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  1. Evolution Submitted By: Zainab Batool Bs 7th E01 F21 SESSION 2021-2023 Submitted To: Prof. Dr. M Akbar Khan Principles Of Paleontology Institute Of Zoology University Of Punjab
  2. Content Evolution Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Natural Selection Artificial Selection Evidence of Evolution Misconceptions
  3. What is Evolution • It means that all living things on Earth are descended from a common ancestor. • The great diversity of organisms is the result of more than 3.5 billion years of evolution that has filled every available niche with life forms. • The millions of different species of plants, animals, and micro-organisms that live on Earth today are related by descent from common ancestors.
  4. BILL NYE Evolution is the fundamental idea in all of life science–in all of Biology
  5. Lamarck's Theory Organisms constantly strive to improve themselves by changing. Changes are adaptations to environment acquired in an organism's lifetime. A structure is modified or changed by use or disuse. The modification is inherited to the offspring. Inheritance of acquired characteristics.
  6. Lamarck’s View The Development of long necks in giraffes is an example of Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution. “Giraffes got their long necks by striving to reach the leaves on the tops of trees, so their babies were born with long necks”
  7. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) He was an English Naturalist. He travelled around the world on his ship, the Beagle. Studied species and fossils in the Galapagos Islands and around the world. Why did some species survive while others became extinct? Natural selection Published The Origin of Species in1859
  8. Darwin’s Theory Darwin's theory of evolution has four main parts: Organisms have changed over time, and the ones living today are different from those that lived in the past.  Change is gradual and slow, taking place over a long time. This was supported by the fossil record.  All organisms come from common ancestors by a process of branching. The mechanism of evolutionary change is natural selection.
  9. On The Galapagos Islands  He studied different species of finches and the slight variations in their beaks- He noticed that the shapes of tortoise shells also varied slightly from island to island. He found fossils of animals that had recently become extinct. He kept a journal and collected fossils and specimens for further study.
  10. Darwin’s Finches These are some of the finches that Darwin studied on his voyage. Though they are all finches, their beaks distinguish them from one another Some finches developed short, strong beaks that made it possible for them to crack nuts.  Some developed long, fine beaks to reach insect larvae in tiny holes  This is an example of how these finches adapted to their environment to survive (natural selection)
  11. Natural Selection