2. Autism spectrum disorder is a
neurodevelopmental disorder that
impairs a child's ability to communicate
and interact with others. It also includes
restricted repetitive behaviors, interests,
activities and significant impairment in
social, occupational and other areas of
functioning. ("Autism spectrum disorder -
Mayo Clinic", 2017)
3. A. Persistent deficits in social communication and
social interaction across multiple contexts, as
manifested by the following, currently or by history
(examples are illustrative, not exhaustive, see text):
1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity,
ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach
and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to
reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to
failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.
4. 2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors
used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from
poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication;
to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or
deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total
lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.
3. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and
understanding relationships, ranging, for example, from
difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social
contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in
making friends; to absence of interest in peers.
5. B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or
activities, as manifested by at least two of the following,
currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not
exhaustive; see text):
1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of
objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up
toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases).
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to
routines, or ritualized patterns or verbal nonverbal behavior
(e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with
transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to
take same route or eat food every day)..
6. 3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are
abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g, strong
attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects,
excessively circumscribed or perseverative interest).
4. Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or
unusual interests in sensory aspects of the
environment (e.g., apparent indifference to
pain/temperature, adverse response to specific
sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of
objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).
7. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period
(but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed
limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in
D. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in
social, occupational, or other important areas of current
E. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual
disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global
developmental delay. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum
disorder frequently co-occur; to make comorbid diagnoses of
autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, social
communication should be below that expected for general
developmental level. ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria", 2017)
9. A Behaviour management intervention plan is a
model used to teach students how to complete tasks
and take control or reinforce their own behaviour.
This technique aims to create self –control and
independence of a student while increasing work
performance and decreasing negative behaviour.
Some plans are designed to replace problematic
behaviour with a more suitable skill.
One such behaviour management intervention plan is
peer- assisted behavioural intervention.
10. • A teacher designed program
• Clear objectives and rules
• Teacher trains peers to give
needed social cues.
• Teacher is able to focus on
• Teacher helps other students
• Role reversal
11. In peer assisted intervention the target child is
peered with a more stable child. (Both have special
The teacher trains the students different cues and
routines to maintain self control and positive
behaviour in the class.
During activities it is now the peer’s responsibility
to ensure that they both behave appropriately in
class. With the class monitoring itself with respect
to behaviour, the teacher is now able to focus on
13. What Can I Do to Improve
the Social Interaction
skills of a student with
14. Encourage group work
Create and use social stories(comic strips)
Teach Hidden Curriculum
Social strips (scripted questions or phrases for
student who may not know how to start up a
conversation or express feelings. )
Show-and-tell (to build self-esteem)
One-on-one direct teaching or therapy.
16. The unwritten rules or motives of an organization or
situation. (Resources et al., 2017)
The hidden curriculum is described as unwritten
social contexts of schools that individuals with
learning disabilities, and other disabilities, miss out
on because it is not in plain sight. It is normally
described as the social guidelines that “everyone”
knows but no one is directly taught. It is
observational learning where one is able to pick up
what is socially acceptable based on watching facial
17. Autistic students have problems making eye
contact and struggle with many other social
behaviour we deem as normal. This is why the
hidden curriculum is so hard for them to see.
The hidden curriculum must be taught to
autistic students they must know what to look
for in different environments. They must
learn to read facial expressions.
18. Many times individuals focus on behaviour
management, language(speech) and social
interaction intervention for students with autism.
This is due to the fact that these issues are the
ones that are visible on a daily basis.
However, ASD students have challenges in
academic education too. Intervention strategies
are put in place to correct or better handle these
19. Although mathematics is an essential subject area
and is needed to function in society, not enough
emphasis is placed on interventions in
Studies have shown that there are slower growth
rates in calculation skills as compared to students
without learning disabilities. It is said that in the
early stages of the education process where
students have rote memorization of facts students
20. However, when they enter the higher
standards/grades and the content
becomes more abstract and requires
problem solving or higher level thinking,
logical thinking and mathematical
reasoning, children with ASD struggle.
21. Use concrete objects (counters, 3D
shapes, scales, weights etc. )
Use a video self-modeling technique
Use of Number line
Use schematic diagrams to solve addition
and subtraction problems
Use of Touchmath
23. Touchmath is known as the alphabet of mathematics.
It is a structured, visually based approach, and uses
the numbers themselves as manipulatives this type of
intervention is great for students with Autism.
Touchmath is structured.
Autistic students like patterns and routines and
touchmath has a set rules one must follow when
Autistic students need visual cues.
Dots are a concrete representation of each number.
24. Teachers are encouraged to use this type of
academic intervention for best results in
However, teachers must also plan ways to
wean students off of the touchpad as they
reach their academic milestones.
The aim of the touchmath is to assist but not
for students to become dependent on the tool.
26. Autistic students can learn anything an
average person can learn they just need
to be taught how to. My hope is that this
presentation would benefit its viewers in
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