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The amber palace

Details of Amber Palace, Jaipur
A Detail Study Report

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The amber palace

  1. 1. THE AMBER PALACE (JAIPUR) Supervised BY Ms. ANKITA DEVNATH Submitted To IITTM, NOIDA 2013-14 Submitted By : VIRENDRA SINGH Roll No. : 881050364 Batch RLGTP (NR) A, 38, Jagdamba Nagar,Jhotwara, Jaipur, (Raj.)- 302012 (M) 9782097303 Email Id : virendrarathore303@gmail.com
  2. 2. PROJECT SUMMARY Once the capital city of the Kachwahas- one of the legendry Rajput clans that rose to power during the Middle Ages in what is now the northern Indian state of Rajasthan- Amber Fort was first occupied as their fortified citadel in the eleventh century. Over the next seven centuries the cities was embellished with a series of impressive monuments. The Kachwaha palaces complexes built in the 1560's occupy the summit of the citadel, while the several stone temples and havelis- or mansions-are located on the slope below. In the seventeenth centaury, a Mughal influenced diwan-i-aam (public audience hall) was constructed, as well as the new royal residence and several gardens. The Kachawahas remained in Amber Towns until the eighteenth centuary, when the capital shifted to the new city to Jaipur. Amber fort is located in the Amber (Jaipur), which used to be the capital of the Kachawa clan,till Jaipur was made the official capital in 1727. The Amber Fort looks stunning, all-built in white marble and red sandstone. To add to its charm, Maotha Lake makes its foreground. The crystal mirror image of the fort, on the still water of the lake, seems to be a beautiful illusion. Amber Fort is usually pronounced as Amer Fort. In 1592, construction of the Fort was started by Raja Man Singh I. However, the Amber Fort took its present form during the reign of Raja Jai Singh I. The outer appearance of the Fort, being rough and craggy is totally different from its core. The interior of the Fort provides a soothing and warm ambience, which is least expected from its outer appearance. The marvelous decoration of the Amer Fort is influenced by both, the Hindu and Muslim manner of ornamentation. Exquisite paintings of hunting scenes on the walls depict the temperament of the Rajputs, who were adventurous, revolutionary and self-indulgent. The intricate carvings on the walls and ceilings simply astonish the visitors. The minute mirror work adds to the grand appearance and royalty of the halls. The Amer Fort undoubtedly captivates the tourists with its artistic quality of delicate work. The mighty walls guarantee the protection of the Fort against the invasion of the enemies. The Fort is divided into four subparts. Kali Temple, which is also known as Shila Devi Temple, forms the part of the Fort. It is renowned for its glorious past, huge silver lions and silver doors. The Hall of Public Audiences,
  3. 3. Diwan-i-Aam is a pavilion with double row of columns. Ganesh Pol, another feature of the Fort, directs the way to the inhabited apartments of the King. The Hall of Victory, Jai Mandir has a stunning ceiling comprised of mirror work and an inlaid panel. The Fort has numerous other halls and pavilions with their own specific attraction., The best part of this tourist attraction situated on a crafty hill, is the royal elephant ride. The flawless beauty of the Fort can be enjoyed royally with an elephant ride. Amber Fort is the part of Jaipur and its royalty. A trip to Jaipur would be definitely incomplete, without the visit to this imperial Fort of Amber.
  4. 4. Table of Contents Project Summary Chapter - 1 : Introduction Chapter -2 : Product Concept and Logistics  History  Jaipur Culture o Arts & Crafts o Performing Arts o Fair & Festivals o People & Language  Transportation  Activities at Amber Palace Chapter - 3 :Interpretation Plan  Jaleb Chowk  Chand pol (Moon Gate)  Suraj Pol (Sun Gate)  Singh Pol (Lion Gate)  Diwan-I-Aam (Public Audience Hall)  Kachheris (Tosha Khana)  Ganesh Pol  Hammam (Turkish Bath)  Suhag-Mandir  Bhojanshala (Dining Hall)  Diwan-I-Khas  Sukh Mandir  Char-Bagh Gardens  Sheesh Mahal of Diwan-I- Khas  Palace of Raja Man Singh
  5. 5.  Tanka (Water Storage Tank)  Latrines  Tripolia (Three Gates) Gateway  Ancient Tunnel  Zenani Deorhi (Ladies Apartments)  Water Lifting System  Maota Lake  Keshar Kyari (Saffron Flowerbeds)  Dilarambagh (The Heart Soothing Garden)  Persian Inscription Chapter -4 : Conclusion & Suggestion  Travel Info  Best time to Visit  Where to stay  Jaipur Weather  Jaipur Health & Safety  Jaipur Hospitals  Cuisine of Jaipur  What & Where To Eat in Jaipur  Entertainment Options  Shopping  Frequently Asked Question Bibliography
  6. 6. Chapter -1 : Introduction Amber was, for nearly 1000 years, the capital of the princely state of Kachchawa Rajputs. The name comes from Amba-Mata, the goddess worshipped by the Meena tribe, the original ruler of Amber. The history of Amber is also the history of the Kachchawa rulers who captured this area from the Meenas and made it their capital in mid 12th century. The Kachchawa, devoted Hindus, saw benefits in aligning themselves with the powerful Mughal Empire and went to great length to cement the relationship. They fought wars for them and gave their daughters in marriage to the Mughals. They were rewarded for their services and gained power, influence and great wealth. As such, gained power made it possible for them to build elaborate palaces and formidable forts. The fortress palace of Amber was financed from the war booty. The original fort dates back to the 11th century but its main portions were built in 1599 A.D. by Maharaja Man Singh, the famous and brave Rajput commander of Akbar's Army. Later rulers made further additions and the Palace completed, has some very interesting apartments, likes of which are not to be found anywhere else. Step to the right lead to the Shila-Devi Temple. An imposing stairway leads from the courtyard, on the lower terrace with its huge arched gateway to the Diwan-I-Aam (hall of public Audience) built by Mirza- Raja-Jai-Singh. A double row of pillars support a vast roof. These are latticed
  7. 7. galleries above the pillars, mounted by finely carved elephant brackets. The Maharaja gave audience and received his subject here. The Impressive Ganeshpol leads to the inner court on a higher terrace. This fine gateway is decorated with mosaics and fresco painting. The Maharaja's apartments here are grouped around an ornamental garden. The Jai Mandir (Hall of victory), the Sheesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors) and Jas-Mandir all have in laid mosaic panel and glittering mirror work on the ceiling.The other apartments are the Suhag-Mandir and Sukh-Niwas which are creation of rare beauty. A channel passing right through the apartments was once filled with cool water providing ingenious air- cooling system. The fort stands as a Supreme example of Rajput (Hindu) architecture and the main feature of the old township which nestles at foothills. Amber was later abandoned when the city of Jaipur was built in 18th Century. The Main Parts of Amber Palace  Jaleb Chowk  Chand pol (Moon Gate)  Suraj Pol (Sun Gate)  Singh Pol (Lion Gate)  Diwan-I-Aam (Public Audience Hall)  Kachheris (Tosha Khana)  Ganesh Pol  Hammam (Turkish Bath)  Suhag-Mandir  Bhojanshala (Dining Hall)  Diwan-I-Khas  Sukh Mandir  Char-Bagh Gardens  Sheesh Mahal of Diwan-I- Khas  Palace of Raja Man Singh  Tanka (Water Storage Tank)
  8. 8.  Latrines  Tripolia (Three Gates) Gateway  Ancient Tunnel  Zenani Deorhi (Ladies Apartments)  Water Lifting System  Maota Lake  Keshar Kyari (Saffron Flowerbeds)  Dilarambagh (The Heart Soothing Garden)  Persian Inscription
  9. 9. Chapter -2 : Project Concept and Logistics History Amer was known in the medieval period as Dhundar (meaning attributed to a sacrificial mount in the western frontiers) and ruled by the Kachwahas from the 11th century onwards – between 1037 and 1727 AD, till the capital was moved from Amer to Jaipur. The history of Amer is indelibly linked to these rulers as they founded their empire at Amer. Earlier to the Kachwahas, Amer was a small place built by [Meenas] in the town they consecrated to Amba, the Mother Goddess, whom they knew as `Gatta Rani' or `Queen of the Pass' The Amer Fort, as it stands now, was built over the remnants of this earlier structure during the reign of Raja Man Singh, the Kacchwaha King of Amber. The structure was fully expanded by his descendant, Jai Singh I. Even later, Amer Fort underwent improvements and additions by successive rulers over the next 150 years, until the Kachwahas shifted their capital to Jaipur during the time of Sawai Jai Singh II, in 1727. Many of the ancient structures of the medieval period of the Meenas have been either destroyed or replaced. However, the 16th century impressive edifice of the Amer Fort and the palace complex within it built by the Rajput Maharajas are very well preserved. The Rajputs of Amber Rajputs are believed to have a long genealogy; some of the warrior clans are of the Sun dynasty, others of the Moon. The Kachhwahas are suryavanshi (of the Sun dynasty), tracing their descent from Kush son of Lord Rama. They came into prominence in the tenth century as the rulers of Gwalior in central India, but in 986, Ishwar Das, the king of Gwalior, abdicated to lead a life of renunciation in the Himalayas. His sons moved to the west (present-day Rajasthan), after being forced to flee from Gwalior by their uncle. One of them, Sodh Rai, defeated the Meenas, the tribal chiefs of Dausa (near modern Jaipur) and set up a principality there. In 1037, his son and grandson, Dhola Rai and Kakil Dev, occupied the Meena stronghold at Amber and made it the capital of the Kachhwahas. The clan ruled for centuries, gaining in strength in the 16th century when they formed alliances with the Mughal emperors.
  10. 10. Jaipur Culture Art and Crafts The Mughal and Rajput rulers used to invite skilled artists and craftsmen from India and abroad to display and share their abilities with the people of Jaipur. Many of them settled here leading to development of Jaipur as the haven of rich art and culture. Some of the artful talents of artisans include: Bandhani; Block printing; Stone carving and Sculpture; Tarkashi; Zari, Gota, Kinari and Zardozi; Silver Jewellery; Gems, Kundan, Meenakari and Jewellery; Miniature paintings; Blue Pottery; Ivory carving; Shellac work; Leather ware, etc. Performing Arts This land of Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak is widely popular and apparently an example of rich cultural heritage of Jaipur as far as performing arts is concerned. Tamasha is another such example. Fairs And Festivals This city witnesses various fairs and festivals at different time of the year. Some of the festivals are Gangaur festival, Jaipur Literature festival, Kite festival, Teej festival, Shitla Mata Fair, Chaksu Fair, Elephant Fair, Chhat ka Mela in Amber during Navratri. The colourful city becomes even more lively and lovely. People and Languages The people of Jaipur are friendly and warm. The colourful outfits and ethnic jewellery they sport are the part of our culture exhibited in a beautiful way. They love to perform folk dances to the tunes of Rajasthani folk songs. The main language of Jaipur is Rajasthani. However, Marwari, Hindi and English are also spoken in the city. The culture of Jaipur facilitates us with a holistic view of not only Rajasthan but also with the culture of India.
  11. 11. Transportation Air : Indian Airlines connect Jaipur with Delhi, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Aurangabad, Bombay, Varanasi, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Rail: Jaipur is connected by rail with Delhi, Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Abu Road (Mount Abu), Udaipur, Bombay and Sawai Madhopur. Road: Good motorable roads connect Jaipur with Delhi 258 km, Agra 236 km, Bikaner 321 km, Udaipur 405 km, Ajmer 131 km, Jodhpur 316 km, Bharatpur 176 km, Jaisalmer 638 km and Mumbai 1202 km Bus : Regular buses ply from Jaipur to the above places and Alwar, Kota, Sariska, Mathura, Indore, Chittorgarh and Barmer. Activities at The Amber Palace
  12. 12. present there are three activities are going on at amber palace to attract the tourists which is as follows: 1. Elephant ride 2. Light and sound show 3. Hot Air Balloon Ride 1. Elephant Ride :- Every morning at amber with the sunrise we can easily find the large number of tourist on elephant stand at amber where the tourist get on the elephants for a ride of this magnificent palace. Here the elephant rides are going on in two shifts morning and evening shifts. 2. Light and sound show- in the evening tourist come to the amber palace for light and sound show where the presentation on the amber palace is given by the lights and sounds. 3. Hot air balloon ride: – Sky waltz is the company who organize the ride at the amber palace. The company is also reco-gnized for its security and safety. 4. Problems for the tourist at amber :- The main problem at the amber for the tourist is the hawkers who irritate the tourists unnecessary and the other problem is about the pick pockets. 5. Danger for the Amber Palace:- The major danger for amber palace is the increasing number of cracks in several parts of amber palace. The professional team of rurki tolk that the reason of these cracks is due to the movement in the earth's crust and effects of earthquake which came in different region near by amber Rajasthan. The team also told the foundation of this palace has become hollow.
  13. 13. Chapter - 3 : Interpretation Plan  Jaleb Chowk Derived from the Arabic in which it means a gathering place for soldiers a parade square. Jaleb Chowk is one of the four courtyards in the Amber Palace and was constructed on the orders of Sawai Jai Singh (1699-1743 A.D.). The Raja's personal body-gaurd paraded in Jaleb Chowk under the command of the Fauj Bakshi or Army commander. It was here that the contingent was also inspected and reviewed by the Raja. The ground floor of the buildings at the sides of the Chowk housed stables and the upper floor the contingent of perosnal guards or Jalebdars.  Chand Pol (Moon Gate) Chand Pol or the Moon Gate was the main gate of entry for the commoners. The upper story of the Gate is called the "Naubatkhana". It housed the kettle drums and other musical instruments. "Naubat" was a type of music which had its own specific protocol that had to be strictly followed when it was played with. The listeners expected to remain silent. It is believed that the tradition of playing the naubat dates back to the time of Alexander the Great.
  14. 14.  Suraj Pol (Sun Gate) Suraj Pol or the Sun Gate was the gate of exclusive or restricted entry into Amber Palace proper. It was called so because it directly faced the east direction from which the sun rises. Royal cavalcades and dignitaries entered the palace through this gate. The Palace guard's duty posts were also located inthe gate.  Singh Pol (Lion Gate) Singh Pol is the gateway to the palace proper. The lion symobilizes strength. Hence, often the premier gate to a palace was called by this name. It was built onthe orders of Sawai Jai Singh (1699-1743 A.D.) Singh Pol has frescoes on its outer surface. The passageway through it does not lead in a straight line into the palace, for reasons of security; perhaps the defenders on top of this structure would find it easier to attack the rear of an intruding force. Sentinels were posted on guard duty over the gate.
  15. 15.  Diwan-I-Aam (Public Audience Hall) Patterned after similar halls in mughal palaces, the Diwan-i-Aam was the court where the Raja gave audience to this subject and met his officials. Festivities on certain special occasions, like the celebrations following a victory in battle, Dussehra and the birthday of the Raja, were held here. The building was constructed onthe orders of Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1589-1614) in red sand stone and marble masonry. This building was beautifully ornamented incarved patters on elephant head and vines, the details are a charming confluent of the decorative features found in the Mughal and Rajput style of architecture. Chandni is one of the features located on the roof of this building where Mehfils (stage for dancing or singing activities) was conducted by Royal Artists or frem groups of other states for the pleasure of Maharaja. Maharaja used to visit functions held onthe roof of Diwan-i-Aam. Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II (1835-80 A.D.) converted the rear portion of the hall into a billard room.  Kachheris (Tosha Khana) South to the Diwan-i-Aam are "27 offices (Tosha Khana) running in a series these colonnaded arches housed the Government secretariat from where the administration of Amber state was carried out.
  16. 16.  Ganesh Pol Ganesh Pol or the Ganesh Gate, provides access to the inner and private parts of the palace covered with frescoes, it was constructed onthe orders of Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1621-67A.D.). Lord Ganesh is the deity who, it is believed removes obstructions likely to come in the way of human beings in their every-day life. His likeness is, therefore, traditionally painted or placed over the main entry into a building. Suhag Mandir is situated over the Ganesh Pol. It was as a chamber by the roayl ladies to witness, through lattice screens, the state functions held below in the Diwan-i- Aam.  Hammam (Turkish Bath) The Arabic word hammam means a bath. Most places had them. Adjacent to the Diwan-i-Khas and on its northern side this hammam was used by the ruler and the royal family. Water hot and cold was separately stored here in tubs. Dress changing and Massage rooms alongwith adjoining toilets can also be seen here. A hearth in the outer portion of the hammam was used to warm water. The hammam can be approcached directly from the Sheesh Mahal also.
  17. 17.  Suhag- Mandir The upper portion of the Ganesh Pol is known as Suhag- Mandir. It consists of a rectangular chamber roofed by a flat oblong dome and flanked by an octagonal room with an octagonal dome on either side. This portion was used by royal ladies as a sitting chamber from where they could witness the state functions held inthe Diwan-i-Aam through the marble jali screens.  Bhojanshala(Dining Hall) The ruler and his family members and their guests dined in the Bhojanshala. It was considered propitious to pay attention and to attend the family deities and it was very important for them and also recall in mind places of pilgrimage before consuming ameal. Sawai Jai Singh (1699-1743 A.D.), therefore, thought it fit to depict them onthe Bhojanashala's walls. The wall painting showing, five specimens of 17th -18th century art include, among others, images of Lord Vishnu.
  18. 18. Diwan-I-Khas One of the attractions of the Amber Palace is the Diwan-i-Khas or the Hall of Private Audience, constructed during the period of Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1621-67 A.D.) it was for this reason also called Jai Mandir and because of the beautiful mirror glass work therein, it was called Sheesh Mahal or the Glass Palace. The Raja met his special guests, like envoys from other rulers here. The upper part of the Diwan-i-Khas is known as Jas Mandir and is spell-binding in the intricate floral designs with glass in them. The hamam or baths are located north of Jas Mandir. The Palace was kept cool inthe summer bycovering its arched openings with screens woven with the roots of the aromatic grass called Khas. Screens were moistened periodically with water. Air passing through screens was, into the palace-chambers. In front of the Sheesh Mahal, is a patterned little garden inthe classic Mughal pattern called Char-bagh or Four Gardens. Facing the Sheesh Mahal is Sukh-Mandir, the Raja's private apartments where he retired to rest.  Sukh Mandir The Royal families were living during the mid-day of summer season in Sukh-Mandir. This consists of a large oblong chamber with two side rooms and a verandah in front overlooking the garden, the walls of the chamber are beautifully embossed in plaster in Mughal pattern. The back wall of the main chamber has a beautiful marble cascade formed by a perforate the marble screen which is connected with a stripped channel. the cascade was once provided with running water from the tank build on the roof of the building and with the breeze passing through the perforations served as a cooling deice during summer. Rooms are having two sandal wood doors adorned with lvory inlay work.
  19. 19.  Char-Bagh Gardens In front of the Sheesh Mahal, is a patterned little garden in the classic Mughal pattern called Char-bagh or Four Gardens along with fountain having a star shaped central pool, flower-beds inclassical geometrical design & water-courses, all these features make it ambience pleasureful.  Sheesh Mahal Of Diwan-I-Khas Sheesh Mahal or the "palace of mirrors" (also called Jai mandir) is a beautiful two storey building built by Mirza Raja Jai Singh 1 in the 17th century. Inside walls of the building are decked with beautiful mirrors and glasses. These mirrors have been so set that the reflection of one mirror falls onanother and resultantly one lit candle gives an experience of thousand ignited lamps. Earlier when tourists were allowed access to the interior of the building, they could see/imagine/experience "thousand stars" in light of one candle. In the dark, one could imagine himself amidst a thousand stars. Corridors of the building are decorated with arched pillars of white marble.Lower portions of the walls have intricate carvings. Both floors of the building have rooms at the coroners. There is a small hall between these rooms. On the first floor, there is a bigger hall beyond the smaller hall. There are arched corridors of white marble on three sides of the bigger hall.  Sheesh Mahal (Jas Mandir) Sheesh Mahal was built by Mirja Raja Jai Singh I. The building is embellished with fine convex mirror work in Mugal pattern and having air cooling device for summer. Highly skilled marble jali screens are fixed in windows from where one can have the view of hills, valley and the lake.
  20. 20.  Palace of Raj Man Singh Completed in 1599 A.D. during Raja Man Singh's (1589-1614 A.D.) regin over Amber, the palace took 25 years to build. It originally stood by itself as the main palace. In the centre of the square inthe palace is a baradari or pavilion. The ground and upper storeys of the palace contain rooms in which and under the sunshades of which, frescoes were painted. Two rooms on the top of the palace were embellished with frescoes and coloured tiles. The Palace of Raja Man Singh four Domes, unique in style and Embellished with frescoes and coloured Persian tiles in Palace of Raja Man Singh. The Palace of Raja Man Singh has four Domes, unique in style and Embellished with frescoes and coloured Persian tiles in Palace of Raja Man Singh.  Tanka (Water Storage Tank) There are four such underground storage tanks in the palace located indifferent protions (the Man Singh Palace, the Diwan-i-Aam, the Jaleb Chowk and water lifting storage tank out side of the Man Singh Palace). Being stored underground, the water would remain potable for a period longer than usual and evaporation losses were lower. Supplied both hot and cold water.
  21. 21. Rain water was made to flow into storage tanks in palaces and fort so subsequently met daily need for its residents.  Latrines Latrines as designed and used till within our living memory are to be found in different parts of the palace. Those situated between the Sheesh mahal (Mirror Palace) and Man Singh Palace were probably used by the ruler and the royal family. They were supplied with both hot and cold water. Lit torches provided light at night. The palace has about a hundred such latrines. Basement Of Diwan-I-Aam (Aaramgah) On the mountain top is a very remarkable building called Diwan-i-Aam having under its basement either side cell, More ever there is a under ground water storage tank attached to good looking "Aaramgah". Walls of the building were made of blocks of stone, thus, the building having its own air cooling & warming system for cold and hot weathers. In addition to it, the "Ladao ki chhat" (roof) of Aaramgah made it possible to maintain normal temperature in cold and hot seasons. Walls of Aaramgah are embossed. A rose petal type and square shaped water tank made of white marble stone, is situated inthe midst of Aaramgah. It is a beauty to see and admire. Inthe centre of the square shaped water tank, a fountain used to shower water all around. All these feature of this building its Jallies. Their Jallies (screens) are being fitted inthe western side of the Aaramgah which are made of green stones. Wooden doors covered these Jallies (screens). As such, stric arrangement were made to maintain privacy. Diwan-i-khas(the living palace of royal family) have direct accress through two stair cases leading to the Aaramgah exposing architest's skill.  Tripolia (Three Gates) Gateway The Tripolia Gate mainly controls access from the west into the palace. It opens in three different directions hence, the name. A passage leads towards the north to Jeleb Chowk and to the Man Singh Palace and the Zenani Deorhi inthe south. The western passage leads out of the palace. Such gateways were usually constructed at important crossways in palaces in those days.
  22. 22.  Ancient Tunnel Tunnels are to be found quite commonly in the palaces and forts of the medieval period they were used to conceal movement or to allow of escape when during a seige the defenders were being pushed hard. Lying on the western side of the palace, the Amber palace tunnel connects it to the Jaigarh fort. It is subterraneous till a point near the Rang Mahal. Thereafter; it runs roofless, on the surface, upto Jaigarh. The tunnel is accessible from the Man Singh Palace, Zenani Deorhi (Ladies Apartments) and Diwan-i- Khas. Torches provided light in it.  Zenani Deorhi (Ladies Apartments) The queen-mothers and the Raja's consorts lived in this part of the palace, which also housed their female attendants. Royal ladies often had estates assigned to them, the management of which was also carried out from here. Some of the Ranis recorded in history were Rani Shringarde Kankawat and Rani Mahadevi Katoch of Kangra, married to Raja Man Singh and also Rani Chandrawat who was married to Mriza Raja Jain Singh. It was rani Shringarde Kankawat who had the well-known Jagat Shiromani temple build in Amber inthe memory of her son Jagat Singh. Rani Mahadevi Katoch funded the addition of Toran gate of the Jagannath temple in Puri, Orissa.  Water Lifting System the Maota Lake was the main source of water for the amber palace. Water was lifted from the lake at Kesar Kyari Garden upto its last storage point. In the palace through lift mechanism operating at different levels thus.
  23. 23. Stage :1 Water was raised from the lake along the eastern facade of the Kesar Kyari employing draught animals and a series of pulleys and leathern bags. Water dran in this manner was collected in two storage tanks built on the terrace overlooking the garden. From there, a sectioned clay pipeline, approax 125 meters in length, channeled it into another storage tank at the base of the second stage. Stage :2 This stage is composed of four separate but connected structures built in ascending order. Each such structure had its own pulley and rope arrangement using draught animals and, had its own intake-cum-storage tank at its base. Water was drawn from the lower most storage tank to the next higher one, in leathern bags slung over a pulley with a pope. Water was taken up thus from the first storage tank situated at the lowest level, up to the last one situated on the first floor of Dhurugate (Balidan Gate). Structures are each between 10 to 13 metres in height which means that, overall, this system raised water to about 45 metres. Stage : 3 The final stage of lift employed a 'Rahat' or Persian Wheel. A long wooden shaft rotating on its axis supplied power to the axle of the drum/ wheel which has a rope with a number of earthen buckets attached to it. The rotating drum moved the rope with its attached vessels elliptically down into, and then up through, the water in the storage tank. The pots filled up with water in the process and were then carried up, decanting their contents into a collection channel at the very top of the mechanism. The water was then circulated in the palace through a network of earthen pipes.
  24. 24.  Maota Lake "Maota" is a corrupted form of the word "Mahavata" – from the huge baniyan trees which grew on its edges, once upon a time. The lake collects rainwater flowing down from the nearby hills. The Dil-Aram Bagh is situated on its northern end, the Kesar Kyari (Saffron Flowerbeds) garden is in its middle. The lake was the main source of water for the palace. It was drawn up by draught animas through the water lifting system located in the south eastern portion of the palace.  Kesar Kyari (Saffron Flowerbeds) Amber has three planned gardens. Kesar Kyari or "Saffron Flowerbeds" is of them. Situated on a small rocky land in the Maota Lake, the three level garden has geometrically patterned star shaped flowerbeds. It is clearly inspired by the Persian and Mughal gardens laid in Agra and Delhi. The Flowerbeds were once filled with the rarest of flowering species of plants, thus the name Kesar Kyari. Fountains, water courses and cascades make the gardens ambience a soothing one.  The Security Posts Of Amber Palace At Hathi Stand This building, situated in the middle of the hill was used by sentinels/ soldiers of Amber to guard the palace & the rowan and to keep an eye on the movements of visitors or foes.
  25. 25. It had been built in the middle of the mountain and not on the top of it's keeping in view the security points and also not to hinder the surveillance of palace entry situated in the valley. This post also keeps an eye over Ghati gate & Varahi gate of the Amber town along with the valley path leading to the Amber palace.  Dilaram Bagh ( The Heart Soothing Garden) This Well planned garden was laid out on the northern side of the Maota Lake in the 18th centuries. The chhattries (pavilion) on both sides, rectangular pillared halls on the eastern and western along with fountains, water-courses, a central pool and flower –beds in classical geometrical design, all these features make it ambience pleasureful. The garden on it's northern side and below is called Ram Bagh. These gardens were laid out following the Charbagh pattern of Mughal gardens. Persian Inscription Meaning of Persian Inscription In the reign of the King of Kings, Refuge of Sultans, Glary of the faith and the world, Muhammad Akbar, Badshah(Emperor), may the Almighty preserve his Realm for ever, Maharaja Man Singh s/o Raja Bhagwat Das, s/o Raja Bharmal, S/o Raja Pirti (Prithvi) Raj Kachhwaha, whose kingdom on uprightness and justice (like Nousherwan), may his dignity be maintained for ever, mandated the construction of this palace in his (Raja Man singh's) domain. This heaven like palace was completed onthe day of month Zil Hijja inthe year 1008 (Hijri), Being built in a period of 25 years, having been most meticulously designed and expertly decorated. Just as the heavens should always be laden with rain, so also this stately building, the foundation of the Maharaja's (Great King) longevity & wealth, be preserved from any kind of damage. Completed in the (Hijri) year 1008 (1599 A.D.)
  26. 26. Chapter - 4 : Conclusion & Suggestions Travel Info Best Time to Visit: October to March Jaipur- one of the best planned cities of India lies in the semi-desert lands of Rajasthan. The city reflects royalty; its structure resembles that of Rajputs. This city of Rajasthan has a lot of tourist attractions which attract 'n' number of travellers from India and abroad. Jaipur has lately developed as a business centre; shopping zones have come up like Johari Bazar, Chaura Rasta, Kishanpole Bazar, also known as Char Diwari area. This is the place that has the largest housing colony of Asia, Mansarovar. Sanganer in Jaipur is famous for handmade paper and hand-block painting. The best time to visit this Pink City to bask in its heritage is between October and March when the heat of the sun is less severe and the weather comparatively cooler. It, therefore, also becomes the best season to stop over to the nearby Ranthambore and Sariska Tiger Reserves. Situated at an altitude of 431 metres above the sea level, the climate of Jaipur is of extreme type. Jaipur offers warm climate generally. The summers are from Mid-March to June and attain the maximum temperature of around 45 oC. The monsoon showers persist from July till September, but the city doesn't receive much rain. Winters in Jaipur witness a bright sun and pleasant climate each day. The temperature drops down to 5 oC at night. Early mornings and evenings are dominated by fog during winter season. Visit this wonderful place during these months and be all set to have a lovely vacation beating the heat. Winters have a strange spell on Jaipur which makes it a great place to visit. The weather then is pleasant enough to take a trip round the city of Rajputs. But in case you are the one who avoids the rush of people, drop in the city during April. Not many people see this place in the month of April as it gets a bit hot by then. During monsoons, the flights usually get delayed, landslides are common. So it's better to avoid this season too. This magnificent city with a royal touch to it invites huge crowd, as it is the city of colours, fairs and fests. Some of the prominent ones are the Elephant festival, Teej festival, Kite festival, Gangaur festival, Camel festival. One should try and visit this land during the months of October to March, as the temperature varies between 22oC and 5oC at that time. This pleasant weather
  27. 27. ensures that you witness the royal Pink City, Jaipur with complete delight, and facilitates you with a refreshing and enriching experience. Jaipur has a warm climate but October to March can be described as the best time to visit the pink city. Where to Stay Popular Hotels Near Amber Fort Trident Jaipur The Raj Palace KK Royal Hotel & Convention Centre Hotel Amer View Glitz Jaipur Tree of Life Resort & Spa, Jaipur Amer City Heritage Hotel Royal View Samode Haveli Jaipur Weather Jaipur is moderate in temperature. Summer : Max. 45 °C Min. 25.8 °C Winters : Max. 22 °C Min. 8.3 °C October to March: There are cool breezes along with moderate sunlight in the month of October making it suitable for visitors to go for sightseeing during the day. Winter season in Jaipur begins in the month of November and ends in the month of February. Evenings are generally cold in this season and sometimes the temperature at night can drop down till 4 degree Celsius (especially in January). This can
  28. 28. be an ideal time for tourists to go for shopping and other tourist activities even in the afternoon. In the month of March, an Elephant festival is held in the town which attracts a lot of visitors. Also, the weather remains pleasant throughout the day during this month. April to June: These months constitute the summer season in Jaipur. It is quite hot especially during the day time and hence, sightseeing can be difficult. The temperature can soar up till 47 degree Celsius. Gangaur festival is celebrated in the month of April and a fair is organised during this time. People travelling during this time should carry light cotton clothes to wear and drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration during daytime. July to September: These months constitute the monsoon season in Jaipur. Those who enjoy nature and rains, it is a perfect time to see the pink city in its natural hue. While there is less rainfall in the month of June, August is the rainiest month in Jaipur. This is also the off-season and hence many hotels offer great deals on regular stays. In case you are a budget traveller, you can surely visit the pink city during this time. Also a popular festival is celebrated by the locals during this month Teej which occurs during August. You would see local bazaars lighted up, sweetshops selling traditional sweets like Ghevar in different varieties accompanied by dance and music performances. Jaipur : Health and Safety Traveling in Jaipur can be risky because of the intense heat which tends to make you feel dehydrated. Sunstroke and sunburn are some of the other problems to travelers. But you can avoid these if you are cautious enough to take a regular intake of fluids, using sunscreens, wearing hats or carrying umbrellas and sunglasses. Make sure that your sunscreen should contain SPF 20 to avoid sunburns. Again, you can fall prey to diseases like malaria, encephalities, dengue. In order to avoid these, you should always cover yourself up properly and use a proper repellent. Using mosquito nets can also be a good idea. You can also be troubled by traveler's diarrhea. But you can always protect yourself by ensuring that you avoid green salads, uncooked food and contaminated water. Always try to use mineral water. Jaipur has a whole lot of hospitals, medical colleges, nursing homes and good doctors. The medicines are available at rather cheap prices. Jaipur can really be a safe place to visit if you are cautious. The local people of Jaipur are very helpful and friendly. It is always a good idea to deal with licensed travel agents rather than trusting some anonymous local guides. You can always be safe if you are careful enough about yourself and your surroundings. You should carry your belongings properly,
  29. 29. including your money and important documents like your passport and other articles. Traveling in Jaipur can be very healthy and comfortable if you are careful about everything. Jaipur, also known as the Pink City of India, is a beautiful place to be in. It has many beautiful locations and sights to offer for touring. You can always carry a local map of the city; this will help you to have a fair idea of the place beforehand. It is also advisable that you carry a handbook of useful information and keep yourself updated on ever the minutest details. Jaipur Hospitals There are a host of hospitals in Jaipur. These include Aditya Hospital, Agarwal Hospital, Ajay Hospital, B.B. Saxena Hospital, Baheti Hospital, Bambala Hospital and Research Centre, Bani Park Hospital, Bhagwan Mahavir Cancer Hospital, Durgapura Hospital, Goyal Hospital .The Aditya Hospital is situated in lakhoti, Indrapuri, Jaipur-302005. The Agarwal Hospital is in Chandpole Bazaar, Jaipur -302001. The Ajay Hospital is located in the Airport Circle, Sanganer, Jaipur – 302011 and the Baheti Hospital is in 14, Malviya Nagar Main Road, Usha Colony, Jaipur- 302016. Like all other hospitals, most of the hospitals in Jaipur have good facilities. They have both indoor and outdoor facilities for patients of all categories of patients are rich or poor or the middle classed. There are well defined medical and diagnostic outlets, gynecology departments, cardio-vascular departments, departments of urology, pediatrics and a whole lot of units as they fall under different hospitals. Cuisine of Jaipur One of the most delightful aspects of a visit to the "pink city" is the culinary delights of Rajasthan, the main cuisine of Jaipur. The capital of Rajput kings had an impressive array of mouth-watering delights. Kept closely guarded by the royal chefs. Some of them have been passed on through generations, sadly the rest have been lost. As a matter of prestige the royal cooks were encouraged to experiment and serve unusual dishes to guests. Legends tell tales of cooks trying to impress their guests by presenting at least one unforgettable item on the menu. The royal guests were served savory dishes made from stuffed camels, goats, pigs and peacocks. The food was served in gold and silver utensils, scores of utensils used each serving. Traditional Rajasthani cooking is vegetarian, devoid of even onions or garlic. The Maharajas had a penchant for hunting which caused the need to develop game cooking. The Afghan invasion infected them
  30. 30. with the art of barbecuing, which has beennoned to the extent that boneless lamb kebabs can be prepared in 11 ways. The best known cuisine of Jaipur includes two meat specialties. The laal maans is red meat cooked in a fiery and very spicy manner, while the safed maans is white meat cooked with almonds, cashew nuts and coconut. The main food here is dal-bati-churma, made of butter, cereals and sweetened bread pudding. There are varieties of bread found in Jaipur namely bati, lachhedar paratha and besan ki missi puri. If you are a spice lover, taste the various chutneys made from locally available spices like turmeric, coriander, mini and garlic. Mishri mawa and ghevar are sweets, local delicacies of Jaipur famous throughout Rajasthan. Each region has its own delicacy of sweets. Some of the specialties of different regions are ladoos of Jaisalmer, mawa kachori of Jodhpur, malpuaas of Pushkar, dil jani of Udaipur, sohan halwa of Ajmer, mawa of Alwar and rasgullas of Bikaner. Typical Rajasthan vegetarian meals are a delight to the palate and the Rajasthan recipes will remain in your tongue for a long time. What & Where to Eat in Jaipur Jaipur is one of the most remarkable cities of India. This is not only because of its vibrant culture and heritage, but also because of its diverse and mouth watering cuisine. The different kinds of food available in the numerous restaurants will surely answer your question of what/ where to eat in Jaipur. Speaking of what/where to eat in Jaipur, you will surely be spoilt for choice. Whether you are looking for authentic Indian food or want to go for the Continental variety, you are sure to get what you want over here. As far as Indian food is concerned, you can go for the chicken butter masala, mutton korma, paneer tikka, chola bhatura and others. If you want a taste of South Indian food, then you should not forget to try out the paneer dosas, idlis, uttapam, upmas and the vadas. A large number of delicious Indian snacks are also worth trying. The Dal Batti Churma, a Rajasthani speciality, is the most popular snack of the city. The samosas, kachoris or the Mirchi Badas, which consist of thick green chilies smeared with gram flour paste and deep-fried, is a hot favorite amongst the locals. Those with a sweet tooth can go for the Mawa Kachori, Ghewar and other types of sweet dish. In order to refresh yourself during the hot months, do not forget the fruit juices or the lassi. Apart from these, you can also go for the Chinese food or the Continental food. Some of the dishes that are worth trying including vegetable chow grilled chicken, sweet corn soup, different varieties of salads and others. Children can go for their favorite pizzas and burgers. All this will surely make what to eat in Jaipur a simple matter. There are a large number
  31. 31. of restaurants in Jaipur. The city is filled with a large number of multi-cuisine restaurants. However, most of them are vegetarian in nature. Some of the popular restaurants where to eat in Jaipur include Niros, Surya Mahal, Copper Chimney, Indian Coffee House, Natraj, Dasaprakash, Jaipur Darbar, Surabhi Restaurant, The Palace Cafe and others. The presence of a large number of multi-cuisine restaurants has made what or where to eat in Jaipur a simple affair. Entertainment Options Most of the star-=rated hotels arrange cultural programs including folk music and dance performances that are a brilliant way to get acquainted with the culture of the region. It's a place where dance and music forms still breathe the glory that the Maharajas are known for. Shopping Jaipur one of the most popular jewel markets of the world, is known for precious and semi- precious stones, handicraft items and other artifacts Apart from it, Jaipur is equally famous for its tie-and-dye and block printed fabrics, textiles, table linen, full length skirts, scarves, quilts, cushions and blue pottery. The colourful bazaars of Jaipur offer great opportunity to shop and enjoy the ibrant culture of the city. Main shopping markets of the city are Jauhari Bazar, Bapu Bazar, nehru Bazar, Chaura Rasta, Tripolia Bazar and M.I. Road. The main markets are along Jauhari Bazaar, Badi Chaupar and M.I. Road. Shops specializing in in precious and semiprecious stones are to be found on the along Jauhari Bazaar, but in order to seen the celebrated minakars, kunda workers, gemcutters and ornament makers at work, it is necessary to visit their workshops at Jadiyon-ka-Rasta, Gopalji-ka-Rasta, Haldiyon-ka-Rasta and the adjoining lanes. For bandhej (tie and dye), and block printed textiles, the best shops are along Jauhari Bazaar and Badi Chaupar. The larger establishments are at Sanganer where dozens of workshops produce the famous block printed textiles. The narrow Khajanewalon-ka-Rasta of Chandpole Bazaar is the main center of stone carving. Shops dealing in marble statuary are to be found here. Maniharon- ka-Rasta in the Tripolia Bazaar area specializes in lac bangles and Ramganj Bazaar, in traditional chappals and jutis (leather footwear). The Hawa Mahal area is thick with shops dealing with antiques and pseudo-antiques. Some shops opposite Hawa Mahal stock the famous Jaipur quilts weighing only a few hundred grams. Blue potteries, durries, carpets, brassware and other items of handicrafts are best displayed at the Rajasthali emporium in M.I. Road. The visitor with a
  32. 32. sweet tooth can indulge in traditional sweet-meats available in shops that can be found everywhere. The LMB Hotel is one of the most famous dealers of traditional sweets and savories. Frequently Asked Question What's the climate like and when is the best time to visit ? Very hot during summers (may to July) and cool to chilly in winters (November to February), with brief monsoonal rains during July and August. Typical of the desert, even during summers the nights are quite cool. The best time to visit is between October and April. However, of late, tourist arrivals have also increased in summers primarily because the off-season discounts are substantial. Moreover, since the hotel rooms, tourist buses & cars are air-conditioned, one feels the sun's glare only while sightseeing or shopping. Rajasthan is famous for its palace of ultimate luxury. Can I stay there like a Maharaja ? Rajasthan has the maximum number of palaces converted into Hotels where a guest can find the luxuries only a Maharaja (King) could boast of. There are a few palace hotels which are internationally renowned for their splendor and opulence like the sprawling Rambagh Palace in Jaipur, the majestic Ummaid Bhawan Palace in Jodhpur and the beautiful Lake Palace in Udaipur. The Palaces are equipped with acres of Gardens, Swimming pools, Recreation centers, Billiards, Golf courses, Polo grounds, Luxury suites, Royal courtyards, Royal welcome, Elephants, Camels. Horse and a lot of other Royal Comforts. There is even a luxury train. Palace on Wheels for the tourists! Why do the men wear turbans in Rajasthan? There are climatic and social reasons for this factor. Rajasthan remains hot during the days especially from May to September. People working out during hot day under the sun wear turbans to protect themselves from heat strokes. The people consider turban as a symbol of prestige and pride. Anything which is kept over the head holds in itself a lot of sanctity. The color size and style of a person's turban convey a lot about his social ranking.
  33. 33. The Havelis and mansions in Rajasthan have a lot of Jharokhas (balconies), Tellis and very small windows. Why ? The sun is overcast all through the year in Rajasthan. Jharokhas are made to let the people sit in there and have the cool breeze inside. intricately carved stone trellises are put to obstruct the sunrays and at the same time keep the free flow of cool air. Big windows bring a lot of heat inside, hence they are avoided. Is there anything important while visiting temple ? Do remember to remove your shoes and sandals while visiting temple, mosques and churches. Also some temples do not allow leather shoes, belts or handbags in their premises. When visiting temples, women should cover their body with sort or long sleeves tops and a long skirt or pants. Women should not wear sleeveless dresses or blouses. Also be alert for signs indicating that non- Hindus may not visit the inner sanctum of the temple and may see only its outer precincts. If there is no sign than ask to a priest. If you are visiting a temple and are offered a portion of sweet or fresh coconut or banana, its prasad or sacred food, offered to the gods. Since it's a great honor to be offered, never refuse it, rather accept it and eat it. If you don't want it, take it and give it to someone else. Bibliography Internet DK Eyewitness Travel Amar Singh (Gen.), Diary of (Manuscript) Jaipur Kanota House, Asopa J.E. (Ed.) Cultural Heritage of Jaipur. Brook. A political History of Jaipur. Champawat, Thakur Fateh Singh. A Brief History of Jeypore. Devi, Gayatri and Ramarau, Santha. A Princess Remembers. Dhama, B.L. a guide to Jaipur and Amber. Mishra, R.L. The Forts of Rajasthan. Prasad, R.N. Raja Man Singh of Amber.
  34. 34. Roy, A.K. History of Jaipur City. Singh, Harnath, Jaipur and its Environs. Tod, James. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (Vol. II). Web: www. wikipedia.org www.google. com

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