O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Effective Strategy Making in Economic & Community Development

503 visualizações

Publicada em

Slides used at the Mid-Continent Regional Science Association Annual Conference in May 2015

Publicada em: Negócios
  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

  • Seja a primeira pessoa a gostar disto

Effective Strategy Making in Economic & Community Development

  1. 1. Copyright 2014 – Scott Hutcheson This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License. Effective Strategy Making in Economic & Community Development Scott Hutcheson, Ph.D. Mid-Continent Regional Science Association 46th Annual Conference St. Louis, M) – May 27-29, 2015
  2. 2. Strategy3 Strategy = the employment of battles to win the war. - General Carl von Clausewitz
  3. 3. 6
  4. 4. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Research Question Why are some economic & community development strategies effectiveand others…not so much?
  5. 5. Answering the Question A grounded theory exploration using a sequential mixed method approach beginning with a qualitative phase in which semi- structured interviews were conducted with a purposively sampled panel of experts resulting in data that was open coded using the data spiral analysis method followed by a quasi-experimental quantitative phase in which two contrasted groups of purposefully sampled, randomly assigned participants were surveyed, resulting in data that was analyzed using Spearman’s rho to determine correlation coefficients. 1. Literature review 2. Interviews 3. Surveys
  6. 6. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Problem Statement • Literature gap regarding factors contributing to effective strategy in the context of economic & community development (Kwon, Berry, & Feiock, 2009). • Civic leaders face daunting tasks of developing and implementing economic & community development strategies (Markey, 2010). • Very little research-based information to guide decisions about effective strategy-development processes in the context of economic & community development.
  7. 7. • Evolution of dealing with economic & community development • Institutionalization • Locus of control • Increasing complexity • Tools for managing economic & community development • Early tools • Evolving tools • Emerging tools • Contributing theories • Strategy formation • Collaborative governance • Social innovation Insights from the Literature Conducted as part of the grounded theory data collection process (McGhee, Marland, and Atkinson, 2007). Conducted to provide contextualization (Dunne, 2011) and orientation to the phenomenon (Pozzebon, Petrini, de Mellow, and Garreau, 2011).
  8. 8. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Evolution of How We Deal with ECD Issues Institutionalization • Pre-institutional (Pre- WW2) • Institutional (1950-1990) • Multi-Institutional (1990 to today) Locus of Control • Control in the hands of the “elite” (Perrucci & Pilisuk, 1970). • Most economic & community development issues are “Type 3 Public Problems” and control is shared by a group of “nonexperts” (Heifitz and Sinder, 1988).
  9. 9. Dealing with the Complexity 12 Early Models • Borrowed from industry models (Blair,2004) • 1960s in universities, schools, municipalities (Hamilton, 2007) • Late 1980s/Early 1990s first economic development strategic plans (Blackerby & Blackerby, 1995) Evolving Models • Recognition that corporate models are less effective (Bryson and Roering, 1987). • U.S. Economic Development Administration’s CEDS; Cooperative Extension Service’s Take Charge (Hein, Cole, & Ayres, 1990); Asset-Based Community Development, (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1996; Community Capitals, Flora, 1992) Emerging Models • Effectiveness of strategic planning in business questioned (Mintzberg, 1994). • Effectiveness of strategic planning in economic & community development questioned ( Blair, 2004; Robichau, 2010; Morrison, 2012) • Organic Strategic Planning (McNamara, 2010, Open Source Economic Development (Merkel, 2010), Strategic Doing (Hutcheson, 2008;
  10. 10. Contributing Theories •Social Innovation •Strategy Formation •Collaborative Governance 13
  11. 11. Social Innovation Social innovations… • are best designed and implemented in networks • emerge from heterogeneousness (diversity) • are framed using existing assets • are products of co-creation • are the result of collective action • should have decentralized implementation • when implemented should focus on tangible results Bland, Bruk, Kim, and Lee (2010); Bouchard (2012); Mulgan, Ali, Tucker and Sanders (2007); Neumeier (2012); Oliveira and Breda-Vazquez (2012)
  12. 12. Strategy Formation Strategies… • are formed intuitively • are iterative • must be designed to account for unanticipated variables • must take into account contextual values, assumptions, beliefs, and expectations • must be flexible • should be designed collaboratively • and best developed as an intra-organizational activity Feser, 2012; Johanson, 2009; Lindblom, 1959; Mintzberg, 1978; Parnell, 2008; Rindova, Dalpiaz, and Ravasi, 2011; Sminia, 2012; Tapinos, Dyson, and Meadows, 2011
  13. 13. Collaborative Governance Collaborative governance… • takes advantage of network structures • connects existing assets • focuses first on small wins • Requires decision making to be made by consensus • works when there is trust among participants • is efficient • involves successful management of both internal and external stakeholders Ansell and Gash, 2008; Chiclana et al., 2013; Clarke, Huxley, Mountford, 2010; Emerson, Nabatchi, and Balogh, 2012; Gibson, 2011; Johnston, Hicks, Nan, and Auer, 2011; Kwon, Berry, and Feiock, 2009; Merkle , 2010; Olberding, 2009; Ospina and Saz-Carranza, 2010; Pammer, 1998; Poister, 2010
  14. 14. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level These Things Matter • Organizational Structure (i.e., hierarchy, network) • Framework & Orientation (i.e., asset- based, deficit-based, efficiency-based) • Processes (i.e., relationship between planning and implementation) • Timeframe (i.e., timeline for goals) • Implementation (i.e., centralized, decentralized) • Metrics (i.e., accountability, feedback
  15. 15. Insights from the Panel of Experts The Qualitative Data • Population of scholars and practitioners who design curricula, teach, and/or practice strategy development for addressing economic development, community development issues • Sample: N=12 • Semi-structured interviews (IRB-approved, anonymity) • Verbatim transcripts, data spiral analysis with three levels of coding: open, axial, selective using qualitative analysis software • 56 single-spaced pages/over 31,000 words of data
  16. 16. Themes from the Interviews 19 1. Toward network organization structures, away from hierarchical structures 2. Toward asset-based frameworks, away from deficit-based frameworks 3. Toward iterative planning/implementation processes, away from sequential processes 4. Toward a progressive series of shorter-term goals, away from longer-term transformational goals 5. Toward decentralized implementation, away from centralized implementation 6. Toward using metrics to learn what is working, away from metrics used primarily for accountability
  17. 17. Variables 20 1. Network organization structures 2. Asset-based frameworks 3. Iterative planning/implementation process 4. Inclusion of shorter-term goals 5. Decentralized implementation 6. Metrics to learn what is working Independent Variables Dependent Variable = Effectiveness
  18. 18. Effectiveness For the effective strategy initiative you have in mind, how would you describe its level of effectiveness: • Completely effective • Significantly effective • Somewhat effective Ineffectiveness For the ineffective strategy initiative you have in mind, how would you describe its level of ineffectiveness: • Somewhat ineffective • Significantly ineffective • Completely ineffective Organizational Structure, etc. Measuring the Variables Hierarchical, with a clear top and bottom Network, with a hub and spokes
  19. 19. Insights from Participants The Quantitative Data • Population of individuals who have participated in community-based strategy initiatives to address community change (economic development, community development, community health, etc.) • Sample of 300 (plus those reached by use of snowball sample) participants were randomly selected from PCRD contact database (N=209). Assured that Indiana was not over represented • IRB-approved survey constructed using the factors identified in phase 1, participants randomly assigned to two contrasting groups
  20. 20. Findings from the Surveys 23 Source: Scott Hutcheson, Distributed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License. Effective & Ineffective Strategy Initiatives – Mean Responses - = ineffective | + = effective
  21. 21. Completely Effective Completely Ineffective Significantly Effective Somewhat Effective Somewhat Ineffective Significantly Ineffective Findings from the Survey Effectiveness Continuum DependentVariables Correlation
  22. 22. Findings from the Surveys 25 Source: Scott Hutcheson, Distributed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License. Correlation Between Strategy Initiative Effectiveness and the Six Independent Variables M = Moderate Positive S = Strong Positive
  23. 23. Recipe for EFFECTIVE Strategies? • Have a network organizational structure • Frame strategies primarily around building on existing assets • Have a planning and implementation processes that is iterative • Include short-term, easy-win goals • Decentralize responsibilities for implementation among multiple organization • Use metrics to learn what is working and to make adjustments along the way
  24. 24. Strategic Doing enables people to form action- oriented collaborations quickly, move them toward measurable outcomes, and make adjustments along the way.
  25. 25. Scott Hutcheson, Ph.D. 765-479-7704 hutcheson@purdue.edu www.linkedin.com/in/scotthutcheson/ http://www.slideshare.net/jshutch/ For More Information & to Connect Copyright 2014 – Scott Hutcheson This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License. Slides available

×