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Definition• The science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals
INTRODUCTION• One of the strong sector of Indian economy.• Around 58 % population of India depends on Agriculture.• Average growth rate of agriculture and allied sector in 2006-07 & 2007-08 has been 4% per annum.• 140.7 million hectare area is available for sown.• Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea.
HISTORY• Indian agriculture began by 9000 BC as a result of early cultivation of plants.• Double monsoon leads two harvest in a year.• The Grow More Food Campaign (1940s) and the Integrated Production Program (1950s) focused on food and cash crops supply respectively.• In 1960s Green revolution took place. Agriculture production rose. Export increased at 10% in 1990s.
Indian Agriculture- Some Facts• India ranks second worldwide in farm output• Total Geographical Area - 328 million hectares• Net Area sown - 142 million hectares• Gross Cropped Area – 190.8 million hectares• Major Crop Production » Rice 94.1 million tones » Wheat 74.8 million tones » Coarse Cereals 36.1 million tones » Pulses 219.3 million tones » Oilseeds 340.3 million tones » Food Grains 27.2 million tones
Indian Agriculture- Some Facts • Contributes to 14% of GDP • Provides food to 1Billion people • Sustains 65% of the population : helps alleviate poverty • Produces 51 major Crops • Provides Raw Material to Industries • Contributes to 1/6th of the export earnings
Indian Agriculture Scenario STRENGTHS• Indian agriculture is famous for its rich bio- diversity• Almost 60% of Indian land comprises of agricultural land• Climate is suitable for agriculture• Strong and well dispersed research and extension system
Indian Agriculture Scenario WEAKNESS• Average yield in India is just 30% to 50% of the highest average yield in the world• Agriculture in India is not technically developed• Irrigation facilities are inadequate, which results in farmers still being dependent on rainfall• Illiteracy and socio-economic backwardness results in low productivity in India• Share of agriculture in GDP has declined in past few years
Indian Agriculture Scenario OPPORTUNITIES• Expand operations to include planting and harvesting• Expanding international level markets• Partner with firm that only plants and harvests crops• Technological development in agriculture• Agro-based Industry• Agricultural education
Indian Agriculture Scenario THREATS• Unsustainable Resource Use• Unsustainable Regional Development• Change in the government policies• Production of inferior quality of crops• Repetitive cultivation of two staple crops• Low productivity
Mile Stones in Agricultural Development • Green Revolution (1968) • Ever-Green Revolution (1996) • Blue Revolution (water, fish) • White Revolution (Milk) • Yellow Revolution (flower, edible) • Bio-Technology Revolution • ICT Revolution
Green Revolution• The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known as Green Revolution• It provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains• The production of wheat has produced the best results in fueling self-sufficiency of India
NABARD NABARD is set up as an apex Development Bank with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture NABARD is entrusted with :-• Providing refinance to lending institutions in rural areas• Promoting institutional development• Evaluating, monitoring and inspecting the client banks