Sight and wave option a review

Sight and Wave
  Phenomena

  Option A
Sight and wave option a review
Cornea – a transparent membrane through
which light enters

Pupil - an
aperture through
which light enters
the eye’s lens
- the pupil can
increase in size to
adjust the
intensity of light
entering the eye.
Ciliary muscle – ligaments that control the curvature of
the lens
Retina – located
at the back of
the eye
- light is focused
by the lens on the
retina where rods
and cones convert
the light into
electrical signals

Optic nerve –
transmits these
electric signals to
the brain
Fovea – an area
of exceptionally
acute vision
- each cone is
connected to a
different nerve
fiber

Cones are
concentrated at
the center and
rods are found
primarily along the
edges of the
retina
Rods detect light, dark and grays.
Scotopic vision – used at night or in low light
      rods are used
      distinguishes shapes but not colors, little detail

 Cones detect color and are
 only sensitive to bright
 light.
 Photopic vision – used
 during the day, cones are
 mainly used, shaped and
 colors are distinguished
There are three types of cones, for short, medium and long
wavelengths.
The lens of the eye is a converging lens which means it
focuses the light at a point (focal point). It cannot focus
on two objects at different distances at the same time.
 Depth of vision             Near point

 The range of                The closest point on which the human eye
                             can focus without straining. About 25 cm
 distances that can
                             but depends greatly on age.
 be seen clearly.
 Far point
 The largest distance
 the eye can focus on
 without straining.
 Considered to be
 infinityfor a normal
 eye (a few meters)
Accomodation
The ability of the
lens to change its
shape to focus on
different distances.
Cones are sensitive to the primary colors:
red, blue and green.

Secondary colors (cyan, magenta and yellow)
are composed of the primary colors two at a
time.
Color blindness – most common kind is the inability to
distinguish between red and green.

Partial color blindness – one type of cone is not
functioning and only those colors dependent on that
cone cannot be distinguished.

 Complete color
 blindness – two
 types of cone
 are not
 functional and
 no color can be
 distinguished.
Diffraction
Diffraction is the spreading
out of a wave as it goes past
an obstacle or through an
aperture.

When the wavelength is small
compared to the aperture the
amount of diffraction is
minimal.
Sight and wave option a review
b
  is the angle to the first minimum (radians!)
  is the wavelength of the light used
b is the size of the opening
A single slit of width 1.5 m is illuminated
with light of wavelength 500.0 nm. Find
the angular width of the central
maximum.



  = 39o
Resolution
The ability to distinguish between two
objects.
 Because light diffracts, two
 distant stars that are close
 together may appear to be
 one object.
The Rayleigh criterion

Two sources are just resolved
if the central maximum of one
source falls on the first
minimum of the other.
Just resolved   Unresolved
Well resolved
Diffraction pattern due to a
      circular opening




                                     b
Useful in optical devices where b is the diameter of the opening.
The camera of a spy satellite orbiting at 200 km
has a diameter of 35 cm. What is the smallest
distance this camera can resolve on the surface
of the earth (assume a wavelength of 500 nm).

                            b
              1.22 x 5 x 10-7)/0.35
            = 1.74 x 10–6 rad

     S=R       = 2 x 107 x 1.74 x 10-6
                     = 0.34 m
The headlights of a car are 2 m apart. The
pupil of the human eye has a diameter of about
2 mm. Suppose that light of wavelength 500
nm is being used. What is the maximum
distance at which the two headlights are seen
as distinct?

                      b = 3 x 10–4 rad

             R = s/          m
Polarization
Only light that is oriented on the same
plane as the filter will pass through
Polarization by reflection
When light reflects off a
surface, the reflected ray is
partially polarized (“glare”).


The degree to which it is
polarized depends on the
angle of incidence.
Brewster’s Law
     The Brewster angle is the angle of incidence that will create
              reflected light that is 100% polarized.



   n = tan

Calculate the Brewster angle for light incident
on the surface of water (n = 1.33).

  = 53.1o
A polarizer is a material with a molecular
structure that only allows a specific
orientation to pass through.


An analyser is a polarizer that is used to
determine if light is polarized.
The intensity (brightness) of light passing
through an analyzer is dependent on the
angle the polarizer makes with the
orientation of the light.



                I = Iocos2
Calculate in terms of Io the intensity of light passing through an
analyzer when = 40o.
I = .6 Io
Graph of Intensity vs angle.
Doppler effect
• The frequency of a wave changes when the
  source of the waves is in motion or the observer
  is in motion
• Higher pitch when the source is
  approaching, lower pitch when the source is
  moving away
• Higher pitch when the observer is
  approaching, lower pitch when the observer is
  moving away
Moving source




The frequency of a car’s horn is 200 Hz when the car is at rest. What
frequency will be heard if the car is approaching the observer at 30
m/s? The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s


f = 220 Hz
The frequency of a car’s horn is 200 Hz when the car is at rest. What
frequency will be heard if an observer is approaching the car at 30
m/s? The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s


f = 218 Hz
Light from distant stars is also affected by
            the Doppler Effect.
                             v/ f
                           f= c
            f = change in freq   f = emitted freq
           v = speed of source   c = speed of light




  Hydrogen in a distant galaxy emits light of wavelength
  658 nm. The light received on earth is measured to be
  689 nm. Find the speed of the galaxy.
  v = 1.4 x 10   7   m/s
Sight and wave option a review
Sight and wave option a review
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Sight and wave option a review

  • 1. Sight and Wave Phenomena Option A
  • 3. Cornea – a transparent membrane through which light enters Pupil - an aperture through which light enters the eye’s lens - the pupil can increase in size to adjust the intensity of light entering the eye.
  • 4. Ciliary muscle – ligaments that control the curvature of the lens Retina – located at the back of the eye - light is focused by the lens on the retina where rods and cones convert the light into electrical signals Optic nerve – transmits these electric signals to the brain
  • 5. Fovea – an area of exceptionally acute vision - each cone is connected to a different nerve fiber Cones are concentrated at the center and rods are found primarily along the edges of the retina
  • 6. Rods detect light, dark and grays. Scotopic vision – used at night or in low light rods are used distinguishes shapes but not colors, little detail Cones detect color and are only sensitive to bright light. Photopic vision – used during the day, cones are mainly used, shaped and colors are distinguished
  • 7. There are three types of cones, for short, medium and long wavelengths.
  • 8. The lens of the eye is a converging lens which means it focuses the light at a point (focal point). It cannot focus on two objects at different distances at the same time. Depth of vision Near point The range of The closest point on which the human eye can focus without straining. About 25 cm distances that can but depends greatly on age. be seen clearly. Far point The largest distance the eye can focus on without straining. Considered to be infinityfor a normal eye (a few meters) Accomodation The ability of the lens to change its shape to focus on different distances.
  • 9. Cones are sensitive to the primary colors: red, blue and green. Secondary colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) are composed of the primary colors two at a time.
  • 10. Color blindness – most common kind is the inability to distinguish between red and green. Partial color blindness – one type of cone is not functioning and only those colors dependent on that cone cannot be distinguished. Complete color blindness – two types of cone are not functional and no color can be distinguished.
  • 11. Diffraction Diffraction is the spreading out of a wave as it goes past an obstacle or through an aperture. When the wavelength is small compared to the aperture the amount of diffraction is minimal.
  • 13. b is the angle to the first minimum (radians!) is the wavelength of the light used b is the size of the opening
  • 14. A single slit of width 1.5 m is illuminated with light of wavelength 500.0 nm. Find the angular width of the central maximum. = 39o
  • 15. Resolution The ability to distinguish between two objects. Because light diffracts, two distant stars that are close together may appear to be one object.
  • 16. The Rayleigh criterion Two sources are just resolved if the central maximum of one source falls on the first minimum of the other.
  • 17. Just resolved Unresolved
  • 19. Diffraction pattern due to a circular opening b Useful in optical devices where b is the diameter of the opening.
  • 20. The camera of a spy satellite orbiting at 200 km has a diameter of 35 cm. What is the smallest distance this camera can resolve on the surface of the earth (assume a wavelength of 500 nm). b 1.22 x 5 x 10-7)/0.35 = 1.74 x 10–6 rad S=R = 2 x 107 x 1.74 x 10-6 = 0.34 m
  • 21. The headlights of a car are 2 m apart. The pupil of the human eye has a diameter of about 2 mm. Suppose that light of wavelength 500 nm is being used. What is the maximum distance at which the two headlights are seen as distinct? b = 3 x 10–4 rad R = s/ m
  • 22. Polarization Only light that is oriented on the same plane as the filter will pass through
  • 23. Polarization by reflection When light reflects off a surface, the reflected ray is partially polarized (“glare”). The degree to which it is polarized depends on the angle of incidence.
  • 24. Brewster’s Law The Brewster angle is the angle of incidence that will create reflected light that is 100% polarized. n = tan Calculate the Brewster angle for light incident on the surface of water (n = 1.33). = 53.1o
  • 25. A polarizer is a material with a molecular structure that only allows a specific orientation to pass through. An analyser is a polarizer that is used to determine if light is polarized.
  • 26. The intensity (brightness) of light passing through an analyzer is dependent on the angle the polarizer makes with the orientation of the light. I = Iocos2 Calculate in terms of Io the intensity of light passing through an analyzer when = 40o. I = .6 Io Graph of Intensity vs angle.
  • 27. Doppler effect • The frequency of a wave changes when the source of the waves is in motion or the observer is in motion • Higher pitch when the source is approaching, lower pitch when the source is moving away • Higher pitch when the observer is approaching, lower pitch when the observer is moving away
  • 28. Moving source The frequency of a car’s horn is 200 Hz when the car is at rest. What frequency will be heard if the car is approaching the observer at 30 m/s? The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s f = 220 Hz
  • 29. The frequency of a car’s horn is 200 Hz when the car is at rest. What frequency will be heard if an observer is approaching the car at 30 m/s? The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s f = 218 Hz
  • 30. Light from distant stars is also affected by the Doppler Effect. v/ f f= c f = change in freq f = emitted freq v = speed of source c = speed of light Hydrogen in a distant galaxy emits light of wavelength 658 nm. The light received on earth is measured to be 689 nm. Find the speed of the galaxy. v = 1.4 x 10 7 m/s