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Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan
Georgia
Turkey
Iran
Russia
Armenia
Nagorno-
Karabakh
Republi...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan
Georgia
Turkey
Iran
Russia
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan
Georgia
Turkey
Iran
Russia
Note: Due to differences between ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan
Georgia
Turkey
Iran
Russia
Note: Due to differences between ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan
Georgia
Turkey
Iran
Russia
Note: Due to differences between ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin)
Treaty concluding the final w...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin)
Treaty concluding the final w...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin)
Treaty concluding the final w...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Caucasus borders in 1800
Following a period of compet...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Russian Empire
Cauc...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
1813 Treaty of Guli...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
1813 Treaty of Guli...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
1813 Treaty of Guli...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Western Caucasus
Mountain Peoples
Qajar Persia
(“Iran...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of S...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of S...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of S...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of B...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of B...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of B...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of B...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
1878 Treaty of B...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
Ethnic distribut...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
International bo...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
World War I and ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
World War I and ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
World War I and ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
World War I and ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian Empire
World War I and ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Tr...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Tr...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Tr...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Tr...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Ottoman Empire
(“Turkey”)
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russi...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Mountainous Republic o...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Georgia
Azerbaijan
192...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Georgia
Azerbaijan
1920 Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty between s...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Georgia
Azerbaijan
1920 Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty between s...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Georgia
Azerbaijan
1920 Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty between s...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Georgia
Azerbaijan
1920 Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty between s...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Georgia
Turkish nation...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Georgia
Turkish nation...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Georgia
Turkish nation...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Georgia
Turkish nation...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Georgia
Turkish nation...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Qajar Persia
(“Iran”)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russia”)
Turkish nationalist st...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russi...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Mount
Ararat
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Mount
Ararat
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Mount
Ararat
Armenian S.S.R.
(“Soviet Armenia”)
Azerbaijani S.S.R.
(“Soviet Aze...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Mount
Ararat
Armenian S.S.R.
(“Soviet Armenia”)
Azerbaijani S.S.R.
(“Soviet Aze...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russi...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russi...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Russian S.F.S.R.
(“Soviet Russi...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Iran
Turkey
Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Iran
Turkey
Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Iran
Turkey
Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Iran
Turkey
Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Iran
Turkey
Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 ...
Selected border agreements in the Caucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan
Georgia
Turkey
Iran
Russia
Modern Armenia (the third republi...
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Armenia Borders

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Presentation on the history of border changes in Armenia and the South Caucasus. See http://www.slideshare.net/jurban16/armenia-71044692 for the main presentation from which this presentation was excerpted.

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Armenia Borders

  1. 1. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia Armenia Nagorno- Karabakh Republic (de facto)
  2. 2. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia
  3. 3. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia Note: Due to differences between maps of different eras, cartographic errors in original maps, and map rectification and transcription errors in this presentation, some minor apparent changes in border delimitation do not actually correspond to real border changes. The depicted borders are not guaranteed to be exact.
  4. 4. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia Note: Due to differences between maps of different eras, cartographic errors in original maps, and map rectification and transcription errors in this presentation, some minor apparent changes in border delimitation do not actually correspond to real border changes. The depicted borders are not guaranteed to be exact. Mount Ararat
  5. 5. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia Note: Due to differences between maps of different eras, cartographic errors in original maps, and map rectification and transcription errors in this presentation, some minor apparent changes in border delimitation do not actually correspond to real border changes. The depicted borders are not guaranteed to be exact. Mount Ararat
  6. 6. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus 1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin) Treaty concluding the final war between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire of Persia Safavid Empire (“Persia” / “Iran”) Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  7. 7. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus 1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin) Treaty concluding the final war between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire of Persia Safavid Empire (“Persia” / “Iran”) Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The Treaty of Zuhab in 1639 was the last major peace treaty defining the partition of the Middle East between the Ottoman and Safavid empires. The treaty roughly affirmed the Peace of Amasya, the first Ottoman-Safavid peace treaty in 1555.
  8. 8. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus 1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin) Treaty concluding the final war between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire of Persia Safavid Empire (“Persia” / “Iran”) Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The modern border between Turkey and the South Caucasus / Iran largely derives from the Zuhab partition. The Zuhab-defined border was, however, poorly delimited and not demarcated, and was later contested.
  9. 9. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Caucasus borders in 1800 Following a period of competition between the Russians, Persians, and Ottomans Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Russian Empire Kingdoms and territories contested during the late 1700s Qajar Persia (“Iran”)
  10. 10. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Russian Empire Caucasus borders in 1800 Kingdoms, principalities, vassal states, imperial provinces, and ethno-toponyms Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Somkhetia Armenia Nakhichevan Azarbaijan Karabagh Talysh Shirvan Kartli-Kakhetia Pambak Ajaria Svanetia Circassia Chechnya Avaria Kabardia Ganja Quba
  11. 11. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples 1813 Treaty of Gulistan Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire
  12. 12. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples 1813 Treaty of Gulistan Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire The Treaty of Gulistan, which concluded the first large-scale Russo-Persian War, transferred most of the Persian South Caucasus to the Russian Empire.
  13. 13. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples 1813 Treaty of Gulistan Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire The Treaty of Gulistan left the delimitation of the Russo-Persian border in the Talysh region on the Caspian Sea to be determined by later agreements.
  14. 14. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1826–1828 Russo-Persian War
  15. 15. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1826–1828 Russo-Persian War The Treaty of Turkmenchay concluded Russia’s conquest of the Persian South Caucasus. The Aras (Araxes / Araks) River became the border between the Russian and Persian empires. After the treaty, the Russian, Persian, and Ottoman borders joined at Lesser Ararat.
  16. 16. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1826–1828 Russo-Persian War The treaty permitted captives taken during the war and in the previous few decades to return to their respective homes. It also allowed inhabitants of Iranian Azerbaijan (south of the Aras River) to immigrate freely to Russian territories within one year. These provisions started a wave of Armenian immigration from Persia to the newly Russian-held South Caucasus.
  17. 17. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1829 Treaty of Adrianople Treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War
  18. 18. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1829 Treaty of Adrianople Treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War The Treaty of Adrianople formalized the Russian- Ottoman frontier. The Ottomans recognized Russian sovereignty over Georgia and eastern Armenia. The Ottomans also recognized the Russo-Persian frontier as determined by the Treaty of Turkmenchay.
  19. 19. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1829 Treaty of Adrianople Treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War The treaty permitted inhabitants of both sides to emigrate freely within eighteen months. Significant Armenian emigration from the Ottoman and Persian empires to the Russian South Caucasus occurred after the treaties of Turkmenchay and Adrianople.
  20. 20. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1829 Treaty of Adrianople Treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War Note: In the previous few decades, a number of Armenians had immigrated to Georgia. In the early 17th century, many Armenians were forcibly resettled from eastern (Persian) Armenia to the Iranian interior. Thus, the unfavorable demographic trends for Armenians in eastern Armenia were reversed after the Turkmenchay and Adrianople treaties.
  21. 21. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of San Stefano Preliminary treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  22. 22. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of San Stefano Preliminary treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano principally addressed the sovereignty and boundaries of states in the region of the Balkan Peninsula. In the Caucasus, Russia gained territory that had long been part of the Ottoman Empire, including historic Armenian lands with sizeable Armenian populations, most notably in Kars Eyalet. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  23. 23. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of San Stefano Preliminary treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War Note: Prior to the San Stefano treaty, the disputed Russo- Turkish frontier was further delimited according to the Protocol of Constantinople (1857) that supplemented the Treaty of Paris (1856) that concluded the Crimean War. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  24. 24. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of Berlin Treaty between the major world powers to revise the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  25. 25. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of Berlin Treaty between the major world powers to revise the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano The Treaty of Berlin was signed after the Western European powers, chiefly Britain, pushed for the curtailment of the previous expansion of the Russian sphere of influence under the San Stefano treaty. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans regained Bayazit and the Plain of Alashkert, which contained a major trade route. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  26. 26. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of Berlin Treaty between the major world powers to revise the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano The Treaty of Berlin also recognized the Qotur district as part of Persia – the result of successful lobbying by Russia, which Persia supported in its war against the Ottomans. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  27. 27. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of Berlin Treaty between the major world powers to revise the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano The Treaty of Berlin additionally required the Ottoman Empire to address the “Armenian Question” by implementing reforms in its Armenian-inhabited provinces. These reforms generally were not implemented. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  28. 28. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire 1878 Treaty of Berlin Treaty between the major world powers to revise the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano The European powers also tried to impose reforms aiding Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in 1895 and in 1912– 1914. The 1914 accord, signed by the Russians and Ottomans in Yeniköy in February, provided for the deployment of European inspectors to enforce the accord. These reforms also were not implemented. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil
  29. 29. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014)
  30. 30. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate
  31. 31. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Karabakh
  32. 32. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Highland (“Nagorno”) Karabakh Armenian-and-Azeri-populated region of Azeri-dominated Elizavetpol Governorate.
  33. 33. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Highland (“Nagorno”) Karabakh Later to become an autonomous oblast under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan.
  34. 34. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Zangezur Armenian-populated region of Azeri- dominated Elizavetpol Governorate.
  35. 35. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Zangezur Later to become part of Soviet Armenia.
  36. 36. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Kazakh (“Qazakh”)
  37. 37. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Kazakh (“Qazakh”) Armenian-and-Azeri- populated region of Azeri-dominated Elizavetpol Governorate.
  38. 38. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Kazakh (“Qazakh”) Southwestern part of Kazakh Uyezd (former Kazakh Sultanate) later to become part of Soviet Armenia.
  39. 39. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate
  40. 40. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate Nakhichevan Azeri-and-Armenian- populated region of Armenian-dominated Erivan Governorate.
  41. 41. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate Nakhichevan Later to become an autonomous republic under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan.
  42. 42. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate
  43. 43. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate Surmali Mixed-populated region of Armenian-dominated Erivan Governorate.
  44. 44. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate Surmali The northeastern slopes of Mount Ararat belonged to Russian Surmali, the southwestern slopes to Ottoman Turkey, and the southeastern slope of Lesser Ararat to Persia.
  45. 45. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Erivan Governorate Surmali Later to become part of Turkey.
  46. 46. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Kars Oblast
  47. 47. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Kars Oblast Mixed-populated region seized in the 1877–1878 Russo- Turkish War.
  48. 48. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Kars Oblast Later to become part of Turkey (mostly).
  49. 49. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Kars Oblast The Aghbaba district containing Lake Arpi, the headwaters of the Arpachay (“Akhurian”) River, later became part of Soviet Armenia.
  50. 50. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate
  51. 51. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Javakheti Armenian-populated region of Georgian- dominated Tiflis Governorate.
  52. 52. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Javakheti Later to become part of Soviet Georgia.
  53. 53. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Borchali Mixed-populated region of Georgian- dominated Tiflis Governorate.
  54. 54. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Borchali Northern part later to become part of Soviet Georgia.
  55. 55. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Lori Armenian-populated region of Georgian- dominated Tiflis Governorate.
  56. 56. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Lori Attached to Borchali Uyezd (District) in Tiflis Governorate in 1862 but previously part of Erivan Governorate.
  57. 57. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Tiflis Governorate Lori Later to become part of Soviet Armenia.
  58. 58. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire International borders in the Caucasus on the eve of World War I
  59. 59. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire World War I and the Caucasus Campaign
  60. 60. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire World War I and the Caucasus Campaign World War I began in July 1914 and fighting between the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire had broken out in the Caucasus by November 1914. The Russians quickly gained the upper hand and by 1917 occupied a substantial portion of eastern Ottoman territory, including much of “Ottoman Armenia” (i.e., the provinces with large Armenian minorities). (Russian-occupied by 1917) (Russian-occupied by 1917)
  61. 61. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire World War I and the Caucasus Campaign Russian Armenia provided several volunteer battalions to supplement the Russian forces. The Russian and Armenian forces were able to relieve the Ottoman Army’s siege of Van in July 1915 long enough for the city’s Armenian inhabitants to escape to Russian Armenia. (Russian-occupied by 1917) (Russian-occupied by 1917)
  62. 62. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire World War I and the Caucasus Campaign Russian forces arrived in the Ottoman provinces of Erzurum and Bitlis too late to prevent the massacres and deportations of Armenians there in the summer of 1915. During the war, Russian forces never occupied the prominently Armenian-populated Ottoman provinces farther west, which were also depopulated during the Armenian Genocide. (Russian-occupied by 1917) (Russian-occupied by 1917)
  63. 63. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire World War I and the Caucasus Campaign Russian military power in the Caucasus began to collapse after the February 1917 revolution in Russia. The military power vacuum was eventually filled by Armenian and Georgian forces. By early 1918, however, the Ottomans had retaken most of the territory that Russia had captured earlier in the war. (Russian-occupied by 1917) (Russian-occupied by 1917)
  64. 64. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Bolshevist Russia and the Central Powers to conclude Russia’s participation in World War I Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Transcaucasian Commissariat and Sejm Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus
  65. 65. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Bolshevist Russia and the Central Powers to conclude Russia’s participation in World War I Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Transcaucasian Commissariat and Sejm Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk marked the withdrawal of Russia, now controlled by Bolsheviks after the revolution of October 1917, from World War I. In Europe, Russia lost control over Poland, the Baltics, and Ukraine. In the Caucasus, Russia ceded its claims to the Batum, Ardahan, and Kars districts, returning the Russian border to its pre- 1878 position. The Russians and Ottomans had signed the Armistice of Erzincan in December 1917.
  66. 66. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Bolshevist Russia and the Central Powers to conclude Russia’s participation in World War I Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Transcaucasian Commissariat and Sejm Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus The Brest-Litovsk border in the Caucasus did not legally form a new Russo-Turkish frontier, as the ceded districts were allowed to organize their own independent governments. The possession of these districts later became disputed between the Turks, Georgians, and Armenians; the latter two governments did not sign the Brest-Litovsk treaty.
  67. 67. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Bolshevist Russia and the Central Powers to conclude Russia’s participation in World War I Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Transcaucasian Commissariat and Sejm Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus At the time of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia was no longer exerting central control over the Transcaucasus. This allowed the Transcaucasian peoples to form an independent governing body, the Transcaucasian Commissariat, which convoked a diet (“sejm”) with Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani representatives.
  68. 68. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1918 Treaty of Batum Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and newly-independent Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan
  69. 69. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1918 Treaty of Batum Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and newly-independent Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The Treaty of Batum followed a period of conflict within the Transcaucasus. Delegates from the Transcaucasian states entered negotiations with the Ottomans at Trebizond following the Russian- Ottoman Brest-Litovsk Treaty. At the time, the Russian Army, supplemented by Armenians and a small contingent of Georgians, still occupied parts of the eastern Ottoman Empire (i.e., historic Armenia). The Ottomans wanted the Transcaucasian states to recognize the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, but the Armenians refused, as they wished to retain the territories with sizable Armenian populations that the Russians had seized in 1878 (e.g., Kars District).
  70. 70. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1918 Treaty of Batum Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and newly-independent Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The Ottoman Army invaded the occupied eastern Ottoman provinces in the name of protecting the Muslim population from atrocities perpetrated by Armenians. The Armenians and Georgians broke off negotiations at Trebizond. During the Ottoman campaign, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan formed a Menshevik-controlled independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR). Eventually Erzurum, Batum, Kars, and Alexandropol fell to the Ottomans. During new peace negotiations between the Ottomans and the TDFR at Batum, the Armenians won a series of last-ditch battles at Bash Abaran, Karakilisa, and Sardarapat, possibly saving Armenia from being overrun by the Ottoman Third Army.
  71. 71. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1918 Treaty of Batum Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and newly-independent Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) At the end of the Batum negotiations the TDFR fell apart: the Georgians secretly allied with the Germans for protection from the Ottomans, and the Azerbaijanis would not oppose their Turkic brethren. The ensuing Treaty of Batum had harsh terms for the newly-independent Transcaucasian states, particularly the Armenians – much worse than the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Armenians’ last-ditch victories won them only a small territorial concession from the Ottomans.
  72. 72. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Georgia Azerbaijan The First Republic of Armenia Established on 28 May 1918 with de facto boundaries and disestablished on 2 December 1920 Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  73. 73. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Georgia Azerbaijan The First Republic of Armenia Established on 28 May 1918 with de facto boundaries and disestablished on 2 December 1920 Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The First Republic of Armenia was the first sizeable independent Armenian state since the fall of Armenian Cilicia in 1375, and the first within Historic Armenia since the fall of Bagratid Armenia in 1045.
  74. 74. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Georgia Azerbaijan The First Republic of Armenia Established on 28 May 1918 with de facto boundaries and disestablished on 2 December 1920 Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) In October 1918 the Allies and the Ottoman Empire signed an armistice at Port Mudros, ending the Ottoman Empire’s participation in World War I. The Armistice of Mudros called for the demobilization of the Ottoman Army and included a provision allowing Allied intervention in Ottoman Armenia in the case of disorder. In November 1918 the warring parties in Europe signed their own armistice. The signatories to the November armistice, including Germany but excluding Russia and the Ottoman Empire, renounced the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
  75. 75. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Georgia Azerbaijan The First Republic of Armenia Established on 28 May 1918 with de facto boundaries and disestablished on 2 December 1920 Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The power vacuum in the Transcaucasus, which now had been abandoned by the armies of the Russian and Ottoman empires, led to independent Armenia establishing de facto control of much of the western Transcaucasus that had been under Russian control before World War I. Bitter fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan ensued over the territories of Nakhichevan, Zangezur, and Karabakh. A smaller conflict arose between Armenia and Georgia led to the Lori region becoming a neutral zone, according to the Shulaveri Condominium.
  76. 76. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Georgia Azerbaijan The First Republic of Armenia Established on 28 May 1918 with de facto boundaries and disestablished on 2 December 1920 Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) Before the Armistice of Mudros, the British Empire sent an occupying force to Baku to deny Baku’s oil and other resources to the Ottomans and Germans, but this force was defeated by the Ottomans and Azerbaijanis. The armistice allowed the British to reoccupy Baku. The British also established a military command in Tiflis from which to stabilize and control the region and resist the Bolsheviks. The British withdrew from the Transcaucasus in August 1919 after the Bolsheviks gained the upper- hand over the British-backed White Russians.
  77. 77. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgia Azerbaijan 1920 Treaty of Sèvres Treaty between several of the European Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire following World War I Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  78. 78. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Georgia Azerbaijan 1920 Treaty of Sèvres Treaty between several of the European Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire following World War I Armenia The Treaty of Sèvres, signed in August 1920, formalized the Ottoman defeat in World War I that was initiated with the October 1918 Armistice of Mudros. Imposing this treaty was part of the process of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allied powers. Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  79. 79. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Georgia Azerbaijan 1920 Treaty of Sèvres Treaty between several of the European Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire following World War I Armenia During the San Remo session of the Paris Peace Conference, the European Allied powers approached U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to request that the United States assume a mandate over Armenia and that he draw the frontier of sovereign Armenia. In June 1920 the U.S. Senate rejected the proposed American mandate over Armenia. (France and Britain accepted the mandates for Syria and Lebanon, and Palestine and Mesopotamia, respectively.) Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  80. 80. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Georgia Azerbaijan 1920 Treaty of Sèvres Treaty between several of the European Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire following World War I Armenia Wilson’s delimitation of the Armenian frontier, included in an annex to the Treaty of Sèvres, included much of Historic Armenia plus a significant coastline along the Black Sea, including the port of Trebizond. The treaty was signed by the representatives of the Ottoman sultan, but it was not ratified by the General Assembly due to the Turkish War of Independence that had begun in 1919. Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  81. 81. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Georgia Azerbaijan 1920 Treaty of Sèvres Treaty between several of the European Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire following World War I Armenia The Treaty of Sèvres, which was never implemented, was renounced in further treaties signed by Turkey, the core successor state to the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Sèvres was eventually superseded by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, which was signed after the First Republic of Armenia had been absorbed into the USSR, and therefore included no provisions for an independent Armenia. Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”)
  82. 82. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgia Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Armenia Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) 1920 Treaty of Alexandropol (or Treaty of Gümrü) Treaty between Armenia & the new Turkish nationalist government concluding the 1920 Turkish-Armenian war Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”)
  83. 83. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgia Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Armenia Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) 1920 Treaty of Alexandropol (or Treaty of Gümrü) Treaty between Armenia & the new Turkish nationalist government concluding the 1920 Turkish-Armenian war Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) The Treaty of Alexandropol concluded the brief Turkish-Armenian war during the fall of 1920. The Turkish nationalist forces, which were in the process of overthrowing the Ottoman sultan, had decided to avoid any further partition of the Ottoman Empire, as had been attempted in the Treaty of Sèvres. They fought to secure the core of the empire from Anatolia to the Caucasus to create a fait accompli. The Turkish nationalists invaded Armenia in September 1920, captured Kars and Alexandropol, and finally defeated the Armenians in November.
  84. 84. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgia Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Armenia Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) 1920 Treaty of Alexandropol (or Treaty of Gümrü) Treaty between Armenia & the new Turkish nationalist government concluding the 1920 Turkish-Armenian war Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) The Treaty of Alexandropol roughly returned the Turkish-Armenian frontier to the Russo-Turkish frontier prior to 1878, except the Armenians lost Surmalu district (which included most of Mount Ararat) and gained the small Aghbaba district. Armenia also renounced the Treaty of Sèvres.
  85. 85. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgia Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Armenia Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) 1920 Treaty of Alexandropol (or Treaty of Gümrü) Treaty between Armenia & the new Turkish nationalist government concluding the 1920 Turkish-Armenian war Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) The Treaty of Alexandropol also created an independent state in Nakhichevan under Turkish protection, whose borders were loosely defined. The Nakhichevan district’s frontier was defined by this treaty, and by a Soviet-Turkish treaty the next year, to include a small border with the newly-Turkish Surmalu district. These agreements resulted in Turkey and Azerbaijan having a small shared border after Nakhichevan became an autonomous republic under Soviet Azerbaijan, since the small subdistrict of Sharur across the new border with Turkey was awarded to Nakhichevan.
  86. 86. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgia Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Armenia Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) 1920 Treaty of Alexandropol (or Treaty of Gümrü) Treaty between Armenia & the new Turkish nationalist government concluding the 1920 Turkish-Armenian war Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) The Treaty of Alexandropol did not address the Turkish-Georgian frontier. The frontier according to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is shown here.
  87. 87. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) 1921 Treaty of Moscow Friendship treaty between the Turkish nationalist (Kemalist) government in Ankara and Bolshevist Russia Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”)
  88. 88. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) 1921 Treaty of Moscow Friendship treaty between the Turkish nationalist (Kemalist) government in Ankara and Bolshevist Russia Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) The Treaty of Moscow was a friendship agreement between Soviet Russia and the Turkish nationalists, whom the Bolshevists wished to influence toward their ideology. During the negotiations for the Treaty of Alexandropol between the Turks and Armenians, Bolshevist Russia had invaded Armenia with the intent of incorporating it into the new Soviet state.
  89. 89. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) 1921 Treaty of Moscow Friendship treaty between the Turkish nationalist (Kemalist) government in Ankara and Bolshevist Russia Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) The Treaty of Moscow defined the frontier beyond wish the Turkish nationalists surrendered their claims to territories in the Caucasus. Since the Georgian and Armenian republics were not signatories to this treaty, this boundary did not yet form a legal border with those states.
  90. 90. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) 1921 Treaty of Moscow Friendship treaty between the Turkish nationalist (Kemalist) government in Ankara and Bolshevist Russia Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Under the Treaty of Moscow, Turkey claimed a small strip of land (approximately 3 × 30 km) across the river from Alexandropol that had been awarded to Armenia under the Treaty of Alexandropol. Nakhichevan was established as an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan and its borders were adjusted slightly. The Turks ceded their claim to the region of Adjara, including the port of Batum, which became part of Soviet Georgia.
  91. 91. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) 1921 Treaty of Moscow Friendship treaty between the Turkish nationalist (Kemalist) government in Ankara and Bolshevist Russia Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Under the Treaty of Moscow, Turkey and Russia agreed to not to recognize any prior treaties imposed on either nation against its will, nor any treaty not recognized by the new national government of Turkey based in Ankara (e.g., the Treaty of Sèvres).
  92. 92. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) 1921 Treaty of Kars Treaty between Kemalist Turkey and the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics affirming the Treaty of Moscow
  93. 93. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) 1921 Treaty of Kars Treaty between Kemalist Turkey and the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics affirming the Treaty of Moscow The Treaty of Kars confirmed the terms of the earlier Treaty of Moscow. The Kars treaty was between the Turkish nationalists and the newly-Soviet states of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; thus, all the states in the Transcaucasus agreed upon the Turco- Caucasian frontier. This treaty also clarified the delimitation of the borders in the Caucasus.
  94. 94. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) 1921 Treaty of Kars Treaty between Kemalist Turkey and the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics affirming the Treaty of Moscow Under the Treaty of Kars, Turkey and the Soviet republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan declared null and void all territorial agreements involving the previous governments of those states, as well as all agreements between those states and third party powers.
  95. 95. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) 1921 Treaty of Kars Treaty between Kemalist Turkey and the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics affirming the Treaty of Moscow The Treaty of Kars of 1921 is the basis for the modern Turco-Caucasian frontier. The Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 is the basis for the modern Iranian-Caucasian frontier (along with a tiny border change specified in the Russo-Persian treaty of 1893).
  96. 96. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  97. 97. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey From 1922 to 1936 Soviet Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were consolidated into a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Socialist Republic (TSFSR), which was a founding member of the USSR in 1922. During the 1920s and 1930s the USSR made a number of small border adjustments and administrative reorganizations in the Transcaucasus. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  98. 98. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH From 1922 to 1936 Soviet Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were consolidated into a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Socialist Republic (TSFSR), which was a founding member of the USSR in 1922. During the 1920s and 1930s the USSR made a number of small border adjustments and administrative reorganizations in the Transcaucasus. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  99. 99. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH The status of Nagorno-Karabakh was debated for the first few years of the Soviet era. In December 1920 when Armenia was Sovietized, the Azerbaijan Revolutionary Committee offered to cede Nagorno- Karabakh to Armenia (or, according to Azerbaijani accounts, to give Nagorno-Karabakh the right to self- determination). Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  100. 100. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH In June 1921, the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (“Kavburo”) agreed that Soviet Armenia should announce that Nagorno-Karabakh belonged to Soviet Armenia. In July 1921, the Kavburo decided that Nagorno-Karabakh should be joined to Soviet Armenia, but reversed itself the next day by announcing that Nagorno Karabakh would remain in Soviet Azerbaijan (on Josef Stalin’s order, according to Armenian allegations). Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  101. 101. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH Soviet Azerbaijan created the Autonomous Oblast of Nagorno Karabakh (AONK, later renamed the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO)) in 1923 (formalized in 1924). The AONK was placed under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan and its borders were mostly determined between 1923 and 1925 by subcommittees of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  102. 102. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey The final borders of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast roughly coincided with the territories of four out of the five Armenian melikdoms (principalities) – excluding Gulistan – that had been mostly autonomous under Persian rule before their decline in the late 18th century. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  103. 103. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH From 1923 to 1930 a district for Shia Kurds was established in Soviet Azerbaijan between Nagorno- Karabakh and the border with Soviet Armenia. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  104. 104. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was created in 1924 and placed under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  105. 105. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  106. 106. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey 1932 Turco-Persian frontier agreement Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  107. 107. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Mount Ararat Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey 1932 Turco-Persian frontier agreement In the mid-1920s a series of Kurdish uprisings in Turkey led to a full rebellion in the vicinity of Mount Ararat and the declaration of an independent Kurdish Republic of Ararat in 1927. Greater Ararat had come into complete Turkish possession after the 1921 Treaty of Kars, but the southern slopes of Lesser Ararat belonged to Persia, allowing the Kurdish rebels a cross-border route of escape and supply. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  108. 108. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Mount Ararat Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey 1932 Turco-Persian frontier agreement After Turkey crushed the Kurdish Ararat rebellion in 1930, the Turkish and Persian defense ministers signed a new border agreement in 1932, which in part traded the Persian slopes of Lesser Ararat to Turkey in exchange for Turkish border lands in the vicinity of Qotur and farther south. The border agreement was finally approved in 1934, bringing all of Mount Ararat under the control of Turkey. Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936)
  109. 109. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Mount Ararat Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey 1932 Turco-Persian frontier agreement After Turkey crushed the Kurdish Ararat rebellion in 1930, the Turkish and Persian defense ministers signed a new border agreement in 1932, which in part traded the Persian slopes of Lesser Ararat to Turkey in exchange for Turkish border lands in the vicinity of Qotur and farther south. The border agreement was finally approved in 1934, bringing all of Mount Ararat under the control of Turkey. Credit: Bournoutian (2015)
  110. 110. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Mount Ararat Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey 1932 Turco-Persian frontier agreement After Turkey crushed the Kurdish Ararat rebellion in 1930, the Turkish and Persian defense ministers signed a new border agreement in 1932, which in part traded the Persian slopes of Lesser Ararat to Turkey in exchange for Turkish border lands in the vicinity of Qotur and farther south. The border agreement was finally approved in 1934, bringing all of Mount Ararat under the control of Turkey. Credit: Bournoutian (2015) Greater Ararat Lesser Ararat
  111. 111. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (the second republic, until 1991) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Nakhchivan A.S.S.R. (admin. by Azerbaijan)
  112. 112. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Nakhchivan A.S.S.R. (admin. by Azerbaijan) Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (administered by the Azerbaijani S.S.R.) Nagorno-Karabakh A.O.
  113. 113. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Nakhchivan A.S.S.R. (admin. by Azerbaijan) Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (administered by the Azerbaijani S.S.R.) Nagorno-Karabakh A.O. Note: The various autonomous soviet socialist republics in Georgia and the North Caucasus are not shown here.
  114. 114. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Iran Turkey Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994)
  115. 115. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Iran Turkey Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) Armenia and the other South Caucasus republics declared their independence as the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.
  116. 116. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Iran Turkey Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) Armenia and Azerbaijan fought a war over the possession of Nagorno- Karabakh that intensified as the Soviet Union fell. Ethnic Armenian forces won the war and formed the independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which is mostly unrecognized internationally.
  117. 117. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Iran Turkey Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) Line of Contact separating ethnic Armenian forces from Azerbaijani forces after the 1994 ceasefire.
  118. 118. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Iran Turkey Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) The Line of Contact has changed position very slightly from time to time (changes not shown here).
  119. 119. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia Modern Armenia (the third republic, 1991 – present) and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Armenia Nagorno- Karabakh Republic (de facto)

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