing Attitudes about Gender Roles
  41. 41. Gender Identity • Our own sense of male or female. • Personalized to us • We realize our gender identity through gender-typing: acquiring our gender identity.
  42. 42. Two Theories of Gender-typing
  43. 43. Social Learning Theory Lets use Sammy as an example.
  44. 44. Social Learning Theory Sammy’s dad plays Baseball. Sammy imitates his behavior. Dad rewards Sammy. Sammy’s Mom puts on makeup. Sammy copies her. Dad punishes Sammy.
  45. 45. Gender Schema Theory • Schema: a concept or framework of how we organize information. • Develop schemas for gender. • See the world through the lens of your gender schemas. Boy’s don’t do this, that’s for girls. Yeah, that’s cool!!!! I want to do that.
  46. 46. • Which concept (nature or nurture) do you agree with and why?

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