Autism spectrum disorder

Autism spectrum disorder
 Autism spectrum disorder is a
neurodevelopmental disorder that
impairs a child's ability to communicate
and interact with others. It also includes
restricted repetitive behaviors, interests,
activities and significant impairment in
social, occupational and other areas of
functioning. ("Autism spectrum disorder -
Mayo Clinic", 2017)
 A. Persistent deficits in social communication and
social interaction across multiple contexts, as
manifested by the following, currently or by history
(examples are illustrative, not exhaustive, see text):
 1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity,
ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach
and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to
reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to
failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.
 2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors
used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from
poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication;
to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or
deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total
lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.
 3. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and
understanding relationships, ranging, for example, from
difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social
contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in
making friends; to absence of interest in peers.
 B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or
activities, as manifested by at least two of the following,
currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not
exhaustive; see text):
 1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of
objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up
toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases).
 2. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to
routines, or ritualized patterns or verbal nonverbal behavior
(e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with
transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to
take same route or eat food every day)..
 3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are
abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g, strong
attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects,
excessively circumscribed or perseverative interest).
 4. Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or
unusual interests in sensory aspects of the
environment (e.g., apparent indifference to
pain/temperature, adverse response to specific
sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of
objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).
 Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period
(but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed
limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in
later life).
 D. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in
social, occupational, or other important areas of current
functioning.
 E. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual
disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global
developmental delay. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum
disorder frequently co-occur; to make comorbid diagnoses of
autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, social
communication should be below that expected for general
developmental level. ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria", 2017)
Autism spectrum disorder
 A Behaviour management intervention plan is a
model used to teach students how to complete tasks
and take control or reinforce their own behaviour.
This technique aims to create self –control and
independence of a student while increasing work
performance and decreasing negative behaviour.
Some plans are designed to replace problematic
behaviour with a more suitable skill.
 One such behaviour management intervention plan is
peer- assisted behavioural intervention.
• A teacher designed program
• Clear objectives and rules
• Teacher trains peers to give
needed social cues.
• Accountability
• Teacher is able to focus on
academic tasks
• Teacher helps other students
• Role reversal
 In peer assisted intervention the target child is
peered with a more stable child. (Both have special
needs)
 The teacher trains the students different cues and
routines to maintain self control and positive
behaviour in the class.
 During activities it is now the peer’s responsibility
to ensure that they both behave appropriately in
class. With the class monitoring itself with respect
to behaviour, the teacher is now able to focus on
academic tasks.
Autism spectrum disorder
What Can I Do to Improve
the Social Interaction
skills of a student with
autism?
 Encourage group work
 Create and use social stories(comic strips)
 Teach Hidden Curriculum
 Social strips (scripted questions or phrases for
student who may not know how to start up a
conversation or express feelings. )
 Virtual dialogue
 Show-and-tell (to build self-esteem)
 One-on-one direct teaching or therapy.
Autism spectrum disorder
 The unwritten rules or motives of an organization or
situation. (Resources et al., 2017)
 The hidden curriculum is described as unwritten
social contexts of schools that individuals with
learning disabilities, and other disabilities, miss out
on because it is not in plain sight. It is normally
described as the social guidelines that “everyone”
knows but no one is directly taught. It is
observational learning where one is able to pick up
what is socially acceptable based on watching facial
expressions.
 Autistic students have problems making eye
contact and struggle with many other social
behaviour we deem as normal. This is why the
hidden curriculum is so hard for them to see.
 The hidden curriculum must be taught to
autistic students they must know what to look
for in different environments. They must
learn to read facial expressions.
 Many times individuals focus on behaviour
management, language(speech) and social
interaction intervention for students with autism.
This is due to the fact that these issues are the
ones that are visible on a daily basis.
 However, ASD students have challenges in
academic education too. Intervention strategies
are put in place to correct or better handle these
issues.
 Although mathematics is an essential subject area
and is needed to function in society, not enough
emphasis is placed on interventions in
mathematics.
 Studies have shown that there are slower growth
rates in calculation skills as compared to students
without learning disabilities. It is said that in the
early stages of the education process where
students have rote memorization of facts students
perform well.
 However, when they enter the higher
standards/grades and the content
becomes more abstract and requires
problem solving or higher level thinking,
logical thinking and mathematical
reasoning, children with ASD struggle.
 Use concrete objects (counters, 3D
shapes, scales, weights etc. )
 Use a video self-modeling technique
 Use of Number line
 Use schematic diagrams to solve addition
and subtraction problems
 Use of Touchmath
TOUCHMATH
 Touchmath is known as the alphabet of mathematics.
It is a structured, visually based approach, and uses
the numbers themselves as manipulatives this type of
intervention is great for students with Autism.
 Touchmath is structured.
 Autistic students like patterns and routines and
touchmath has a set rules one must follow when
completing problems.
 Autistic students need visual cues.
 Dots are a concrete representation of each number.
 Teachers are encouraged to use this type of
academic intervention for best results in
students.
 However, teachers must also plan ways to
wean students off of the touchpad as they
reach their academic milestones.
 The aim of the touchmath is to assist but not
for students to become dependent on the tool.
Autism spectrum disorder
 Autistic students can learn anything an
average person can learn they just need
to be taught how to. My hope is that this
presentation would benefit its viewers in
some way.
 (2017). Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
http://daddcec.org/Portals/0/CEC/Autism_Disabilities/Research/Publications/Education_Trai
ning_Development_Disabilities/2015v50/ETADD_50(2)_172-185.pdf
 Autism spectrum disorder - Mayo Clinic. (2017). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 25 April 2017,
from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-
disorder/basics/definition/con-20021148
 DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria. (2017). Autism Speaks. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/diagnosis/dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria
 Long, S. (2017). TouchMath: Why It's Great & How You Should Use It - The Autism
Helper. The Autism Helper. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
http://theautismhelper.com/touchmath/
 Resources, L., Resources, O., Resources, T., Books, A., Work, G., & I?, W. et al. (2017). The
Hidden Curriculum: What Does it Mean in Autism? - Autism Classroom Resources. Autism
Classroom Resources. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
https://www.autismclassroomresources.com/the-hidden-curriculum-what-is-it/
 Social Skills Interventions: Getting to the Core of Autism | Interactive Autism Network.
(2017). Iancommunity.org. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
https://iancommunity.org/cs/what_do_we_know/social_skills_interventions
Autism spectrum disorder
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Autism spectrum disorder

  • 2.  Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. It also includes restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, activities and significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning. ("Autism spectrum disorder - Mayo Clinic", 2017)
  • 3.  A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive, see text):  1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.
  • 4.  2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.  3. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships, ranging, for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers.
  • 5.  B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive; see text):  1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases).  2. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns or verbal nonverbal behavior (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or eat food every day)..
  • 6.  3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g, strong attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects, excessively circumscribed or perseverative interest).  4. Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g., apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).
  • 7.  Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in later life).  D. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.  E. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global developmental delay. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur; to make comorbid diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, social communication should be below that expected for general developmental level. ("DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria", 2017)
  • 9.  A Behaviour management intervention plan is a model used to teach students how to complete tasks and take control or reinforce their own behaviour. This technique aims to create self –control and independence of a student while increasing work performance and decreasing negative behaviour. Some plans are designed to replace problematic behaviour with a more suitable skill.  One such behaviour management intervention plan is peer- assisted behavioural intervention.
  • 10. • A teacher designed program • Clear objectives and rules • Teacher trains peers to give needed social cues. • Accountability • Teacher is able to focus on academic tasks • Teacher helps other students • Role reversal
  • 11.  In peer assisted intervention the target child is peered with a more stable child. (Both have special needs)  The teacher trains the students different cues and routines to maintain self control and positive behaviour in the class.  During activities it is now the peer’s responsibility to ensure that they both behave appropriately in class. With the class monitoring itself with respect to behaviour, the teacher is now able to focus on academic tasks.
  • 13. What Can I Do to Improve the Social Interaction skills of a student with autism?
  • 14.  Encourage group work  Create and use social stories(comic strips)  Teach Hidden Curriculum  Social strips (scripted questions or phrases for student who may not know how to start up a conversation or express feelings. )  Virtual dialogue  Show-and-tell (to build self-esteem)  One-on-one direct teaching or therapy.
  • 16.  The unwritten rules or motives of an organization or situation. (Resources et al., 2017)  The hidden curriculum is described as unwritten social contexts of schools that individuals with learning disabilities, and other disabilities, miss out on because it is not in plain sight. It is normally described as the social guidelines that “everyone” knows but no one is directly taught. It is observational learning where one is able to pick up what is socially acceptable based on watching facial expressions.
  • 17.  Autistic students have problems making eye contact and struggle with many other social behaviour we deem as normal. This is why the hidden curriculum is so hard for them to see.  The hidden curriculum must be taught to autistic students they must know what to look for in different environments. They must learn to read facial expressions.
  • 18.  Many times individuals focus on behaviour management, language(speech) and social interaction intervention for students with autism. This is due to the fact that these issues are the ones that are visible on a daily basis.  However, ASD students have challenges in academic education too. Intervention strategies are put in place to correct or better handle these issues.
  • 19.  Although mathematics is an essential subject area and is needed to function in society, not enough emphasis is placed on interventions in mathematics.  Studies have shown that there are slower growth rates in calculation skills as compared to students without learning disabilities. It is said that in the early stages of the education process where students have rote memorization of facts students perform well.
  • 20.  However, when they enter the higher standards/grades and the content becomes more abstract and requires problem solving or higher level thinking, logical thinking and mathematical reasoning, children with ASD struggle.
  • 21.  Use concrete objects (counters, 3D shapes, scales, weights etc. )  Use a video self-modeling technique  Use of Number line  Use schematic diagrams to solve addition and subtraction problems  Use of Touchmath
  • 23.  Touchmath is known as the alphabet of mathematics. It is a structured, visually based approach, and uses the numbers themselves as manipulatives this type of intervention is great for students with Autism.  Touchmath is structured.  Autistic students like patterns and routines and touchmath has a set rules one must follow when completing problems.  Autistic students need visual cues.  Dots are a concrete representation of each number.
  • 24.  Teachers are encouraged to use this type of academic intervention for best results in students.  However, teachers must also plan ways to wean students off of the touchpad as they reach their academic milestones.  The aim of the touchmath is to assist but not for students to become dependent on the tool.
  • 26.  Autistic students can learn anything an average person can learn they just need to be taught how to. My hope is that this presentation would benefit its viewers in some way.
  • 27.  (2017). Retrieved 25 April 2017, from http://daddcec.org/Portals/0/CEC/Autism_Disabilities/Research/Publications/Education_Trai ning_Development_Disabilities/2015v50/ETADD_50(2)_172-185.pdf  Autism spectrum disorder - Mayo Clinic. (2017). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum- disorder/basics/definition/con-20021148  DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria. (2017). Autism Speaks. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/diagnosis/dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria  Long, S. (2017). TouchMath: Why It's Great & How You Should Use It - The Autism Helper. The Autism Helper. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from http://theautismhelper.com/touchmath/  Resources, L., Resources, O., Resources, T., Books, A., Work, G., & I?, W. et al. (2017). The Hidden Curriculum: What Does it Mean in Autism? - Autism Classroom Resources. Autism Classroom Resources. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from https://www.autismclassroomresources.com/the-hidden-curriculum-what-is-it/  Social Skills Interventions: Getting to the Core of Autism | Interactive Autism Network. (2017). Iancommunity.org. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from https://iancommunity.org/cs/what_do_we_know/social_skills_interventions